Paisley is a town situated in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. Located on the northern edge of the Gleniffer Braes, the town borders the city of Glasgow to the east, straddles the banks of the White Cart Water, a tributary of the River Clyde, it serves as the administrative centre for the Renfrewshire council area, is the largest town in the historic county of the same name. Paisley is cited as "Scotland's largest town" and is the fifth largest settlement in the country, although it does not have city status; the town became prominent in the 12th century, with the establishment of Paisley Abbey, an important religious hub which had control over other local churches. By the 19th century, Paisley was a centre of the weaving industry, giving its name to the Paisley shawl and the Paisley Pattern; the town's associations with political Radicalism were highlighted by its involvement in the Radical War of 1820, with striking weavers being instrumental in the protests. As of 1993, all of Paisley's mills had closed, although they are memorialised in the town's museums and civic history.
And variously known as Paislay, Passelet and Passelay the burgh's name is of uncertain origin. However, some Scottish place-name books suggest "Pæssa's wood/clearing", from the Old English personal name Pæssa, "clearing", leāh, "wood". Pasilege and Paslie are recorded previous spellings of the name; the Gaelic translation is Pàislig. Paisley has monastic origins. A chapel is said to have been established by the 6th/7th century Irish monk, Saint Mirin at a site near a waterfall on the White Cart Water known as the Hammils. Though Paisley lacks contemporary documentation it may have been, along with Glasgow and Govan, a major religious centre of the Kingdom of Strathclyde. A priory was established in 1163 from the Cluniac priory at Wenlock in Shropshire, England at the behest of Walter fitz Alan, Steward of Scotland. In 1245 this was raised to the status of an Abbey; the restored Abbey and adjacent'Place', constructed out of part of the medieval claustral buildings, survive as a Church of Scotland parish church.
One of Scotland's major religious houses, Paisley Abbey was much favoured by the Bruce and Stewart royal families. King Robert III was buried in the Abbey, his tomb has not survived, but that of Princess Marjorie Bruce, ancestor of the Stewarts, is one of Scotland's few royal monuments to survive the Reformation. Paisley coalesced under James II's wish that the lands should become a single regality and, as a result, markets and commerce began to flourish. In 1488 the town's status was raised by James IV to Burgh of barony. Many trades sprang up and the first school was established in 1577 by the Town Council; the Paisley witches known as the Bargarran witches or the Renfrewshire witches, were tried in Paisley in 1697. Seven were convicted and five were hanged and burnt on the Gallow Green, their remains were buried at Maxwelton Cross in the west end of the town. This was the last mass execution for witchcraft in western Europe. A horse shoe was placed on top of the site to lock in the evil. A horse shoe is still visible in the middle of this busy road junction today—though not the original.
The modern shoe is made of bronze and bears the inscription, "Pain Inflicted, Suffering Endured, Injustice Done". The Industrial Revolution, based on the textile industry, turned Paisley from a small market town to an important industrial town in the late 18th century, its location attracted English mill owners. However, silk fell out of fashion in 1790; the mills switched to the imitation Kashmir shawls called "Paisley". Under the leadership of Thomas Coats, Paisley became the world centre for thread making; the high-status skilled weavers mobilised themselves in radical protests after 1790, culminating in the failed "Radical War" of 1820. Overproduction, the collapse of the shawl market and a general depression in the textile industry led to technical changes that reduced the importance of weavers. Politically the mill owners remained in control of the town. By the mid-19th century weaving had become the town's principal industry; the Paisley weavers' most famous products were the shawls, which bore the Paisley Pattern made fashionable after being worn by a young Queen Victoria.
Despite being of a Kashmiri design and manufactured in other parts of Europe, the teardrop-like pattern soon became known by Paisley's name across the western world. Although the shawls dropped out of fashion in the 1870s, the Paisley pattern remains an important symbol of the town: the Paisley Museum maintains a significant collection of the original shawls in this design, it has been used, for example, in the modern logo of Renfrewshire Council, the local authority. Through its weaving fraternity, Paisley gained notoriety as being a literate and somewhat radical town and between 1816 and 1820 became the scene of a Radical War. Political intrigue, early trades unionism and reforming zeal came together to produce mass demonstrations, cavalry charges down the high street, public riots and trials for treason. Documentation from the period indicates that overthrow of the government was contemplated by some; the weavers of Paisley were active in the'Radical War'. A mixture of religious opinions and healthy drink-fueled debate raged at night amongst the weavers, merchants and others.
The perceived radical n
Stellenbosch University is a public research university situated in Stellenbosch, a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Stellenbosch is jointly the oldest university in South Africa and the oldest extant university in Sub-Saharan Africa alongside the University of Cape Town which received full university status on the same day in 1918. Stellenbosch University designed and manufactured Africa's first microsatellite, SUNSAT, launched in 1999. Stellenbosch University was the first African university to sign the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities; the students of Stellenbosch University are nicknamed "Maties". The term arises from the Afrikaans word "tamatie". An alternative theory is that the term comes from the Afrikaans colloquialism maat used diminutively by the students of the University of Cape Town's precursor, the South African College. Stellenbosch University is the second-highest ranked African University according to the 2017-2018 QS World University Rankings.
The origin of the university can be traced back to the Stellenbosch Gymnasium, founded in 1864 and opened on 1 March 1866. The first five students matriculated in 1870, but capacity did not exist for any tertiary education. However, in the 1870s the Cape Colony's first locally elected government took office and prioritised education. In 1873, four of the five 1870 matriculants became the institution's first graduates by attaining the "Second Class Certificate" through distance learning, the gymnasium's student numbers rose to over a hundred. In 1874, a series of government acts provided for colleges and universities, with generous subsidies and staff. A personal intervention by the Prime Minister in the same year ensured that Stellenbosch qualified, after being allocated to be purely a secondary school. In 1874, the institution acquired its first Professor and in the coming few years its capacity and staff grew rapidly, its first academic senate was constituted at the beginning of 1876, when several new premises were acquired.
The first MA degree was completed in 1878, in that year, the Gymnasium's first four female students were enrolled. The institution became the Stellenbosch College in 1881 and was located at the current Arts Department. In 1887 this college was renamed Victoria College. Only one university was planned for the Cape but after the government was visited by a delegation from the Victoria College, it was decided to allow the college to be a university if it could raise £100,000. Jannie Marais, a wealthy Stellenbosch farmer, bequeathed the money required before his death in 1915. There were certain conditions to his gift which included Dutch/Afrikaans having equal status to English and that the lecturers teach at least half their lectures in Dutch/Afrikaans. By 1930 little, if any, tuition was in English. In December 2014, specialists at the university performed the first successful penis transplantation on a 21-year-old man. Although the university was named the University of Stellenbosch, it nowadays uses two forms: the English version Stellenbosch University and the Afrikaans version Universiteit Stellenbosch.
The university is one of only three public universities in the Western Cape and one of about 20 universities in the country. In the latest edition of the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Stellenbosch University was ranked in the 251-275 category in the world and third in Africa. Another reputable ranking system, QS World University Rankings ranked the university at 390 in the world and third in Africa; the Leiden University ranked Stellenbosch 395th out of the top 500 universities worldwide on its CWTS Leiden Ranking list of 2013. This list ranked the university second in both South Africa and Africa, behind only the University of Cape Town. Stellenbosch University ranks in the top 200 worldwide in law and geography. Stellenbosch University is ranked in the top 100 worldwide in development studies, theology and forestry. In 2012, Webometrics ranked Stellenbosch's web footprint 2nd largest in Africa, again behind the University of Cape Town; the University of Stellenbosch Business School's MBA program was ranked 65th out of 100 MBA programmes of the leading business schools in the world the Aspen Institute's 2011-12 edition of its Beyond Grey Pinstripes survey.
The USB is the only business school in South Africa, as well as the rest of the continent, to be included in the Top 100 list. The University of Stellenbosch Business School has triple accreditation and is ranked second in Africa by Eduniversal; the University of Stellenbosch Business School is ranked in the top 100 worldwide in executive education by Financial Times. Stellenbosch is located about 50 kilometres from Cape Town and is situated on the banks of the Eersterivier in the famous wine-growing region and is encircled by picturesque mountains. Teaching at Stellenbosch University is divided between the main campus in Stellenbosch, the Tygerberg campus, the Bellville Park campus, the Saldanha campus. Stellenbosch University
The President and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society", it is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation and public engagement; the society is governed by its Council, chaired by the Society's President, according to a set of statutes and standing orders. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows; as of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS, with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
There are royal fellows, honorary fellows and foreign members, the last of which are allowed to use the postnominal title ForMemRS. The Royal Society President is Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, who took up the post on 30 November 2015. Since 1967, the society has been based at 6–9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London, used by the Embassy of Germany, London; the Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle. The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century. Ben Jonson in England referenced the idea, related in meaning to Francis Bacon's House of Solomon, in a masque The Fortunate Isles and Their Union from 1624/5; the term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters. In letters in 1646 and 1647, Boyle refers to "our invisible college" or "our philosophical college".
The society's common theme was to acquire knowledge through experimental investigation. Three dated letters are the basic documentary evidence: Boyle sent them to Isaac Marcombes, Francis Tallents who at that point was a fellow of Magdalene College and London-based Samuel Hartlib; the Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from 1645 onwards. A group known as "The Philosophical Society of Oxford" was run under a set of rules still retained by the Bodleian Library. After the English Restoration, there were regular meetings at Gresham College, it is held that these groups were the inspiration for the foundation of the Royal Society. Another view of the founding, held at the time, was that it was due to the influence of French scientists and the Montmor Academy in 1657, reports of which were sent back to England by English scientists attending.
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting. Robert Hooke, disputed this, writing that: makes Mr Oldenburg to have been the instrument, who inspired the English with a desire to imitate the French, in having Philosophical Clubs, or Meetings. I will not say, that Mr Oldenburg did rather inspire the French to follow the English, or, at least, did help them, hinder us. But'tis well known who were the principal men that began and promoted that design, both in this city and in Oxford, and not only these Philosophic Meetings were. On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments. At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
A second royal charter was signed on 23 April 1663, with the king noted as the founder and with the name of "the Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". This initial royal favour has continued and, since every monarch has been the patron of the society; the society's early meetings included experiments performed first by Hooke and by Denis Papin, appointed in 1684. These experiments varied in their subject area, were both important in some cases and trivial in others; the society published an English translation of Essays of Natural Experiments Made in the Accademia del Cimento, under the Protection of the Most Serene Prince Leopold of Tuscany in 1684, an Italian book documenting experiments at the Accademia del Cimento. Although meeting at Gresham College, the Society temporarily moved to Arundel House in 1666 after the Great Fire of London, which did not harm Gresham but did lead to its appropriation by the Lord Mayor; the Society r
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Stellenbosch is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa, situated about 50 kilometres east of Cape Town, along the banks of the Eerste River at the foot of the Stellenbosch Mountain. It is the second oldest European settlement in the province, after Cape Town; the town became known as the City of Oaks or Eikestad in Afrikaans and Dutch due to the large number of oak trees that were planted by its founder, Simon van der Stel, to grace the streets and homesteads. Stellenbosch has adjoining the metropolitan area of the City of Cape Town; the town is home to Stellenbosch University. Technopark is a modern science park situated on the southern side of the town near the Stellenbosch Golf Course. In 1899 Louis Péringuey discovered Paleolithic stone tools of the Acheulean type at a site named Bosman's Crossing near the Adam Tas Bridge at the western entrance to Stellenbosch; the town was founded in 1679 by the Governor of the Cape Colony, Simon van der Stel, who named it after himself – Stellenbosch means " Stel's Bush".
It is situated on the banks of the Eerste River, so named as it was the first new river he reached and followed when he went on an expedition over the Cape Flats to explore the territory towards what is now known as Stellenbosch. The town grew so that it became an independent local authority in 1682 and the seat of a magistrate with jurisdiction over 25,000 square kilometers in 1685; the Dutch were skilled in hydraulic engineering and they devised a system of furrows to direct water from the Eerste River in the vicinity of Thibault Street through the town along van Riebeeck Street to Mill Street where a mill was erected. Early visitors commented on the oak gardens. During 1690 some Huguenot refugees settled in Stellenbosch, grapes were planted in the fertile valleys around Stellenbosch and soon it became the centre of the South African wine industry. In 1710 a fire destroyed most of the town, including the first church, all the Company property and twelve houses. Only two or three houses were left standing.
When the church was rebuilt in 1723 it was located on what was the outskirts of the town, to prevent any similar incident from destroying it again. This church was enlarged a number of times since 1723 and is known as the "Moederkerk"; the first school had been opened in 1683, but education in the town began in earnest in 1859 with the opening of a seminary for the Dutch Reformed Church. Rhenish Girls' High School, established in 1860, is the oldest school for girls in South Africa. A gymnasium, known as het Stellenbossche Gymnasium, was established in 1866. In 1874 some higher classes became Victoria College and in 1918 University of Stellenbosch; the first men's hostel to be established in Stellenbosch was Wilgenhof, in 1903. In 1905 the first women's hostel to be established in Stellenbosch was Harmonie. Harmonie and Wilgenhof were part of the Victoria College. In 1909 an old boy of the school, Paul Roos, captain of the first national rugby team to be called the Springboks, was invited to become the sixth rector of the school.
He remained rector until 1940. On his retirement the school's name was changed to Paul Roos Gymnasium. In the early days of the Second Boer War Stellenbosch was one of the British military bases, was used as a "remount" camp. At the time of the 2011 census, the population of the urban area of Stellenbosch was 77,476 people in 23,730 households. 50% of the residents spoke Afrikaans as their home language, 28% spoke isiXhosa, 8% spoke English. 37% of the population identified themselves as "Black African", 35% as "Coloured", 26% as "White". The Stellenbosch Municipality extends beyond the town of Stellenbosch itself to include rural areas and the town of Franschhoek. At the time of 2011 census the municipal population was 155,728, while by 2016 it was estimated to be 173,197. Stellenbosch is 53 km east of Cape Town via National Route N1. Stellenbosch is in a hilly region of the Cape Winelands, is sheltered in a valley at an average elevation of 136 m, flanked on the west by Papegaaiberg, a hill. To the south is Stellenbosch Mountain.
Die Tweeling Pieke has an elevation of 1,494 m. Jonkershoek Nature Reserve lies about 9 km east of Stellenbosch, the Helderberg Nature Reserve is about 23 km south via provincial route R44. Just south of the Helderberg Nature Reserve is Strand, a seaside resort town; the soils of Stellenbosch range from dark alluvium to clay. This, combined with the well-drained, hilly terrain and Mediterranean climate, prove excellent for viticulture. Summers are dry and warm to hot, with some February and March days rising to over 40 °C. Winters are cool and sometimes quite windy, with daytime temperatures averaging 16 °C. Snow is seen a couple of times in winter on the surrounding mountains. Spring and autumn are colder seasons. Stellenbosch is a warm weather training venue for cyclists and field squads, triathletes; the Stellenbsoch Sports Academy opened
Paranthropus robustus is an early hominin discovered in Southern Africa in 1938. Regarding cranial features, the development of P. robustus seemed to be in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex". On account of the definitive traits associated with this "robust" line of australopithecine, anthropologist Robert Broom established the genus Paranthropus and placed this species in it. Paranthropus robustus is dated to have lived between 2.0 and 1.2 million years ago. It had large jaws and jaw muscles with the accompanying sagittal crest, post-canine teeth that were adapted to serve in the dry environment they lived in; the post-canine teeth commonly display pitting enamel hypoplasia, thought to be caused by a genetic condition, amelogenesis imperfecta, was common due to instability in crucial gene after evolving such large teeth. After Raymond Dart’s discovery of Australopithecus africanus, Robert Broom was in favour of Dart's claim that Australopithecus africanus was an ancestor of Homo sapiens.
However, there was a great deal of criticism from the academic community. Many claimed that Dart had been premature in naming the species as the type specimen, called Taung Child, was a represented by a single skull of a juvenile, it was thought. Broom was a Scottish doctor working in South Africa, who began making his own excavations in Southern Africa to find more specimens of A. africanus, to help strengthen Dart's position. It was his intent to find complete adult skeletons that would justify the species designation of A. africanus, further justify its place as an ancestor of modern humans. In 1938, at 70 years old, Broom was excavating at Kromdraai, South Africa and discovered pieces of a skull and teeth which resembled Dart's Australopithecus africanus find, but the skull had some "robust" characteristics; the fossils included parts of teeth, all dated to 2 million years old. Sites with fossils of Paranthropus robustus are found only in South Africa, include the sites of Kromdraai, Drimolen and Coopers.
In the cave at Swartkrans the remains of 130 individuals were discovered. The study made on the dentition of the hominins revealed that the average P. robustus lived past 17 years of age. Paranthropus robustus was the first discovery of a "robust" species of hominin; these three species have alternately placed within the genus Australopithecus. This is because in many small details, the species robustus resembles A. africanus more than it does either of the other "robust" species, aethiopicus or boisei. Broom's discovery was the second australopithecine after Australopithecus africanus. Typical of robust australopithecines, P. robustus had a head shaped a bit like a gorilla's with a more massive built jaw and teeth in comparison to hominins within the Homo lineage. The sagittal crest that runs from the top of the skull acts as an anchor for large chewing muscles; the DNH 7 skull of Paranthropus robustus, "Eurydice", was discovered in 1994 at the Drimolen Cave in Southern Africa by Andre Keyser, is dated to 2.3 million years old belonging to a female.
The teeth of these primates were larger and thicker than any gracile australopithecine found, due to the morphology differences Broom designated his find as Australopithecus robustus. On the skull, a bony ridge is located above from the front to back indicating where the jaw muscles joined. P. robustus males may have stood only 1.2m tall and weighed 54 kg while females stood just under 1 meter tall and weighed only 40 kg, indicating a large sexual dimorphism. The teeth found on P. robustus are as large as those of P. boisei. Broom analyzed his findings and noted the differences in the molar teeth size which resembled a gorilla's a bit more than a human's. Other P. robustus remains have been found in Southern Africa. The average brain size of P. robustus measured to only 410 and 530 cc, about as large as a chimpanzee's. Some have argued that P robustus had a diet of hard gritty foods such as nuts and tubers since they lived in open woodland and savanna. More recent research suggests that this taxon was more of a dietary generalist, others have argued that they principally consumed hard and gritty resources as fallback foods only during time of nutritional stress.
A 2011 study using ratios of strontium isotopes in teeth suggested that Australopithecus africanus and P. robustus groups in southern Africa were patrilocal: females tended to settle farther from their region of birth than males did. List of fossil sites List of human evolution fossils MNSU Archaeology Info Paranthropus robustus - The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program Most complete ape-man skull found - but he is a she Researchers discuss ape-man fossil find Coopers Cave Home Page Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
Mrs. Ples is the popular nickname for the most complete skull of an Australopithecus africanus found in South Africa. Many Australopithecus fossils have been found near Sterkfontein, about 40 kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, in a region of the Transvaal now designated as the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Mrs. Ples was discovered by Robert Broom and John T. Robinson on April 18, 1947; because of Broom's use of dynamite and pickaxe while excavating, Mrs. Ples's skull was blown into two pieces and some fragments are missing. Nonetheless, Mrs./Mr. Ples is one of the most perfect pre-human skulls found; the skull is archived at the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History in Pretoria. The nickname "Mrs. Ples" was coined by Broom's young co-workers, it derives from the scientific designation Plesianthropus transvaalensis, that Broom gave the skull subsumed into the species Australopithecus africanus. In scientific publications the specimen is referred to by its catalogue number, STS 5.
The genus Australopithecus, of which there are several species, is considered the precursor of the genus Homo, to which all humanity belongs. Though its cranium is comparable to a chimpanzee's, Australopithecus walked upright; this was a surprise to anthropologists at the time, because it had been assumed that the big brain of Homo had preceded, or at least evolved in tandem with, our upright gait. Mrs. Ples, whose cranial capacity is only about 485 cubic centimetres, was one of the first fossils to reveal that upright walking had evolved well before any significant growth in brain size; the sex of the specimen is not certain and so Mrs. Ples may in fact be Mr. Ples. Moreover, X-ray analysis of the specimen's teeth has suggested. Hence a designation of Miss Ples or Master Ples is possible; the paleoanthropologist, Prof. Frederick E. Grine, has studied the dental morphology of Mrs./Mr. Ples with a view to establishing Mrs./Ms. Ples's sex. Using the Computed Tomography scans of STS 5 from the experiments of Weber et al. they compared them to CT scans of more discovered A. africanus skulls from Sterkfontein.
These scans allowed Grine to reconstruct images of the roots of the teeth, in order to see how the molar and canine teeth developed. This study concluded that Mrs./Mr. Ples was indeed a middle-aged female. However, the question is not settled, since other studies have come to the opposite conclusion; some experts have suggested that a partial skeleton, known only by its catalogue number of STS 14, discovered in the same year, in the same geological deposit and in proximity to Mrs. Ples, may belong to this skull. If correct, this would make Mrs. Ples the South African counterpart to the famous Lucy fossil; this skull, along with others discovered at Taung and Makapansgat offered compelling evidence in favour of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that humanity's origin lay in Africa. The fossil has been dated by a combination of palaeomagnetism and uranium-lead techniques to around 2.05 million years. In 2004, Mrs. Ples was voted 95th in e.tv's Great South Africans Top 100 list. List of human evolution fossils Taung Child Maropeng - The Cradle of Humankind official website UNESCO - Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Environs Metadata of STS 5 on NESPOS