Rambouillet is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located on the outskirts of 44.3 km southwest from the centre. Rambouillet is a sub-prefecture of the department. Rambouillet lies on the edge of the vast Forest of Rambouillet, is famous for its historical castle, the Château de Rambouillet, which hosted several international summits. Due to its proximity to Paris and Versailles, Rambouillet has long been an occasional seat of government. Rambouillet is served by the SNCF Rambouillet railway station on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line to Chartres; the Château de Rambouillet, a former medieval fortress, was acquired by Louis XVI of France in 1783 as a private residence because of its ideal situation in the game-rich forest of Rambouillet. It became a bien national during the French Revolution of 1789, one of the imperial residences of Napoléon I during the First French Empire. At the time of the Bourbon Restoration, the castle became royal residence, it is there that Charles X signed his abdication on 2 August 1830.
Sometimes neglected at times of political unrest, the château de Rambouillet became the official summer residence of the French President of the Republic after President Félix Faure chose it as summer residence for himself and his family in 1896. The Palais du Roi de Rome. In 1784, on a parcel adjacent to the gardens of the castle, Louis XVI had ordered the construction of the Hôtel du Gouvernement, restored during the reign of Napoléon I, renamed Palais du Roi de Rome as the official Rambouillet residence of Napoleon's infant son, its entrance is situated in Rambouillet's main street. The Hôtel de Ville, the former Bailliage was built in 1786 at the request of Louis XVI by the architect Jacques-Jean Thévenin, it was given by Napoléon I to the inhabitants of Rambouillet to serve as their City Hall. The inscription over the doors of the City Hall reads "Donated to the inhabitants of Rambouillet by Napoleon the Great, Year 1809"; the new Saint-Lubin church was built between 1868 and 1871. Its architect was a student of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.
The Bergerie nationale was built on the grounds of the Domain of Rambouillet at the request of Louis XVI, is the home of the Rambouillet Merino sheep since 1786. The Laiterie de la Reine, the Queen's Dairy built on the grounds of the Domain of Rambouillet, is adjacent to the Bergerie, it was built in 1787 at the request of Louis XVI for his wife Marie Antoinette and designed by the architect Jean-Jacques Thévenin. The Chaumière des coquillages, a thatched-roof cottage with its marble interior decorated with shells and mother of pearl, was built in 1779-1780 in the English garden of the Domain of Rambouillet by Claude-Martin Goupy, the architect of the duc de Penthièvre, for the princesse de Lamballe, Penthièvre's widowed daughter-in-law; the Musée Rambolitrain, situated across from the Saint-Lubin church, is a museum featuring miniature trains. We find a faithful reconstruction of a Parisian toy store of the 1930s; the Monument Américain, is situated at the south entrance of the town on the D 906 road to Chartres, at the site of two ambushes in which seven American soldiers were killed, on 16 August 1944.
The monument was erected in 1947. It bears the inscription: "À la mémoire des soldats américains tombés pour la libération de notre région en août 1944", "In memory of the American soldiers fallen for the liberation of our region in August 1944"; the names of nine American soldiers are inscribed on a plaque on the monument. Commemorative ceremonies are held at the monument every 19 August. Who were born in Rambouillet Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, duc de Penthièvre, grandson of Louis XIV Ulysse Chevalier and historian Robert Benoist, Grand Prix motor racing driver and war hero Jérémie Aliadière, former Arsenal football player, now with FC Lorientwho lived in Rambouillet who died in Rambouillet François Ier, king of France, died in castle in 1547 Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse, son of Louis XIV and father of the duc de Penthièvre, died in castle in 1737 Maria Teresa d'Este, wife of the duc de Penthièvre, died in childbirth in castle in 1754 Germaine Coty, née Corblet, wife of French president René Coty, died at the château de Rambouillet on 12 November 1955 Georges Wilson, French film and television actor and director, died at the Rambouillet hospital on 3 February 2010.
Schools in the commune include: Eight preschools: Arbouville, Bel-Air, Clairbois, du Centre, Les Jardins, la Gommerie, de La Louvière, La Ruche Seven elementary schools: Arbouville, Gambetta, La Louvière, La Prairie, Saint Hubert, Vieil Orme Three junior high schools: Collège Catherine de Vivonne, Collège Le Racinay, Collège Le Rondeau Lycée Louis Bascan, a public senior high school/sixth-form collegePrivate schools include: Institution Sainte Thérèse, which includes preschool, junior high, high school École Jacinthe et François Collège Saint Jean Bosco Universities: University Institute of Technology of Vélizy Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University Rambouillet is twinned with: Duchy of Rambouillet Antoine Sartorio Communes of the Yvelines department Official website
1926 San Sebastián Grand Prix
The 1926 San Sebastián Grand Prix was a Grand Prix motor race held at Circuito Lasarte on 18 July 1926. It was designated as the European Grand Prix, it was the third race of the 1926 AIACR World Manufacturers' Championship season. The Delage 155B proved to be quite challenging to drive; the exhaust pipes of the Delage's passed beneath the floor where the drivers' feet were, causing them to burn. The drivers had to take turns in the cars, in order to avoid serious injury
Alfa Romeo in motorsport
During its history, Alfa Romeo has competed in many different categories of motorsport, including Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and rallies. They have competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries and private entries; the first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of A. L. F. A; the 40-60HP had 6 liter straight-4 engine. Alfa Romeo gained a good name in motorsport and gave a sporty image to the whole marque. Alfa Romeo started motor racing immediately after it was founded. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing in 1911, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the Targa Florio with two 24 HP models; the marque's first success came in 1913 when Nino Franchini finished second in Parma-Poggio Berceto race with a 40-60HP. Giuseppe Merosi built a advanced racing car in 1914, named "Grand Prix". In 1920 Giuseppe Campari won the race at Mugello with a 40-60HP, whilst Enzo Ferrari was second in Targa Florio in the same year.
A year Giuseppe Campari won at Mugello again. Ugo Sivocci won the 1923 Targa Florio with an Antonio Ascari took second. Sivocci's car was painted with the green cloverleaf on a white background, to become Alfa's good luck token. In 1923 Vittorio Jano was lured to Alfa from Fiat, designing the motors that gave Alfa racing success into the late 1930s. In 1925 Alfa Romeo won the first Automobile World Championship in the history of automobile racing. Over 4 rounds the Alfa Romeo P2 won the European Grand Prix at Spa and the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, hence incorporated the laurel wreath in their logo. For 1932 Jano produced the sensational P3 which won its first race driven by Tazio Nuvolari at the Italian Grand Prix, 5 more Grands Prix that year were shared by Nuvolari and Rudolf Caracciola. Alfa Corse closed for 1933 and locked the cars in the factory, but they transferred them to Enzo Ferrari's now privatised'factory' team Scuderia Ferrari. P3s won six of the final 11 events of the season including the final 2 major Grands Prix in Italy and Spain.
In 1934 Louis Chiron won the French Grand Prix in the P3 whilst the German Silver Arrows dominated the other 4 championship events. However the P3s won 18 of the 35 Grands Prix held throughout Europe. 1935 was tougher, the P3 was outclassed by the remorseless Silver Arrows, but Tazio Nuvolari gave the P3 one of the most legendary victories of all time by winning the 1935 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring. The P3 managed 16 victories in 1935. In the 1930s Tazio Nuvolari won the Mille Miglia in a 6C 1750, crossing the finishing line after having overtaken Achille Varzi without lights. Alfa Romeos won the Targa Florio six times in row in the 1930s, and the Mille Miglia every year from 1928 to 1938 except for 1931. The 8C 2300 won the Le Mans 24 Hours from 1931 to 1934, with Alfa Romeo withdrawing from racing in 1933 when the Italian government took over, the racing of Alfas was taken up by Scuderia Ferrari as Alfa's outsourced team. In 1935 Alfa Romeo won the German Grand Prix with Nuvolari. In 1938 Biondetti won the Mille Miglia in an 8C 2900B Corto Spider, thereafter referred to as the "Mille Miglia" model.
Alfa Romeo participated in Formula One, both as a constructor and engine supplier, from 1950 to 1987. The works Alfa Romeo team dominated the first two years of the Formula One World Championship, using the pre-war Alfetta, but withdrew from Formula One at the end of 1951. During the 1960s, several minor F1 teams used Alfa Romeo straight-4 engines and a V8 Alfa Romeo appeared in McLaren and March cars in the early 1970s; the Brabham team used Alfa Romeo engines from 1976 to 1979, foreshadowing a return by Alfa Romeo as a constructor from 1979 to 1985. For the 1987 season, Alfa Romeo made a deal to supply engines to Ligier, but the deal was cancelled when Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. Alfa Romeo supplied engines to the tiny and unsuccessful Italian Osella team from 1983 to 1987. On 29 November 2017, Sauber announced that they have signed a multi-year technical and commercial partnership contract with Alfa Romeo, therefore the team will be renamed to Alfa Romeo Sauber F1 Team for the 2018 season onwards.
In January 2019 the decision was made to rename the Alfa Romeo Sauber Team to Alfa Romeo Racing for the upcoming 2019 season. Alfa Romeo has supplied engines to Formula Three cars. Piercarlo Ghinzani driving a Euroracing March 793 with 2 litre Alfa engine won straight away its first season in the Italian F3 series in 1979. Michele Alboreto won the European title in 1980 with a March-Alfa Romeo. Altogether Alfa Romeo engined cars took four consecutive Italian titles between 1980 and 1984. Alfa Romeo's new Twin Spark Formula Three engine arrived in 1987 and it continued the success. In all Alfa Romeo took five European titles, five European Cups and about twenty national championships in Italy, Germany and Scandinavia. Alfa Romeo delivers engines to new Formula 3 WSK F3 Regional EM series starting in 2019. Italian based Autotecnica Motori tuned Alfa Romeo 1.75 L 4-cyl turbocharged engine produces 270 metric horsepower. From 1989 to 1991, Alfa Romeo supplied engines to the IndyCar World Series; the 2648 cc, turbocharged V8 engine produced 720 bhp, was developed from the unraced Ferrari 637 Indy car.
The engine was mated to a chassis specially built by March and prepared by Alex Morales Motorsports in 1989, with Roberto Guerrero at the wheel. Guerrero only managed a best of
Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, used for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD special camp until 1950; the camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum. The camp was established in 1936, it was located 35 kilometres north of Berlin, which gave it a primary position among the German concentration camps: the administrative centre of all concentration camps was located in Oranienburg, Sachsenhausen became a training centre for Schutzstaffel officers. Executions took place at Sachsenhausen of Soviet prisoners of war. During the earlier stages of the camp's existence the executions were done in a trench, either by shooting or by hanging. A large task force of prisoners was used from the camp to work in nearby brickworks to meet Albert Speer's vision of rebuilding Berlin.
Sachsenhausen was not intended as an extermination camp—instead, the systematic murder was conducted in camps to the east. In 1942 large numbers of Jewish inmates were relocated to Auschwitz; however the construction of a gas chamber and ovens by camp-commandant Anton Kaindl in March 1943 in the so-called Industriehof facilitated the means to kill larger numbers of prisoners. Another option was the genickschussbaracke or neck-shooting barrack where unsuspecting victims being measured for their height and weight were shot in the back of the neck through a sliding door located behind the neck; the Main gate or Guard Tower "A", with its 8mm Maxim machine gun, the type used by the Germans in the trenches of World War I, housed the offices of the camp administration. On the front entrance gates to Sachsenhausen is the infamous slogan Arbeit Macht Frei. About 200,000 people passed through Sachsenhausen between 1936 and 1945. Anchoring the base of the triangular shaped thousand-acre site was the large Appellplatz, where tens of thousands of prisoners would line up for morning and evening roll call.
Creating a semi circular configuration, were the barracks of custody zone I which fanned out from the base of the Appellplatz. Sachsenhausen was intended to set a standard for other concentration camps, both in its design and the treatment of prisoners; the camp perimeter is an equilateral triangle with a semi circular roll call area centered on the main entrance gate in the boundary running northeast to southwest. Barrack huts lie beyond the roll call area; the layout was intended to allow the machine gun post in the entrance gate to dominate the camp but in practice it was necessary to add additional watchtowers to the perimeter. The standard barrack layout was to have a central washing area and a separate room with toilet bowls and a right and left wing for overcrowded sleeping rooms. There was an infirmary inside the southern angle of the perimeter and a camp prison within the eastern angle. There was a camp kitchen and a camp laundry; the camp's capacity became inadequate and the camp was extended in 1938 by a new rectangular area northeast of the entrance gate and the perimeter wall was altered to enclose it.
There was an additional area outside the main camp perimeter to the north. Template:KL by Nikolaus Wachsmann ISBN 978-1-4087-0774-6 The camp was secure and there were few successful escapes; the perimeter consisted of a 3-metre-high stone wall on the outside. Within that there was a space, patrolled by guards and dogs. Any prisoner venturing onto the "death strip" would be shot by the guards without warning. Officers would force prisoners to cross this strip at gun point and threaten to kill the prisoner if they did not cross, in the end the prisoner would cross the death strip and get killed anyway. Rewards such as extra leave were offered to guards who shot and killed any prisoner who entered onto the death zone. Sachsenhausen was the site of Operation Bernhard, one of the largest currency counterfeiting operations recorded; the Germans forced inmate artisans to produce forged American and British currency, as part of a plan to undermine the British and American economies, courtesy of Sicherheitsdienst chief Reinhard Heydrich.
Over one billion pounds in counterfeit banknotes were recovered. The Germans introduced fake British £5, £10, £20 and £50 notes into circulation in 1943: the Bank of England never found them. Plans had been made to drop British pounds over London by plane. Today, these notes are considered valuable by collectors. An industrial area, outside the western camp perimeter, contained SS workshops in which prisoners were forced to work. Heinkel, the aircraft manufacturer, was a major user of Sachsenhausen labour, using between 6,000 and 8,000 prisoners on their He 177 bomber. Although official German reports claimed the prisoners were "working without fault", some of these aircraft crashed unexpectedly around Stalingrad and it is suspected that prisoners had sabotaged them. Other firms included Siemens. Prisoners worked in a brick factory, which some say was supposed to supply the building blocks for Hitler's dream city, Welthauptstadt Germania, to be the capital of the world once the Nazis took over
Andrée Raymonde Borrel was a French heroine of World War II who served in the French Resistance and Britain's Special Operations Executive. Borrel was a member of the SOE's Prosper circuit in occupied France during World War II where she operated as a courier until arrested by the Gestapo, she was subsequently executed at the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp. Andrée Borrel was born into a working-class family in Bécon-les-Bruyères, a north-western suburb of Paris, France, she was good at sports, while her older sister, described Borrel as "un garçon manqué", a tom-boy, who had the strength and interests of boys, whose favourite pastimes were bicycling in the countryside and climbing. Her father died when she was 11, to help support her family she left school at 14 to work for a dress designer; when she was 16 her family moved to Aristide Briand, where she spend two years as a shop assistant in Boulangerie Pajo, a bakery, after which she worked at the Bazar d'Amsterdam as a shop assistant which allowed her to have Sundays off so she could enjoy her passion for cycling.
In October 1939, her mother was advised to move to a warmer climate for her health, so took Andrée and her sister to Toulon on the Mediterranean coast where they had family friends. Not long before World War II broke out, Borrel's socialist sympathies led her to travel to Spain to help the Republican government in its fight against the Nazi-backed fascists in Spain, but found that the war had all but been lost and returned to France; when World War II broke out Borrel went to work with the Red Cross to volunteer her services. She enrolled in a crash course in nursing that she completed on 20 January 1940, which qualified her to serve as a nurse in the Association des Dames Françaises. First at Hôpital Compliméntaire in Nîmes in early February, though she was sent back 15 days following a decree that nurses under he age of 21 were not allowed to serve in hospitals; this decree was revoked a few days and she was sent to the Hôpital de Beaucaire in Beaucaire. One of her co-workers there was Lieutenant Maurice Dufour, when the hospital was closed they were both sent to Hôpital Compliméntaire.
Towards the end of July that hospital was to be closed and, at the request of Dufour, Borrel was allowed to resign from this quasi-military institution, after which she went to work for the underground organization Dufour was involved in. At the beginning of August 1941, Borrel and Dufour established the Villa Rene-Therese in Canet-plage, on the Mediterranean coast just outside Perpignan near the Spanish border, which became the last safe house in the escape network established by Albert Guérisse, which helped British airmen shot down over France, SOE agents and others escape German controlled France; this villa proved too small and at the beginning of October they rented the Villa Anita. Towards the end of December the escape network had been compromised and closed down, with Borrel and Dufour finding other accommodation until escaping over the Pyrénées in mid-February to Spain and from there to Portugal, where they flew to England. Soon after landing in England, like all arrivals from the Continent, she was taken to the Royal Patriotic School, the MI5 security clearance centre.
Their report concluded: Mlle Borrel's story seems straightforward. It is corroborated by Dufour, she is an excellent type of country girl, who seems a keen patriot. From a security point of view, I can find nothing against Mlle Borrel and recommend her release to the FFF. Borrel had wanted to join the Free French Forces but they were not enthusiastic about French citizens who had worked with the British, were not interested in Borrel as she refused to divulge information about all her prior activities. Borrel was subsequently approached by the Special Operations Executive and joined it on 15 May 1942. Borrel seemed like just the type of woman SOE needed for a field agent, her SOE interviewer commented: Since arriving in London, she attempted to join the Corps Feminin of the Free French movement but they have made it a condition that she should give them all the intelligence concerning the organization for which she was working in France. This she refuses to do and they refuse to employ her unless she does.
I think that she would make an excellent addition to our own Corps Feminin and it should not be difficult to get her… She said that she was willing to let us have the information she refuses to give to the Free French. Borrel undertook training with SOE to become a field agent with their F Section while an ensign in the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry. Upon the successful completion of her training, she was promoted to lieutenant; the commandant's report contained the following appraisal: Of sound intelligence, if lacking somewhat in imagination. She will do her best work under definite instructions, she is tough and self-reliant with no nerves. Has plenty of common sense and is well able to look after herself in any circumstances and she is reliable. Has lost her attitude of over-confidence and has benefited enormously from the course and developed a level headed approach towards problems. A pleasant personality and she should develop into a first class agent. On the night of September 24, 1942, Borrel and Lise de Baissac became the first female SOE agents to be parachuted into occupied France, as part of
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is considered one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world and has been called the "Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency"; the event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport. The race is organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest and is held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, which contains a mix of closed public roads and dedicated sections of racing track, in which racing teams must balance the demands of speed with the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without mechanical failure. Of the 60 cars which qualified for the 2018 race, 41 cars ran the full duration. Since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship; because of the decision to run a World Endurance Championship super-season in the period May 2018 to June 2019, the 24 Hours of Le Mans will be run twice in the same season: it will be both the second and the last round of the season.
In 2011 it was a part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, it formed a part of the World Sportscar Championship from 1953 until that series' final season in 1992. Over time, Le Mans has influenced events that have sprung up all around the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at locations such as Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Bathurst; the American Le Mans Series and Europe's Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. Other races include the Le Mans Classic, a race for historic Le Mans race cars from years' past held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a motorcycle version of the race, held on the shortened Bugatti version of the same circuit, a kart race, a truck race, a parody race 24 Hours of LeMons; the 2019 24 Hours of Le Mans will be held on June 15–16 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test.
Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines, the 24 Hours of Le Mans would instead concentrate on the ability of manufacturers to build sporty yet reliable cars. This encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible. At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics and stability at high speeds. While this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability; the oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of fuel each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduce time spent during pit stops.
Such technological innovations have had a trickle-down effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop faster road cars in order to develop them into faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have been changed to their benefit and to further push efficiency; the race is held in June, leading at times to hot conditions for drivers in closed vehicles with poor ventilation. The race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors cover distances well over 5,000 km; the record is 2010's 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding mechanical damage, as well as managing the cars' consumables fuel and braking materials, it tests endurance, with drivers racing for over two hours before a relief driver can take over during a pit stop while they eat and rest.
Current regulations mandate. Competing teams race in groups called "classes", or cars of similar specification, while competing for outright placing amongst all classes; the race showcased cars as they were sold to the general public called "Sports Cars", in contrast with the specialised racing cars used in Grand Prix motor racing. Over time, the competing vehicles evolved away from their publicly available road car roots, today the race is made of two overall classes: prototypes, Grand Touring cars; these are further broken down into 2 sub-classes each, constructors' prototypes, privateer prototypes and 2 subclasses of GT cars. Competing teams have had a wide variety of organization, ranging from competition departments of road car manufacturers to professional motor racing teams to amateur teams; the race has spent long periods as a round of the World S
Antonio Ascari was an Italian Grand Prix motor racing champion. Antonio Ascari was born near Mantua, but as the son of a corn dealer, he began racing cars at the top levels in Italy in 1919. Along with Enzo Ferrari, he raced in the first Targa Florio held after the end of World War I in 1919, but did not finish after crashing into a deep ravine, his bad luck there continued in 1920 and 1921. Driving an Alfa Romeo for Vittorio Jano in April 1923, he narrowly lost the Targa Florio, finishing second to his Alfa Romeo teammate, Ugo Sivocci. However, the following month at the Cremona Circuit he drove to his first major Grand Prix victory. In 1924, he was again the winner at Cremona in the first race of the P2 went on to Monza where he won the Italian Grand Prix. 1925 promised to be a great year for Antonio Ascari, his car dominating the competition at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps when he won the inaugural Belgian Grand Prix. He could eat and drink during a pit stop; the 36-year-old Ascari was killed while leading the 1925 French Grand Prix in an Alfa Romeo P2 in the first race at the new Autodrome de Montlhéry south of Paris.
He crashed at the fast left handed corner on the straight that headed back to the banked section of the track. He left behind a seven-year-old son, who would become one of the greats of Formula One racing in the early 1950s and who would die behind the wheel at age 36 and on the 26th of a different month, four days after a remarkable escape. Antonio Ascari is interred in the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan. Antonio Ascari at Find a Grave