The River Welland is a lowland river in the east of England, some 65 miles long. It drains part of the Midlands eastwards to The Wash; the river rises in the Hothorpe Hills, at Sibbertoft in Northamptonshire flows northeast to Market Harborough and Spalding, to reach The Wash near Fosdyke. It is a major waterway across the part of the Fens called South Holland, is one of the Fenland rivers which were laid out with washlands. There are two channels between spaced embankments with the intention that flood waters would have space in which to spread while the tide in the estuary prevented free egress. However, after the floods of 1947, new works such as the Coronation Channel were constructed to control flooding in Spalding and the washes are no longer used as pasture, but may be used for arable farming. Significant improvements were made to the river in the 1660s, when a new cut with 10 locks was constructed between Stamford and Market Deeping, two locks were built on the river section below Market Deeping.
The canal section was known as the Stamford Canal, was the longest canal with locks in Britain when it was built. The river provided the final outlet to the sea for land drainage schemes implemented in the seventeenth century, although they were not successful until a steam-powered pumping station was built at Pode Hole in 1827. Navigation on the upper river, including the Stamford Canal, had ceased by 1863, but Spalding remained an active port until the end of the Second World War; the Environment Agency is the navigation authority for the river, navigable as far upstream as Crowland, with shallow draught to West Deeping Bridge, where further progress is hindered by the derelict lock around the weir. The traditional head of navigation was Wharf Road in Stamford; the management of the lower river has been intimately tied up with the drainage of Deeping Fen, the river remains important to the Welland and Deepings Internal Drainage Board, for whom it provides the final conduit to the sea for pumped water.
Wildlife in the river varies along its length, the faster headwaters being a habitat for trout and the slower lower reaches for perch. The estuary conditions and flat landscapes beyond Fosdyke favour wading birds and migratory species; the River Welland, with its tributaries, form a river system with a catchment area of 609 square miles. Within this area, 257 miles of waterway are designated as "main river", are therefore managed for flood control by the Environment Agency under the River Welland Catchment Flood Management Plan. Of this total, the 14 miles below Spalding are tidal, have sea walls to protect the adjacent land from flooding, while 56 miles are fresh water, but run through low-lying land, are therefore embanked. Within the catchment area, 179 square miles are below sea level, would be flooded without such defences; the basin runs in a broadly south-west to north-east direction, with an extension to the north around the West Glen and East Glen rivers. The underlying geology consists of Lias clays at the western end of the catchment, with Lincolnshire limestone in the centre, including the valleys of the Glen.
The eastern third is alluvial soils, it is this part that relies on artificial pumping to prevent flooding. Rainfall over the area varies between 26 and 30 inches per year, quite light, because the land is efficiently drained during the winter months, there are few reserves, making the area prone to drought in the summer months. For much of its length the Welland forms the county boundary between Northamptonshire and Leicestershire or Rutland, lower down between Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire; the Welland rises in the Hothorpe Hills in the parish of Sibbertoft, Northamptonshire and it issues at Spring Croft, Church Street. Sibbertoft sits astride one of the principal watersheds in England. Within 2 miles, the small stream forms the border between Leicestershire, it flows westwards, before looping round, passing through the grounds of Hothorpe Hall in Theddingworth, now a conference centre, to flow eastwards through Lubenham to Market Harborough. One of the driveways to Thorpe Lubenham Hall is carried over the river by an early nineteenth century ashlar bridge, a Grade II listed structure.
To the east of Lubenham, the river passes Old Lubenham Hall, part of an H-plan house built in the late sixteenth century and modified in the early eighteenth century. King Charles I is believed to have stayed there before the Battle of Naseby. Three arms of a square moat surround the house, the site is a scheduled ancient monument; the county border leaves the river on the west side of Market Harborough, as the town is wholly in Leicestershire, picks it up again on the east side. The River Jordan joins the Welland in the centre of Market Harborough, flowing northwards to the railway station. Langton Brook and Stonton Brook join from the west near Welham; the county border meanders from side to side across straight sections of the river, suggesting that the channel has been engineered. A three-arched bridge, built in 1881 of fine ashlar masonry, with a causeway to the south, carries the Welham to Weston by Welland road over the river, while a four-arched bridge dating from the early nineteenth century carries the Ashley to Medbourne road.
Macmillan Way, a long distance footpath, crosses on its way from Abbotsbury in Dorset to Boston, Lincolnshire. Medbourne Brook joins from the north, after which the river approaches a dismantled railway and is joined by the Stoke Albany Brook, approaching from the south; the river remains on the south side of the railway, while the county border follows a meandering course to the no
John Buffum is the most successful U. S. rally driver winning 11 national titles and 117 national championship events. From 1977 to 1980, when British Leyland dropped out of U. S. racing, he won both the North America Rally Championships. In 1981, he competed with an Audi 80 and Peugeot 504, but they were not competitive compared to Rod Millen's factory Mazda RX-7 rally cars. In addition to his North American schedule, Buffum cherry-picked rallies in Europe, where he became the first and still the only American to win a European Rally Championship event, taking the 1983 Sachs Rally in West Germany and the 1984 Cyprus Rally, both with Audi Quattro, he ran the 1969 Monte Carlo Rally in a Porsche 911. Buffum is the only driver in the world to compete in at least one World Rally Championship event in five continuous decades, he helped restart the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race in 1990 and served as Chief Steward of the hillclimb from 1990–2000, again in 2011 and again in 2017. Since the late 1980s, Buffum has managed Libra Racing based in Colchester, Vermont.
He has been responsible for building cars for the Hyundai Factory rally programme in the US and has worked alongside Vermont Sports Car on their Subaru Factory programme as a consultant. In 2009, he built the first open class Mitsubishi Evolution X, to campaign in the Rally America national series and the Canadian Rally series. In 2014, Buffum was elected to the Vermont Sports Hall of Fame. Rally Racing News John Buffum biography. Retrieved December 31, 2004. Libra Racing, John Buffum's company. JohnBuffum.com - John Buffum's homepage. In Like a Lamb... Out LIke a Lion Champion co-driver and former National PRO Rally Manager, Tom Grimshaw, tells John Buffum's story and the course of rally racing in the United States. 2006 SCCA Hall of Fame Class Announced Vermont Sports Hall of Fame Bio
Basrah International Airport is the second largest international airport in Iraq, is located in the southern city of Basra. The airport was built in the 1980s and developed in the 1980s by the Iraqi Government department State Organisation for Roads and Bridges as a gateway to the only port in Iraq; this second phase of development was completed by a joint venture comprising Strabag Bau AG of Cologne, Billfinger & Berger of Manheim both in Germany and Universale of Austria in Spring 1988. It was only used rarely. Renovation of the airport was supposed to proceed with the construction of a new terminal under German contract but the project prematurely ceased with the outbreak of the 1991 Gulf War. Actual development proceeded in the airport only after the 2003 invasion of Iraq; some facilities were refurbished under a contract by United States Agency for International Development. The project is broad as it includes building air traffic control towers and other navigational facilities, as well as the construction of transportation and communications facilities.
The airport was reopened in June 2004. The event was marked by the traditional sheep sacrifice as an Iraqi Airways Boeing 727 jet landed from Baghdad, it was the beginning of a new domestic service in Iraq between Basrah. However, many of the passengers complained about the lack of basic facilities. Problems toilets. Reconstruction of the airport is still under way to improve the facilities. Iraqi Airways has operated routes from this airport, was its second hub. Between 2003 and 2009 there was a significant Royal Air Force presence at the airport as No. 903 Expeditionary Air Wing was deployed here with a variety of fixed-wing and rotary such as: Fixed-wing Hawker Siddeley Nimrod MR.2 Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules C.4 & C.5 British Aerospace 125Rotary Boeing Chinook HC.2 Westland Sea King HC.4 Westland Lynx AH.7/AH.9 Westland Gazelle AH.1 Westland Puma HC.1 Westland Merlin HC.3The unit was re-deployed to Camp Bastion, Afghanistan during mid 2009. The United States army has deployed a number of aircraft to Basra irregularly: Boeing AH-64 ApacheThe Danish Air Force deployed some aircraft: Eurocopter Squirrel Following the American control and since 2002, SkyLink Arabia has been providing ground operations and fuel supply at the airport.
In 2014 Group holding services with its subsidiary Basra ground handling services company with the partnership of Iraq airways took over the ground handling operations at the airport. List of United Kingdom Military installations used during Operation Telic This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Airport information for ORMM at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006