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Robert Garran

Sir Robert Randolph Garran was an Australian lawyer who became "Australia's first public servant" – the first federal government employee after the federation of the Australian colonies. He served as the departmental secretary of the Attorney-General's Department from 1901 to 1932, after 1916 held the position of Solicitor-General of Australia. Garran was born in the son of the journalist and politician Andrew Garran, he studied arts and law at the University of Sydney and was called to the bar in 1891. Garran was a keen supporter of the federation movement, became acquainted with leading federalists like George Reid and Edmund Barton. At the 1897–98 constitutional convention he served as secretary of the drafting committee. On 1 January 1901, Garran was chosen by Barton's caretaker government as its first employee, his first duty was to write the inaugural edition of the Commonwealth Gazette, which contained Queen Victoria's proclamation authorising the creation of a federal government. Over the following three decades, Garran provided legal advice to ten different prime ministers, from Barton to Joseph Lyons.

He was considered an early expert in Australian constitutional law, with John Quick published an annotated edition of the constitution that became a standard reference work. Garran developed a close relationship with Billy Hughes during World War I, accompanied him to the Imperial War Cabinet and the Paris Peace Conference. Hughes, prime minister and attorney-general, appointed him to the new position of solicitor-general and delegated numerous powers and responsibilities to him, he received two knighthoods for his work, one in 1917 and one in 1920. In addition to his professional work, Garran was an important figure in the development of the city of Canberra during its early years, he was one of the first public servants to relocate there after it replaced Melbourne as the capital in 1927. He founded several important cultural associations, organised the creation of the Canberra University College, contributed to the establishment of the Australian National University. Garran published at least eight books and many journal articles throughout his lifetime, covering such topics as constitutional law, the history of federalism in Australia, German-language poetry.

He was granted a state funeral upon his death in 1957, the first federal public servant to receive one. Garran was born in Sydney, New South Wales, the only son of journalist and politician Andrew Garran and his wife Mary Isham, his parents were committed to social justice, Mary campaigning for issues such as the promotion of education for women, Andrew advocating Federation and covering reformist movements as editor of The Sydney Morning Herald and promoting them as a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council. The family lived in Phillip Street in central Sydney. Garran's mother "had a deep distrust, well justified in those days, of milkman's milk" and so she kept a cow in the backyard, which would walk on its own to The Domain each day to graze and return twice a day to be milked; the Garrans lived in the suburb of Darlinghurst, just to the east of the centre of the city. Garran attended Sydney Grammar School from the age of ten, starting in 1877, he was a successful student, became School Captain in 1884.

He studied arts and law at the University of Sydney, where he was awarded scholarships for classics and general academic ability. Garran graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree with first-class honours in 1888, winning the University's Medal in Philosophy, a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1889. After graduating, Garran began to study for the Bar examination, he was employed for a year with a firm of Sydney solicitors, the next year served as associate to Justice William Charles Windeyer of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Windeyer had a reputation for being a harsh and inflexible judge in criminal cases, where he was said to have "a rigorous and unrelenting sense of the retribution that he believed criminal justice demanded, a sympathy verging on the emotional for the victims of crime." Garran however offered a different view, saying that "those who knew him well knew that under a brusque exterior he was the kindest of men", his reputation had to some degree been created by misrepresentation.

In 1891, Garran was admitted to the New South Wales Bar, where he commenced practice as a barrister working in equity. Garran, like his father, was involved in the Australian Federation movement, the movement which sought to unite the British colonies in Australia into one federated country; the first Constitutional Convention was held in 1891 in the chamber of the Legislative Council of New South Wales in Macquarie Street, around the corner from Garran's chambers in Phillip Street. Garran would recall with approval that the 1891 convention was the first with the courage to face the "lion in the path", the issue of customs duties and tariffs, which had divided states such as Victoria, who were in favour of protectionism, states such as New South Wales, who were in favour of free trade. In Garran's view a clause proposed at the convention, which allowed for tariffs against international trade while ensuring free trade domestically, "expressed the terms on which New South Wales was prepared to face the lion."Garran became involved with the work of Edmund Barton, who would be

Drug trade in West Africa

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the drug trade in West Africa expanded as the US and EU's demand for cocaine and other drugs increased dramatically. This resulted in the expansion of two distinct trade routes. One route exported domestically produced cannabis from West Africa to South Africa and Asia; the other trade route moved cocaine from Latin America and heroin from Afghanistan and Southeast Asia to Europe and the United States. In both of these routes, drug traffickers took advantage of trading networks created by Malian and Berber traders in colonial times to move drugs through the region and West Africa's broader geographical location as an intermediate stop from Latin America and Southwest Asia to Europe and the United States; this was due in part to West Africa's badly policed borders, endemic corruption, economic inequalities. At first, the drugs were only smuggled in small quantities, but as time progressed and the demand for drugs kept rising, countries in West Africa—specifically Nigeria and Guinea-Bissau—were entrusted with cocaine loads as large as 135 to 145 tonnes.

Since West Africa has become a key component of the drug trading world, with both the increase in variety and number of drugs trafficked through West Africa and the expansion of the drug trade from West Africa to other parts of the continent. International pressure and prioritization by regional governments has fueled the rise of drug control organizations in many West African countries, shifting the focal point of political and social domestic action. According to historian Emmanuel Akyeampong, cannabis products in West Africa existed before mid-twentieth century. In 1934 colonial authorities were still testing the cultivation of the coca plant in Calabar and other places in Nigeria. By the mid 1950s police were arresting some Nigerian farmers for growing and selling small amounts of cannabis were being shipped to Europe and the United States. While this was going on, Nigerian cannabis smokers were buying some imported marijuana from South African and Belgian Congo dealers; the first documented use of West Africa as a smuggling post was in 1952, when US officials noticed that a Lebanese syndicate was hiding heroin in West Africa in order to avoid getting caught by police and to avoid the scrutiny of officers on the European trade route.

West Africa's rise as a major drug smuggling transit point starts at around the 1960s, when the Beatles and Swinging London were popular, young men and women in the UK and other parts of Europe wanted illegal drugs. Marijuana was high in demand and reports of the time period stated that of marijuana grown in West Africa was being exported from Nigeria to Europe in large quantities; the drug trade became a problem and the Nigerian government issues a decree stating that anyone found guilty exporting cannabis would get a ten-year jail term. Until the 1980s, lots of Nigerians and some Ghanaian traders would go out and make trades on their own terms and conditions; the dealers went to places like Latin America or Asia and bought lots of small packages of drugs and they had couriers go out and sell their drugs. It has been speculated that the origins of mass drug exports started with West African students living in the EU and US who failed to receive payments of their study grants were hired by Nigerian naval officers in training who were stationed in India to deliver the heroin they bought and bring it back to the countries they were residing in.

After 1982 the US and Europe noticed a rise in Nigerian drug traders in their countries. The US arrested 21 Nigerians for drug offenses, many more thereafter. In Europe an official of the West German Interior Ministry said the following year that Hamburg, Germany was importing a serious amount of drugs from West Africa, including one and a half tonnes of a mystery drug from Ghana. From 1998 to 2009, cocaine consumption doubled in Europe, as a result Latin American drug cartels and West African dealers formed an alliance in order to facilitate drug transportation by taking advantage of the airplanes and boats that enter and leave the coast of West Africa. Drugs were spread through North America and Europe through localized West African ethnic communities that had the tools and resources to traffic drugs along established networks. Domestic demand for illicit drugs varies for different populations. Use of cheaper substances, like marijuana and a cannabis rooted drink called akpeteshie, fall on working-class and poorer populations.

In Ghana, groups like miners, agricultural laborers, sailors use these substances as a way to cope with the demands of difficult lifestyles or grueling days of labor. Domestic demand for harder drugs such as cocaine and heroine, as well as Mandrax and amphetamines, were traditionally viewed as dependent on wealthier populations. However, falling prices of more expensive illicit drugs as well as expanding methods of consumption have made such substances more accessible to working-class West Africans in city centers; the powerful energizing effects of substances like cocaine and amphetamines have made them more attractive to laborers with long, exhaustive workdays as well as students who spend long nights studying. As a result of expanding trends in globalization in recent years, demand for substances harder drugs, has spread to tourists and short-term residents of many West African countries; the expansive drug trafficking routes through West Africa that fuel this high demand are sustained in some part by complicit governmental forces.

Unlike routes from Latin America or Asia that have gained growing amounts of attention from internation

Vernon Fisher

Vernon Fisher is an artist born in Fort Worth, Texas. He earned a BA in English literature from Hardin–Simmons University in 1967 and an MFA from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1969, he taught at Austin College and at University of North Texas. The artist is best known for his paintings that resemble chalk on a school blackboard with incongruous elements added. Fish, in the collection of the Honolulu Museum of Art, is an example these "blackboard paintings"; the Art Institute of Chicago, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Honolulu Museum of Art, the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, the Phoenix Art Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum are among the public collections holding work by Fisher. Fisher, Vernon Fisher, University of Texas Press, 2010 ISBN 9780292723238 Goldwater, Past/imperfect: Eric Fischl, Vernon Fisher, Laurie Simmons, Walker Art Center, 1987 ISBN 9780935640212 Gumpert and Allan Schwartzman, Investigations: Probe, Analysis.

Christopher Barker (officer of arms)

Sir Christopher Barker was an officer of arms at the College of Arms in the City of London who rose to the highest position of Garter Principal King of Arms. Christopher was the son of William Barker of Stokesley in the North Riding of Yorkshire and his wife, the daughter of William Carhill and sister of Sir Christopher Carhill, Norrey King of Arms. In adulthood, he lived in Newbury in Berkshire. Barker started his heraldic career as the private officer of arms of Charles Brandon. Barker was made Lisle pursuivant in 1513 and Suffolk Herald in 1517, he is known to have accompanied his employer on journeys to France in 1514 and 1515. On 1 November 1522 Barker was made a royal officer of arms as Richmond herald. In June 1536 he was promoted to Norroy King of Arms, was promoted to Garter Principal King of Arms on 15 July; as Garter King of Arms, Barker helped to organize ceremonies such as the christening of Prince Edward in 1537, the funeral of Queen Jane Seymour in the same year, the proclamation of Henry VIII as King of Ireland in 1541, the funeral of Henry and the coronation of Edward in 1547.

When Henry invaded France in person in 1544 Barker had a prominent place in front of the King's banner. Shortly before Henry's death Barker's evidence was crucial when Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was condemned to death for including the arms of Edward the Confessor among the many quarters in his own coat of arms. Barker married three times, his first wife was Margaret was the widow of John Longe and of John Garret. His second wife, Ellen was the widow of Henry Rigby and daughter of Richard Dalton of Croston, Lancashire. With Ellen, Barker had two sons. One of these sons, died in Spain in 1543 as Rouge Croix Pursuivant. Barton's nephew, Laurence Dalton joined the College of Arms and became Norroy King of Arms. Barker's third wife was widow of Robert Legge. In 1521 he joined the Vintners' Company, he was master of the company from 1540 to 1543. Barker was recorded as lying sick at Christmas 1549 and he died at Paternoster Row in London on 4 January 1550 and was buried in St Faith's under St Paul's.

His widow survived him by only about six months. Many of his heraldic collections and manuscripts compiled by him survive at the College of Arms. Heraldry officer of arms The College of Arms Heraldic List of Officers of Arms Citations BibliographyL. Campbell and Francis Steer. A Catalogue of Manuscripts in the College of Arms Collections.. John Anstis; the Register of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. 376–379. Andrew Crawford. A History of the Vintners' Company.. Dictionary of National Biography, Sir Christopher, Garter king of arms, by Sidney Lee. Published 1885. Walter H. Godfrey and Sir Anthony Wagner, The College of Arms, Queen Victoria Street: being the sixteenth and final monograph of the London Survey Committee.. Sir Anthony Wagner. Heralds of England: a History of the Office and College of Arms.. Sir Anthony Wagner. Heralds and Heraldry in the Middle Ages.. Mark Noble. A History of the College of Arms. 137–42. Sir Anthony Wagner. A Catalogue of English Mediaeval Rolls of Arms. Harleian Society


Agonglo was a King of the Kingdom of Dahomey, in present-day Benin, from 1789 until 1797. Agonglo took over from his father King Kpengla in 1789 and inherited many of the economic problems that developed during Kpengla's reign; because of the poor economy, Agonglo was constrained by domestic opposition. As a response, he reformed many of the economic policies and did military expeditions to try to increase the supply for the Atlantic slave trade. Many of these efforts were unsuccessful and European traders became less active in the ports of the kingdom; as a final effort, Agonglo accepted two Portuguese Catholic missionaries which resulted in a large outcry in royal circles and resulted in his assassination on May 1, 1797. Adandozan, his second oldest son, was named the new king. Agonglo was the oldest son of King Kpengla who had ruled over a long term economic crisis in Dahomey; the Oyo empire still had suzerainty over the kingdom and in the time of Kpengla this power of Oyo over the kingdom had resulted in decreased slave trading by Dahomey.

Kpengla responded in a variety of ways: first trying to defeat common competitors of both Oyo and Dahomey when this failed he ended slave trade with Oyo raised harsh taxes on slave traders through Dahomey, resumed slave raiding. These policies did not work and the slave trade, which had become the primary trade for Dahomey, slowed significantly. Political factions were developing in Dahomey under Kpengla; when Tegbessou became king in a contentious selection, two older sons of King Agaja were passed over for selection. The heirs of these two other brothers had increased their power into a distinct rival claim to the throne at Dahomey; when Kpengla died in 1789, four rival claimants came to the throne: two younger brothers of Kpengla, Fraku or Don Jeronimo, Agonglo (the oldest son of Kpengla. The Migan and Mehu of Dahomey, who were tasked with selecting the new king, choose Agonglo, but there remained significant political opposition to Agonglo; the selection of Agonglo resulted in such widespread opposition that the political functions of the kingdom halted for a year.

Agonglo did a series of conciliatory moves to try and end the opposition: promised to give citizens back some rights, ended constraints on slave traders, reduced taxes, reassigned some of the aggressive tax collectors into the army, recognized other powerful individuals. As king, Agonglo attempted a variety of efforts to get the Dahomey economy started but was constrained by domestic opposition and a major smallpox epidemic; the Oyo empire which had exercised power over Dahomey since 1730 had grown weak in the early 1790s. This culminated in the suicide of the king of Oyo in 1796 which provided Agonglo with the ability to end the tributary status of Dahomey to Oyo. However, while Agonglo was able to act independently, domestic dissent prevented him from directly challenging Oyo power. Although he reduced many of the restrictions on slave traders that Kpengla had created, he still followed some of the other policies of Kpengla: including slave raiding and attacking rival ports. However, these were not successful with multiple unsuccessful raids against the Mahi people to the north and unsuccessful attacks on Little Popo and Porto-Novo.

However, in 1795 he was able to lead a successful slave raid against the Mahi by rewarding soldiers with wives before the war, allied with Grand-Popo was able to disrupt Little Popo's slave trade. These efforts to improve the domestic supply of slaves were of limited impact because of developments impacting the different European countries involved in the slave trade; the British commander in the port city of Whydah had become slow and unresponsive to British regional efforts and so the British had slowed their trade in the port. At the same time, the French Revolution resulted in France banning the trade on slaves in 1794 and began an active effort to stop the trade by other countries. In November 1794, the French seized all Portuguese slave ships in the port of Whydah and would continue this practice for the next few years; the result was that Whydah no longer was a safe harbor for the trade and Portuguese slowed their trade. Agonglo responded by sending three ambassadors to Maria I of Portugal to try and convince her to resume trade with Dahomey.

Instead of resuming the trade, Maria sent two Catholic missionaries to Agonglo and encouraged him to convert for continued trade relations. Agonglo accepted the missionaries and expressed a willingness to be converted which caused a significant uproar amongst different factions within the kingdom, it is unknown whether he was sincere in his willingness to be converted or whether it was to appease the Portuguese. Agonglo did know about Catholicism, having married the former wife of the commander of the French fort in Whydah, a Dutch-African woman named Sophie who had introduced a Christian shrine into the pantheon of deities worshiped. Regardless, the willingness for conversion resulted in Dogan, a brother of Agonglo, starting serious efforts to remove Agonglo from power. Lengthy debates in the palace followed and when these efforts failed, on May 1, 1797, Dogan and a woman named Na Wanjile assassinated Agonglo in the palace. According to Akingjogbin, she shot and killed Agonglo, but Edna Bay says that the assassination happened through poisoning.

Dogan and Na Wanjile were buried alive for the assassination. With the execution of Dogan, the Migan and Mehu of Dahomey named Adandozan, the second oldest son of Agonglo, as the new king. Although Adandozan was quite young, he started


Portreath is a civil parish and fishing port on the north coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village is about three miles northwest of Redruth; the village is centred on the harbour and beach. West of the harbour entrance and breakwater are two sandy beaches that are popular with holidaymakers and naturists. Portreath lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. Separately, in early 2017, the village was looking to be a hedgehog-friendly village, it would join Burton Fleming in the East Riding of Yorkshire as one of a handful of hedgehog-friendly villages in the UK. The name Portreath was first recorded in 1485, tin streaming in the valley was recorded from 1602. Devon contractor Samuel Nott was engaged to build the first mole in 1713 on the western side of the beach, near Amy's Point; the quay was destroyed by the sea before 1749, the foundations are seen when the sea washes away the sand.

The village had a fishing fleet for pilchards. The harbour we see today was started in 1760 to service the expanding ore industry in the Camborne and Redruth area; the quay was extended and the inner basin constructed in 1846. In the late 1770s, during the American Revolutionary War, lieutenant-colonel of the North Devon militia, Francis Basset, commanded local miners to fortify the port, which helped counter a Franco-Spanish invasion fleet gathered as part of the European theatre of the war, some of them still standing to this day. By 1827, Portreath was described as Cornwall's most important port and was, with Devoran on the south coast, one of the main ports for sending the copper ore mined in the Gwennap area to Swansea for smelting; the ships returned with Welsh coal to fire the steam engines used on the mines. The peak of this enterprise was around 1840, when some 100,000 tons of copper ore were shipped out each year. With the population growing, a church was built in 1827. A cholera outbreak in 1878 caused the death of half the population.

The copper trade collapsed by 1886 and the port was bankrupt, although trade of domestic coal, cement and potatoes continued until after the Second World War. The owner, Beynon Shipping Company, donated the harbour to Kerrier District Council in June 1980; the Portreath Tramroad, the first railway in Cornwall, was started in 1809 to link the harbour with the copper mines at Scorrier and St Day. By 1812 the tramroad reached Scorrier House, one of the financier's houses, was completed by 1819, it was horse-drawn with wagons on an approximate 4 ft gauge using L-shaped cast iron plates on square granite blocks. The line was little-used after the Poldice mine closed in the 1860s, the tramroad was closed in 1865; the Portreath branch of the Hayle Railway was opened in 1838. To the south of the harbour, on the west side of the valley, are the remains of the old cable-worked incline that linked the harbour to the mainline at Carn Brea; the Portreath incline was one of four on the Hayle Railway. It was worked by a stationary steam engine, used as the winding engine.

Part of the main line of the Hayle Railway was incorporated into the route of the West Cornwall Railway in 1852. The railways and Portreath Tramroad associated with the minerals trade today form the Mineral Tramways Coast to Coast, a long-distance cycleway and footpath extending 15 miles from Portreath to the south coast. RRH Portreath, on Nancekuke Common to the north of the village, is now a radar station operated by the RAF, but was built in 1940 to be the RAF's main fighter airfield in Cornwall during the Second World War. Nance Wood, 1-mile to the south east of the village, is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest for its biological characteristics; the woods are one of only 2 sites in Britain to contain Irish spurge, a Red Data Book of rare and endangered plant species. Portreath Parish Tram Web Site Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Portreath