Carroll Hall Shelby was an American automotive designer, racing driver, entrepreneur. Shelby is best known for his involvement with the AC Cobra and Mustang for Ford Motor Company, which he modified during the late 1960s and early 2000s, he established Shelby American Inc. in 1962 to manufacture and market performance vehicles, as well as Carroll Shelby Licensing in 1988 which grew into Carroll Shelby International. Carroll Shelby was born on January 11, 1923 to Warren Hall Shelby, a rural mail carrier, his wife, Eloise Shelby in Leesburg, Texas. Shelby suffered from heart valve leakage problems by age 7 and experienced health complications from this throughout his life. Shelby's education as a pilot began in the military at the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center known as Lackland Air Force Base, in November 1941. Shelby was married a total of seven times. Shelby's first wife was Jeanne Fields, their daughter Sharon Anne Shelby was born a year on September 27, 1944. Shelby and Fields had two more children -- Patrick Bert.
They divorced in February 1960. Although the marriage was happy, it began to break down due to his extramarital affairs, which he admitted. Late in his first marriage, Shelby embarked on a long-running passionate affair with Jan Harrison, an actress, although he still loved his first wife, the marriage had ended following years of infidelity. In 1962, Shelby married actress Harrison before the marriage was annulled the same year, his third marriage, which he entered into as part of a deal with a New Zealand woman to get her into the United States, lasted only a few weeks before ending in divorce. His fourth marriage, to a woman named Sandy, lasted less than a year before ending in divorce. After 28 years single, Carroll married Cynthia Psaros, formally a Beauty queen, her father, a retired Marine colonel and fighter pilot, was quite enjoyable to Carroll. During this marriage, Carroll received his long-awaited heart transplant, their marriage lasted only a few years before ending in divorce. He married Lena Dahl, a Swedish woman whom he met in 1968.
She died in a car accident in 1997. It was his only marriage which did not end in annulment, or separation. Shelby married his final wife, Cleo, a British former model who drove rally cars, in 1997, just four months after the death of his sixth wife, she was 25 years his junior. They were in the process of getting a divorce when he died in 2012. Shelby honed his driving skills with his Willys automobile while attending Woodrow Wilson High School in Dallas, Texas, he graduated from Wilson in 1940. He was enrolled at The Georgia School of Technology in the Aeronautical Engineering program. However, because of the war Shelby did not go to school and enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps, serving in World War II as a flight instructor and test pilot, he graduated with the rank of staff sergeant pilot. Subsequently, he had short stints as an oil-well roughneck and as a poultry farmer prior to his racing career. Starting out as an amateur, Shelby raced a friend's MG TC and borrowed Cad-Allards, he recalled that the combination of the small English Allard and American V-8 power inspired his creation of the AC Cobra.
His great success racing the Allards led to invitations to drive for the Aston Martin and Maserati factory teams in the mid-to-late 1950s. Driving for Donald Healey in a modified and supercharged Austin-Healey 100S, he set 16 U. S. and international speed records at the Bonneville salt flats. He drove in the Mount Washington Hillclimb Auto Race in a specially prepared Ferrari 375 GP roadster, to a record run of 10:21.8 seconds on his way to victory in 1956. He was Sports Illustrated's driver of the year in 1956 and 1957, he competed in Formula One from 1958 to 1959, participating in a total of eight World Championship races and several non-championship races. The highlight of his race driving career came in 1959, when he co-drove an Aston Martin DBR1 to victory in the 1959 24 Hours of Le Mans. During this race he noted the performance of an English GT car built by AC Cars, known as the Ace. Three years the AC Ace would become the basis for the AC Cobra. After retiring from driving in October 1959 for health reasons, he opened a high-performance driving school and the Shelby-American company.
He obtained a license to import the AC Cobra, a successful British Sports racing car manufactured by AC Motors of England, which AC had designed at Shelby's request by fitting a Ford V8 to their popular AC Ace sports car in place of its standard AC six, Ford Zephyr or 2-liter Bristol engine. Shelby remained influential with Ford manufactured cars, including the Daytona Coupe, GT40, the Mustang-based Shelby GT350 and Shelby GT500. After parting with Ford, Shelby moved on to help develop performance cars with divisions of the two other Big 3 American companies and Oldsmobile. Ford provided financial support for AC's Cobras from 1962 through 1965 and provided financial support for the Ford GTs, first with John Wyer's Ford Advanced Vehicles in 1963 and with Shelby American from 1964 through 1967. In the intervening years, Shelby had a series of ventures start and stop relating to production of "completion" Cobras — cars that were built using "left over" parts and frames. In the 1960s, the FIA required entrants to produce at least 100 cars for homologated classes of racing.
Shelby ordered an insufficient number of cars and skipped a large block of Vehicle Identification Numbers, to create the illusion th
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company, best known for stock-car racing. Its three largest or National series are the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, the Xfinity Series, the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. Regional series include the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East and West, the Whelen Modified Tour, NASCAR Pinty's Series, NASCAR Whelen Euro Series, NASCAR PEAK Mexico Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 48 US states as well as in Canada and Europe. NASCAR has presented races at the Suzuka and Motegi circuits in Japan, the Calder Park Thunderdome in Australia. NASCAR ventures into eSports via the PEAK Antifreeze NASCAR iRacing Series and a sanctioned ladder system on that title; the owned company was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1948, Jim France has been CEO since August 6, 2018. The company's headquarters is in Florida. Internationally, its races are broadcast on television in over 150 countries. In the 1920s and 30s, Daytona Beach became known as the place to set world land speed records, supplanting France and Belgium as the preferred location for land speed records, with 8 consecutive world records set between 1927 and 1935.
After a historic race between Ransom Olds and Alexander Winton in 1903, the beach became a mecca for racing enthusiasts and 15 records were set on what became the Daytona Beach Road Course between 1905 and 1935. By the time the Bonneville Salt Flats became the premier location for pursuit of land speed records, Daytona Beach had become synonymous with fast cars in 1936. Drivers raced on a 4.1-mile course, consisting of a 1.5–2.0-mile stretch of beach as one straightaway, a narrow blacktop beachfront highway, State Road A1A, as the other. The two straights were connected by two tight rutted and sand covered turns at each end. Stock car racing in the United States has its origins in bootlegging during Prohibition, when drivers ran bootleg whiskey made in the Appalachian region of the United States. Bootleggers needed to distribute their illicit products, they used small, fast vehicles to better evade the police. Many of the drivers would modify their cars for speed and handling, as well as increased cargo capacity, some of them came to love the fast-paced driving down twisty mountain roads.
The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 dried up some of their business, but by Southerners had developed a taste for moonshine, a number of the drivers continued "runnin' shine", this time evading the "revenuers" who were attempting to tax their operations. The cars continued to improve, by the late 1940s, races featuring these cars were being run for pride and profit; these races were popular entertainment in the rural Southern United States, they are most associated with the Wilkes County region of North Carolina. Most races in those days were of modified cars. Street vehicles were lightened and reinforced. Mechanic William France Sr. moved to Daytona Beach, from Washington, D. C. in 1935 to escape the Great Depression. He was familiar with the history of the area from the land speed record attempts. France entered the 1936 Daytona event, he took over running the course in 1938. He promoted a few races before World War II. France had the notion. Drivers were victimized by unscrupulous promoters who would leave events with all the money before drivers were paid.
In 1947, he decided this racing would not grow without a formal sanctioning organization, standardized rules, regular schedule, an organized championship. On December 14, 1947, France began talks with other influential racers and promoters at the Ebony Bar at the Streamline Hotel at Daytona Beach, that ended with the formation of NASCAR on February 21, 1948; the first Commissioner of NASCAR was Erwin "Cannonball" Baker. A former stock car and open-wheel racer who competed in the Indianapolis 500 and set over one hundred land speed records. Baker earned most of his fame for his transcontinental speed runs and would prove a car's worth by driving it from New York to Los Angeles. After his death, the famous transcontinental race the'Cannonball Run' and the film, inspired by it were both named in his honor. Baker is enshrined in the Automotive Hall of Fame, the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame; this level of honor and success in each diverse racing association earned Baker the title of "King of the Road".
In the early 1950s, the United States Navy stationed Bill France Jr. at the Moffett Federal Airfield in northern California. His father asked him to look up Bob Barkhimer in California. Barkhimer was a star of midget car racing from the World War II era, ran about 22 different speedways as the head of the California Stock Car Racing Association. Young Bill developed a relationship with his partner, Margo Burke, he went to events with them, stayed weekends with them and became familiar with racing on the west coast. "Barky", as he was called by his friends, met with Bill France Sr.. In the spring of 1954, NASCAR became a stock car sanctioning body on the Pacific Coast under Barky. Wendell Scott was the first African-American to win a race in the Grand National Series, NASCAR's highest level, he was posthumously inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N. C. January 30, 2015. On March 8, 1936, a collection of drivers gathered at Florida; the drivers brought coupes, hardtops and sports cars to compete in an event to determine the fastest cars, best dr
The Chevrolet Corvette, known as the Vette or Chevy Corvette, is a front engine, rear drive, two-door, two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet across more than sixty years of production and seven design generations. As Chevrolet's halo vehicle, the Corvette is noted for its performance and distinctive plastic — either fiberglass or composite — bodywork. In 1953, when GM executives were looking to name the new Chevrolet sports car, assistant director for the Public Relations department Myron Scott suggested Corvette after the small maneuverable warship — and the name was approved; the first model, a convertible, was introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept and was followed ten years in the 1963 second generation, in coupe and convertible styles. Manufactured in Flint, Michigan as well as St. Louis, the Corvette has been manufactured since 1981 in Bowling Green, Kentucky; the Corvette has since become known as "America's Sports Car." Automotive News said that after'starring' in the early 1960s television show Route 66, the Corvette became synonymous with freedom and adventure," becoming both "the most successful concept car in history and the most popular sports car in history.
The first generation of Corvette was introduced late in the 1953 model year. Designed as a show car for the 1953 Motorama display at the New York Auto Show, it generated enough interest to induce GM to make a production version to sell to the public. First production was on June 30, 1953; this generation was referred to as the "solid-axle" models. Three hundred hand-built polo white Corvette convertibles were produced for the 1953 model year; the 1954 model year vehicles could be ordered in Sportsman Red, Black, or Polo White. The 1955 model offered a 265 cu in V8 engine as an option. With a large inventory of unsold 1954 models, GM limited production to 700 for 1955. With the new V8, the 0–60 mph time improved by 1.5 seconds. A new body was introduced for the 1956 model featuring side coves. An optional "Ramjet" fuel injection system was made available in the middle of the 1957 model year, it was one of the first mass-produced engines in history to reach 1 bhp per cubic inch and Chevrolet's advertising agency used a "one hp per cubic inch" slogan for advertising the 283 bhp 283 cu in Small-Block engine.
Other options included power windows, hydraulically operated power convertible top, heavy duty brakes and suspension, four speed manual transmission. Delco Radio transistorized signal-seeking "hybrid" car radio, which used both vacuum tubes and transistors in its radio's circuitry; the 1958 Corvette received a body and interior freshening which included a longer front end with quad headlamps, bumper exiting exhaust tips, a new steering wheel, a dashboard with all gauges mounted directly in front of the driver. Exclusive to the 1958 model were twin trunk spears; the 1959–60 model years had few changes except a decreased amount of body chrome and more powerful engine offerings. In 1961, the rear of the car was redesigned with the addition of a "duck tail" with four round lights; the light treatment would continue for all following model year Corvettes until 2014. In 1962, the Chevrolet 283 cu in Small-Block was enlarged to 327 cu in. In standard form it produced 250 bhp. For an extra 12% over list price, the fuel-injected version produced 360 bhp, making it the fastest of the C1 generation.
1962 was the last year for the wrap around windshield, solid rear axle, convertible-only body style. The trunk lid and exposed headlamps did not reappear for many decades; the second generation Corvette, which introduced Sting Ray to the model, continued with fiberglass body panels, overall, was smaller than the first generation. The C2 was referred to as mid-years; the car was designed by Larry Shinoda with major inspiration from a previous concept design called the "Q Corvette,", created by Peter Brock and Chuck Pohlmann under the styling direction of Bill Mitchell. Earlier, Mitchell had sponsored a car known as the "Mitchell Sting Ray" in 1959 because Chevrolet no longer participated in factory racing; this vehicle had the largest impact on the styling of this generation, although it had no top and did not give away what the final version of the C2 would look like. The third inspiration was a Mako Shark Mitchell. Production started for the 1963 model year and ended in 1967. Introducing a new name, "Sting Ray", the 1963 model was the first year for a Corvette coupé and it featured a distinctive tapering rear deck with, for 1963 only, a split rear window.
The Sting Ray featured hidden headlamps, non-functional hood vents, an independent rear suspension. Corvette chief engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov never liked the split rear window because it blocked rear vision, but Mitchell thought it to be a key part of the entire design. Maximum power for 1963 was 360 bhp and was raised to 375 bhp in 1964. Options included electronic ignition, the breakerless magnetic pulse-triggered Delcotronic first offered on some 1963 Pontiac models. On 1964 models the decorative hood vents were eliminated and Duntov, the Corvette's chief engineer, got his way with the split rear window changed to a full width window. Four-wheel disc brakes were introduced in 1965, as was a "big block" engine option: the 396 cu in V8. Side exhaust pipes were
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
A. J. Foyt
Anthony Joseph Foyt, Jr. is an American retired auto racing driver who has raced in numerous genres of motorsports. His open wheel racing includes midget cars, he raced stock cars in NASCAR and USAC. He won several major sports car racing events, he holds the USAC career wins record with 159 victories, the American championship racing career wins record with 67. He is the only driver to win the Indianapolis 500, the Daytona 500, the 24 Hours of Daytona, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Foyt won the International Race of Champions all-star racing series in 1976 and 1977. In the NASCAR stock car circuit, he won the 1964 Firecracker 400 and the 1972 Daytona 500. Foyt survived three major crashes that caused serious injuries, narrowly escaped a fourth. Foyt's success has led to induction in numerous motorsports halls of fame. Since his retirement from active racing, he has owned A. J. Foyt Enterprises, which has fielded teams in the CART, IRL, NASCAR. Foyt was born in Texas, to Anthony Foyt Sr. and Emma Evelyn Monk Foyt.
His father was an auto-mechanic who raced midget race cars as a hobby. Foyt's father built A. J. A toy racer with a lawnmower engine when he was five years old.. Tony recalled that when he and his wife left an eleven year old A. J. home to attend a race, they returned to find the boy had done considerable damage to the home driving the family's other race car in the yard, had caused the car's engine to catch on fire. While angry, the older Foyt did accept the likelihood of A. J. having a future as a driver.. A. J. attended Pershing and Hamilton middle schools and Lamar, San Jacinto and St. Thomas Catholic high schools, but he dropped out to become a mechanic and spend more time concentrating on racing; when he obtained a driver's license Foyt purchased a used Oldsmobile, practiced the mechanical skills he had learned working on his father's cars on it. He began street racing with the car until discovered by his father. Foyt began racing midgets in 1953 at age 18 in a car maintained by his father, he started his USAC career in a midget car at the 1956 Night before the 500 in Indiana.
His first midget car win was at a 100 lap event at Kansas City in 1957, finished seventh in the season points standings. He left midget cars after the 1957 season to drive in Championship Car, he did compete in midget car events. He won the 1960 and 1961 Turkey Night Grand Prix, the first two years that it was held at Ascot Park, he won the 1961 Hut Hundred after starting last, finished seventh in National Midget points that year. He won the 1970 an event that he promoted in his hometown of Houston, he ended his career with 20 midget car feature wins. After he had reached the pinnacle of his sport, Foyt was known to make occasional appearances in small, local events as a way of thanking promoters who had supported him in his struggle up the ladder. In 1975 and 1976, Foyt won the Australian Speedcar Grand Prix at the Liverpool International Speedway in Sydney when the speedway had an asphalt surface. Foyt began his sprint car career in 1956, at age 21, driving the Les Vaughn Offy with the International Motor Contest Association.
On August 24, 1956, Foyt outqualified a field of 42 drivers at the Minnesota State Fair and, the following day, he won his first sprint car race, running away with the IMCA feature at the Red River Fair in Fargo, N. D. On June 16, 1957, on the high banked asphalt track at Salem, Foyt came out on top in a race long battle with Bob Cleberg; that victory put Foyt on the radar for USAC car owners and he switched from the IMCA to USAC that season. Foyt won 28 USAC National sprint car feature races and the USAC Eastern Championship in 1960. Foyt continued to race sprint cars long after he was established as one of the top drivers at the Indy 500. In 1958, he make his début at Indy, but he spun out of the race on lap 148. In 1961, he became the first driver to defend his points championship and win the Indianapolis 500 race. Late in the 500, Foyt made a pit stop for fuel, but a refueling malfunction meant that he returned to the race without enough fuel to finish. Eddie Sachs, unaware that Foyt's now-quicker car was light on fuel, pushed hard to keep up—and Sachs had to pit from the lead with just three laps remaining to replace a shredded right rear tire.
Foyt pitted again but only for enough fuel to finish. He took over the lead and beat Sachs by just 8.28 seconds—the second-closest finish in history at the time. He raced in each season from 1957–1992, starting in 374 races and finishing in the top ten 201 times, with 67 victories. In 1958, Foyt raced in Italy in the Trophy of the Two Worlds on the banking at Monza. Ford-powered entries were expected to dominate the 1964 Indianapolis 500. Discussions between Ford officials and Foyt took place early in the month of May about the possibility of Foyt taking over the third Team Lotus-Ford, a team reserve vehicle. Foyt wanted the use of the car for the entire month, but Lotus team owner Colin Chapman was reluctant to promise him the reserve car, in case something happened to cars driven by team drivers Jim Clark and Dan Gurney. So discussions ended and Foyt stayed with his reliable, well-sorted Offenhauser-engined roadster. In the 1964 season, Foyt won a record 10 of 14 races en route to his championship, including the Indy 500.
When the two fastest Lotus-Fords, driven by Jim Clark and Bobby Marshman, fell out of the race with mechanical problems, Parnelli Jones was knocked out when his fuel tank exploded during a pit stop, Foyt was left alone at the front of the
Piedmont Airlines (1948–89)
Piedmont Airlines was a United States airline from 1948 until it was acquired by and merged into USAir in 1989. Its headquarters were at One Piedmont Plaza in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, a building, now part of Wake Forest University. In April 1989, shortly before it merged into USAir, Piedmont had 22,000 employees. In September 1988 it flew to 95 airports from hubs in the eastern United States; the company that would become Piedmont Airlines was founded by Thomas Henry Davis in Winston-Salem, North Carolina in 1940, when Davis purchased Camel City Flying Service and changed the name to Piedmont Aviation. Piedmont operated as an airplane repair service and a training school for pilots in the War Department Civilian Pilot Training Program. In 1944, Davis filed an application to run a passenger flight service in the southeast. After several years of lobbying government agencies and fighting legal challenges from other airlines, Piedmont received authorization on January 1, 1948; the first flight, from Wilmington, North Carolina to Cincinnati, was on February 20, 1948.
Davis grew up in North Carolina. As a child, he loved airplanes and used his allowance to take flying lessons, he took pre-med classes at the University of Arizona. At the same time, he worked as a part-time flight instructor. Like most airlines before deregulation, Piedmont did not have hubs; the airline flew jets to small airports and connected unlikely city pairs with jet flights: Kinston, North Carolina, Florence, South Carolina. Its early routes stretched from Wilmington, North Carolina, northwest to Cincinnati, with intermediate stops. All flights were on Douglas DC-3s. Piedmont started with Douglas DC-3s. Fairchild Hiller FH-227B flights started in 1967 and NAMC YS-11A flights started in 1968. In August 1953 it scheduled flights to 26 airports and in May 1968 to 47. Like other Local Service airlines, Piedmont was subsidized. Piedmont's first jet flights took off in March 1967: 92-seat Boeing 727-100s on such routes as Atlanta - Asheville - Winston-Salem - Roanoke - New York LaGuardia Airport.
Boeing 737-200s arrived in 1968. Piedmont was all turbine after the last M404 flights in 1972 and all jet after the last YS11 flights in 1982. Fokker F28 Fellowships were added to the fleet, Boeing 737-300s, 737-400s and 767-200ERs. In 1955 the network extended from Cincinnati and Louisville east to the coast from Norfolk to Myrtle Beach. At the end of 1978, still under U. S. route regulation, Piedmont's routes reached north to New York, west to Denver and south to Miami, Florida. Flights to Dallas/Ft. Worth began in 1979 followed by Houston in 1980 and New Orleans in 1982. In 1984, Los Angeles and San Francisco were added to the route system followed by Minneapolis/St. Paul in 1985, Montreal and Ottawa in Canada in 1986 and Seattle in 1987. By 1988, the airline was serving Phoenix and San Diego in addition to a new international destination being Nassau, Bahamas and by 1989 was operating flights to Bermuda as well as nonstop service between Los Angeles and Baltimore, Charlotte and Tampa; the Syracuse operation was the smallest hub in the route system and was a hub operated by Empire Airlines prior to its acquisition by Piedmont.
After airline deregulation in the late 1970s the airline grew and developed a hub at Charlotte/Douglas International Airport in Charlotte, North Carolina. Piedmont bought Empire Airlines, based in Utica, New York, in 1985 which brought Fokker F28 Fellowships into the fleet. Passenger-miles for the merged airline in 1987 were nine times Piedmont's RPMs in 1977. Hubs included Baltimore/Washington International Airport. Nonstops from Charlotte to the west coast started in 1984 on Boeing 727-200s that were Piedmont's first jets with a first class section. New Boeing 767-200ERs, the airline's only wide body jet, flew nonstop from Charlotte to London Gatwick Airport beginning in 1987; the 767 flew nonstop Charlotte-Los Angeles. Shortly before it was acquired by USAir, Piedmont was the first airline to announce fleet-wide adoption of the Traffic Collision Avoidance System. Several commuter and regional airline affiliates provided passenger feed for Piedmont via code sharing agreements, including Britt Airways, Brockway Air, CCAir, Henson Airlines and Jetstream International Airlines.
These operations were identified by several different names including Piedmont Commuter System, Piedmont Shuttle Link and The Piedmont Regional Airline. Turboprop aircraft operated by these airlines included
Riverside County, California
Riverside County is one of fifty-eight counties in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the 4th-most populous county in California and the 11th-most populous in the United States; the name was derived from the city of Riverside, the county seat. Riverside County is included in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area known as the Inland Empire; the county is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area. There is a high concentration of sprawling tract housing communities around Riverside and along the Interstate 10, 15, 215 freeways. Rectangular, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles in Southern California, spanning from the Greater Los Angeles area to the Arizona border. Geographically, the county is desert in the central and eastern portions, but has a Mediterranean climate in the western portion. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county; the resort cities of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, Desert Hot Springs are all located in the Coachella Valley region of central Riverside County.
Large numbers of Los Angeles area workers have moved to the county in recent years to take advantage of affordable housing. Along with neighboring San Bernardino County, it was one of the fastest growing regions in the state prior to the recent changes in the regional economy. In addition, but significant, numbers of people have been moving into Southwest Riverside County from the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area; the cities of Temecula and Murrieta accounted for 20% of the increase in population of the county between 2000 and 2007. Riverside County was named for the Santa Ana River in 1870; the indigenous peoples of what is now Riverside County are Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. The Luiseño lived in the Aguanga and Temecula Basins, Elsinore Trough and eastern Santa Ana Mountains and southward into San Diego County; the Cahuilla lived to the east and north of the Luiseño in the inland valleys, in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains and the desert of the Salton Sink. The first European settlement in the county was a Mission San Luis Rey de Francia estancia or farm, at the Luiseño village of Temecula.
Grain and grapes were grown here. In 1819, the Mission granted land to Leandro Serrano, mayordomo of San Antonio de Pala Asistencia for the Mission of San Luis Rey for Rancho Temescal. Following Mexican independence and the 1833 confiscation of Mission lands, more ranchos were granted. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, El Rincon in 1839, Rancho San Jacinto Viejo in 1842, Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio in 1843, Ranchos La Laguna, Temecula in 1844, Ranchos Little Temecula, Potreros de San Juan Capistrano in 1845, Ranchos San Jacinto Sobrante, La Sierra, La Sierra, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero in 1846. New Mexican colonists founded the town of La Placita on the east side of the Santa Ana River at the northern extremity of what is now the city of Riverside in 1843; when the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850, the area today known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853, the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County.
Between 1891 and 1893, several proposals and legislative attempts were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for one for a San Jacinto County. None of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11, 1893; the new county was created from parts of San Diego County. On May 2, 1893, seventy percent of voters approved the formation of Riverside County. Voters chose the city of Riverside as the county seat by a large margin. Riverside County was formed on May 9, 1893, when the Board of Commissioners filed the final canvass of the votes. Riverside County is the birthplace of lane markings, thanks to Dr. June McCarroll in 1915 when she suggested her idea to the state government; the county is the location of the March Air Reserve Base, one of the oldest airfields continuously operated by the United States military. Established as the Alessandro Flying Training Field in February 1918, it was one of thirty-two U.
S. Army Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917; the airfield was renamed March Field the following month for 2d Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr. the deceased son of the then-Army Chief of Staff, General Peyton C. March, killed in an air crash in Texas just fifteen days after being commissioned. March Field remained an active Army Air Service U. S. Army Air Corps installation throughout the interwar period becoming a major installation of the U. S. Army Air Forces during World War II. Renamed March Air Force Base in 1947 following the establishment of the U. S. Air Force, it was a major Strategic Air Command installation throughout the Cold War. In 1996, it was transferred to the Air Force Reserve Command and gained its current name as a major base for the Air Force Reserve and the California Air National Guard. Riverside county was a major focal point of the Civil Rights Movements in the US the African-American sections of Riverside and Mexican-American communities of the Coachella Valley visited by Cesar Chavez of the farm labor union struggle.
Riverside county has been a focus of modern Native American Gaming enterprises. In the early 1980s, the county government attempted to shut down small bingo halls operated by the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission In