A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. Many roads were recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a road as "a line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, supporting structures, crossings and toll roads, but not cycle paths". The Eurostat, ITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips.
Included are paved other roads with a stabilized base, e.g. gravel roads. Roads cover streets, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions and interchanges. Toll roads are included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes."The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Modern roads are smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel. Part 2, Division 1, clauses 11-13 of the National Transport Commission Road Transport Legislation 2006 defines a road in Australia as'an area, open to or used by the public and is developed for, or has as one of its main uses, the driving or riding of motor vehicles.'Further, it defines a shoulder and a road-related area which includes green areas separating roads, areas designated for cyclists and areas accessible to the public for driving, riding or parking vehicles.
In New Zealand, the definition of a road is broad in common law where the statutory definition includes areas the public has access to, by right or not. Beaches, publicly accessible car parks and yards, river beds, road shoulders and bridges are included. However, the definition of a road for insurance purposes may be restricted to reduce risk. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road. For the purposes of the English law, Highways Act 1980, which covers England and Wales but not Scotland or Northern Ireland, road is "any length of highway or of any other road to which the public has access, includes bridges over which a road passes"; this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, road and driveways on private land and many car parks. Vehicle Excise Duty, a road use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road; the definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway. A 1984 ruling said. Another legal view is that while a highway included footpaths, driftways, etc. it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor vehicles, the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage.
In the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, private roads, which are controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between 1997 and 2018, the percentage of existing roads that are too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces increased from 10 to 21 percent; the assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted. Some believe; the Icknield Way may examplify this type of road origination, where human and animal both selected the same natural line. By about 10,000 BC human travelers used rough roads/pathways; the world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone- paved streets appear in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. Corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in England; the Sweet Track, a timber track causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered and the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe.
Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC. It was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. c. 1995 BC: an early subdividing of roadways evidenced with sidewalks built in Anatolia. In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for the Achaemenid Empire, including the Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time, connecting Sardis to Susa; the road re
Alfred Goonan was an Australian rules footballer who played with North Melbourne in the Victorian Football League. The son of William Goonan, Emma Goonan, née Williams, Alfred Goonan was born in North Melbourne on 3 April 1904. Goonan joined the North Melbourne under 19s and played the last two games of the 1924 season for the North Melbourne VFA team, he played in North's first VFL game, against Geelong at Corio Oval. Playing at forward pocket, he scored North's first score in a game of VFL: a behind, he kicked 1.1 for the match. Playing against Fitzroy at Arden Street, in North Melbourne's second VFL match, Goonan kicked 4 goals, he joined the Australian Imperial Force in 1940 at Mildura, was deployed to British Malaya in August 1941. After the invasion of the colony by the Japanese Empire, Goonan's battalion fought fiercely, resulting in Goonan being wounded; the battalion fought the Japanese. The battalion left its wounded behind, including Goonan, in the hope that the Japanese would give them medical care.
All 110 left behind were executed near Johor including Goonan. List of Victorian Football League players who died on active service Alf Goonan's playing statistics from AFL Tables Alf Goonan at AustralianFootball.com
The Coorongooba Creek, a perennial stream of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. The Coorongooba Creek rises west of Mount Boonbourwa in the Great Dividing Range, in remote country east of Kandos and north-east of Glen Alice; the river flows south, joined by one minor tributary, before reaching its confluence with the Capertee River, 4 kilometres east of Glen Davis. The river descends 299 metres over its 25-kilometre course. List of rivers of Australia List of rivers in New South Wales Rivers of New South Wales