Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery is differentiated from other forms of theft by its inherently violent nature. Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment; the word "rob" came via French from Late Latin words of Germanic origin, from Common Germanic raub "theft". Among the types of robbery are armed robbery, which involves the use of a weapon, aggravated robbery, when someone brings with them a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force.
Extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" or "stick-up", "steaming". In Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offence, subject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a mandatory minimum sentence of five years for the first offence, seven years for subsequent offences. Robbery is a statutory offence in the Republic of Ireland, it is created by section 14 of the Criminal Justice Act, 2001, which provides: A person is guilty of robbery if he or she steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force. Robbery is a statutory offence in Wales, it is created by section 8 of the Theft Act 1968 which reads: A person is guilty of robbery if he steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, he uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force.
Robbery is the only offence of aggravated theft. There are no offences of aggravated robbery; this requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. In R v Robinson the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was owed, his conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief in his legal right to the money. See R v Skivington 1 QB 166, 2 WLR 655, 131 JP 265, 111 SJ 72, 1 All ER 483, 51 Cr App R 167, CA. In R v Hale the application of force and the stealing took place in different locations, it was not possible to establish the timing; this approach was followed in R v Lockley when the force was applied to a shopkeeper after property had been taken. It was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, R v Gomez, should apply; the threat or use of force must take place before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery.
The words "or after" that appeared in section 23 of the Larceny Act 1916 were deliberately omitted from section 8. The book Archbold said that the facts in R v Harman, which did not amount to robbery in 1620, would not amount to robbery now, it was held in R v Dawson and James that "force" is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury. This approach was confirmed in Corcoran v Anderton, both handbag-snatching cases. Stealing may involve a young child, not aware that taking other persons' property is not in order; the victim must be placed in apprehension or fear that force would be used before or at the time of the taking of the property. A threat is not immediate. Robbery occurs if an aggressor forcibly snatched a mobile phone or if they used a knife to make an implied threat of violence to the holder and took the phone; the person being threatened does not need to be the owner of the property. It is not necessary that the victim was frightened, but the defendant must have put or sought to put the victim or some other person in fear of immediate force.
The force or threat may be directed against a third party, for example a customer in a jeweller's shop. Theft accompanied by a threat to damage property will not constitute robbery, but it may disclose an offence of blackmail. Dishonestly dealing with property stolen during a robbery will constitute an offence of handling. Robbery is an indictable-only offence. Under current sentencing guidelines, the punishment for robbery is affected by a variety of aggravating and mitigating factors. Important is how much harm was caused to the victim and how much cu
ŠK Krajišnik Banja Luka was a football club based in Banja Luka, Vrbas Banovina, Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The club was formed in 1919 and, although football was being played before, it is the first club registered in Banja Luka. Along with FK Sloboda Novi Grad from the region of Bosanska Krajina, back roughly corresponding to the Vrbas Banovina Yugoslav subdivision, it was among the founders of the Zagreb football sub-association. Backed by some of the wealthiest people from the town, Krajišnik became the dominant and most popular club in Banja Luka, the interwar period was marked by a rivalry and local derby with ĐSK Balkan, with Borac being the outsider, or third contender. Krajišnik existed as Građaski sporski klub Krajišnik, included a tennis section as well. After being part of the Zagreb football subassociation, soon after, Vrbas Banovina region was separated and Banja Luka football subassociation was formed. Krajišnik dominated the competition within the sub-association, after numerous failed attempts, it reached to qualify to the 1935–36 Yugoslav Football Championship.
After passing the round of sixteen because of Hajduk Split withdrew from the tournament, they lost against SK Ljubljana in the quarter-finals. Popularity of football was increasing, so in 1937 funded by the donations of Bogoljub Kujundžić, the ban of the Vrbas Banovina, a new stadium was inaugurated, the Banja Luka City Stadium, named after him until the start of the Second World War. At its inauguration on September 5, 1937, Krajišnik played against Yugoslav champions BSK Belgrade. Earlier, the first night football game under electric illumination was played in 1933 between Krajišnik and FK Mačva Šabac. At the start of Second World War, Krajišnik disappears as the region falls under control of the Nazi Germany-backed Independent State of Croatia. At the end of the war in 1945 the new authorities supported the labour movement-backed FK Borac and gave them the property that belonged to Krajišnik, not revived after. At the 1935–36 Yugoslav Championship, Krajišnik was coached by Milorad Zakić, the players were: Milorad Zakić, Ranko Kasalović, Vojislav Davidović, Dimitrije Marić, Mehmed Jakić, Vojislav Samardžija, Božidar Kačavenda, Petar Cvetković, Zvonimir Kurtović, Arsen Ljubibratić, Aleksandar Mastela, Ivica Bilić and Vladislav Beljanski
Westfield Township is a township in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The population was 1,047 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 23.7 square miles, all of it land. Westfield Township is bordered by Brookfield Township to the north and Chatham Townships to the east, Clymer Township to the south and Harrison and Hector Townships in Potter County to the west; as of the census of 2000, there were 849 people, 338 households, 267 families residing in the township. The population density was 35.8 people per square mile. There were 377 housing units at an average density of 15.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.18% White, 0.24% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.12% from other races, 0.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.24% of the population. There were 338 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.5% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.0% were non-families.
19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.80. In the township the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the township was $32,500, the median income for a family was $33,421. Males had a median income of $30,125 versus $21,875 for females; the per capita income for the township was $13,506. About 13.5% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.9% of those under age 18 and 17.2% of those age 65 or over. Cowanesque – A village on Pennsylvania Route 49 in the northeast part of the township. Phillips – A village at the junction of Pennsylvania Route 49 and Pennsylvania Route 249 in the northeast part of the township.
Potter Brook – A village on Pennsylvania Route 49 in the western part of the township, near the Potter County line. Westfield – A borough in the north-central part of the township, at the junction of Pennsylvania Route 49 and Pennsylvania Route 349; the Westfield Township is governed by three, locally elected Township Supervisors. County level Three, elected at large, County Commissioners. State level Matt Baker - State Representative, Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 68 Joe Scarnati - State Senator, Pennsylvania Senate, District 25Federal level Glenn Thompson, Pennsylvania's 5th congressional district Pat Toomey, US Senator Bob Casey, Jr. US Senator Residents of Westfield Township may attend the local, public schools operated by Northern Tioga School District which provides full day kindergarten through 12th grade; the District provides taxpayer funded preschool. In 2013, the District's enrollment declined to 2,085 students kindergarten through 12th grade. In 2013, Northern Tioga School District ranked 389th out of 498 public schools for academic achievement of its pupils, by the Pittsburgh Business Times.
Westfield Township residents may apply to attend any of the Commonwealth's 14 public cyber charter schools at no additional cost to the parents. The resident’s public school district is required to pay the charter school and cyber charter school tuition for residents who attend these public schools. By Commonwealth law, if the District provides transportation for its own students the District must provide transportation to any school that lies within 10 miles of its borders. Residents may seek admission for their school aged child to any other public school district; when accepted for admission, the student's parents are responsible for paying an annual tuition fee set by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. In 2012, the tuition fees for Northern Tioga School District were: Elementary School - $8,463.08, High School - $9,853.49. BLaST Intermediate Unit #17 provides a wide variety of services to children living in its region which includes Westfield Township. Early screening, special educations services and hearing therapy and many other services like driver education are available.
Services for children during the preschool years are provided without cost to their families when the child is determined to meet eligibility requirements. Community members have access to the Westfield Public Library, located on Maple Street, in Westfield.
Alien Resurrection: Complete Motion Picture Score is the official soundtrack album of the 1997 science fiction film Alien Resurrection. Composed by John Frizzell, the soundtrack features themes such as eroticism. Taking seven months to write and record, Frizzell included strange sound elements such as a gong and rub rods, to create a unique score, it was released on November 11, 1997. Steven McDonald of Allmusic thought it was "A dark and stormy score that fits the cold atmosphere of the film perfectly", awarding 4 out of 5 stars. Matt Peterson of Track Sounds, was negative stating, "it is quite disarrayed and incoherent; the lack of any solid thematic material hurts the viability of this music for the film, destroys its listening potential on CD." John Fallon of JoBlo.com felt it was "An adequate score that supports its whacked out scenes properly." All music is composed except as noted. John Frizzell – composer, producer Artie Kane – conductor Patrick Weber – engineer Tom Hardisty – engineer Joe Gastwirt – mastering Ramon Breton – mastering René Mandel – mastering Mark Cross – producer La-La Land Records released an expanded limited edition album on October 5, 2010, including the original 1997 release.
The record was limited to 3500 copies. The CD booklet contains exclusive detailed liner notes. Disc 1 Main Title Entering the Ship Post-Op Make Us Proud/Meat By-Product Fiora 16/Inbred Docking the Betty Face Huggers Basketball/Foot Massage/Fast Learner Call Finds Ripley Gun Fight The Aliens Escape Hose/Elgyn's Death/Ripley Believe It Twelve/Vriess Reappears/Telling Vriess Ripley Meets Her Clones After Tube Blow Up What's Inside Purvis? They Swim... Call's Fake The Chapel Mean Streak The Abduction Birth of the Newborn Disc 2 Call Meets the Newborn Ripley and the Newborn Finale Alien March Main Title Elgyn's Death Finale Finale The Original 1997 Soundtrack Album: Main Title Post-Op Docking the Betty Priva Son D'Ogni Conforto – sung by Maureen Forrester Face Huggers Call Finds Ripley The Aliens Escape Ripley Meets Her Clones What's Inside Purvis? They Swim... The Chapel The Abduction The Battle With the Newborn Ripley's Theme
The Mettenschicht is an old German mining custom in the Ore Mountains. It is the name given to the last shift worked before Christmas, which ends early with a celebration and meal. Mettenschicht is the main Christmas celebration among miners in the Protestant Ore Mountains, it is first recorded in the first half of the 17th century. The Steiger, a foreman or overseer, would finish the pre-Christmas shift early with a knocking signal, "knocking the miners out", he would give a sort of sermon in the Huthaus, the administrative building, decorated for the occasion. Singing miners' songs such as Der Steiger, the miners would give thanks to God for the products of the mine. A simple, traditional meal ended the shift; the meal consisted of bratwurst with mashed potatoes and sauerkraut as well as herbed schnapps and a cigar. Common are glühwein and bacon-fat butterbrot; the idea of the Mettenschicht has spread from the Ore Mountains to many exhibition mines as an idea for a Christmas celebration with elements of mining tradition.
They vary from end-of-year celebrations focusing on strict historical authenticity held in the mine itself, attended by sponsors, in many cases honorary officials of the mine, through incentive events for which tickets are sold, to mining folk events put on in the city hall for bus tours. Bernd Lahl. Mettenschichten im Erzgebirge: Geschichte, Geschichten. Marienberg: Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft Marienberg, 2001, ISBN 3-931770-35-4 Richard Truckenbrodt. "Erzgebirgsweihnacht". Glückauf 49, pp. 254–55. Werner Unger. "Mettenschichten und Glückauf-Abende - Vom Ursprung weihnachtlicher Lichtelabende". Erzgebirgische Heimatblätter 6/1980, pp. 130–33, ISSN 0232-6078
Róger Calero is a Nicaraguan journalist living in the United States and one of the leaders of the Socialist Workers Party. He was SWP candidate for President of the United States in 2004 and 2008, for the United States Senate in New York in 2006. Calero was born in Nicaragua in 1969, he and his family fled via Los Angeles, California in 1985. Calero has been a lawful permanent resident of the United States since 1990. While in Los Angeles, Calero joined a socialist movement and helped mobilize support against Proposition 187 in the early 90s. Calero, a former meat packer, has been associate editor of Perspectiva Mundial and a staff writer for The Militant, he now lives in New Jersey. Calero was convicted of felony sale of marijuana in 1988. In December 2002, immigration police arrested Calero upon his return to the United States at the George Bush Intercontinental Airport from reporting assignments at a conference held in Havana, protesting the Free Trade Area of the Americas, he was threatened with deportation in 2002 as a result of his previous conviction in 1988.
The SWP considered the conviction to have been a political attack and launched a huge campaign in defense of Calero, mobilizing the party’s members and supporters in the U. S. and all over the world. The U. S. government cancelled the deportation. The same year, Calero went on an international tour, visiting not only the major cities in the US, but Canada, the United Kingdom and Iceland to greet his supporters. In 2004, Róger Calero was the SWP candidate for President of the United States and received 3,689 votes, with Arrin Hawkins running for Vice President; because he is not a natural born citizen of the United States, Calero is ineligible to become U. S. president under the United States Constitution, meaning that had he won the election, he would not have been permitted to serve, so James Harris, the Socialist Workers' Party presidential candidate from 2000, stood in on the ticket in nine states where Calero could not be listed, receiving 7,102 additional votes. In 2006, Róger Calero appeared on the ballot in New York as the Socialist Workers Party candidate for US Senate.
He received 6,967 votes. Róger Calero again ran for President of the United States representing the SWP in the 2008 presidential election, together with Alyson Kennedy for vice-president. Again, James Harris stood in for Calero in several states. In the 2008 presidential election, Calero was on the ballot in five states, where he received 7,209 votes. Coupled with the 2,424 votes received in the five states where Harris was on the ballot. Campaign website The Militant, weekly paper of the Socialist Workers Party Pathfinder Books, the bookstore of the Socialist Workers Party