The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple known as Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court in London. To be called to the Bar and practise as a barrister in England and Wales, an individual must belong to one of these Inns, it is located in the wider Temple area of the capital, near the Royal Courts of Justice, within the City of London. The Inn is a professional body that provides legal training and regulation for members, it is ruled by a governing council called "Parliament", made up of the Masters of the Bench, led by the Treasurer, elected to serve a one-year term. The Temple takes its name from the Knights Templar, who leased the land to the Temple's inhabitants until their abolition in 1312; the Inner Temple was a distinct society from at least 1388, although as with all the Inns of Court its precise date of founding is not known. After a disruptive early period it flourished, becoming the second-largest Inn during the Elizabethan period; the Inner Temple expanded during the reigns of James I and Charles I, with 1,700 students admitted between 1600 and 1640.
The First English Civil War's outbreak led to a complete suspension of legal education, with the Inns close to being shut down for four years. Following the English Restoration the Inner Templars welcomed Charles II back to London with a lavish banquet. After a period of slow decline in the 18th century, the following 100 years saw a restoration of the Temple's fortunes, with buildings constructed or restored, such as the Hall and the Library. Much of this work was destroyed during The Blitz, when the Hall, Temple Church, many sets of chambers were devastated. Rebuilding was completed in 1959, today the Temple is a flourishing and active Inn of Court, with over 8,000 members; the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court, along with Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, the Middle Temple. The Inns are responsible for training and selecting barristers within England and Wales, are the only bodies allowed to call a barrister to the Bar and allow him or her to practice; the Temple is an independent, unincorporated organisation, works as a trust.
It has 8,000 members and around 450 apply to join per year. Although the Inn was a disciplinary and teaching body, these functions are now shared between the four Inns, with the Bar Standards Board acting as a disciplinary body and the Inns of Court and Bar Educational Trust providing education; the history of the Inner Temple begins in the early years of the reign of Henry II, when the contingent of Knights Templar in London moved from the Old Temple in Holborn to a new location on the banks of the River Thames, stretching from Fleet Street to what is now Essex House. The original Temple covered much of what is now the northern part of Chancery Lane, which the Knights created to provide access to their new buildings; the old Temple became the London palace of the Bishop of Lincoln. After the Reformation it became the home of the Earl of Southampton, the location is now named Southampton Buildings; the first group of lawyers came to live here during the 13th century, although as legal advisers to the Knights rather than as a society.
The Knights fell out of favour, the order was dissolved in 1312, with the land seized by the king and granted to the Knights Hospitaller. The Hospitallers did not live on the property, but rather used it as a source of revenue through rent. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the law was taught in the City of London by the clergy. During the 13th century, two events happened; as a result, the Church ceased to have a role in legal education in London. The secular, common law lawyers migrated to the hamlet of Holborn, as it was easy to get to the law courts at Westminster Hall and was just outside the City. Two groups occupied the Hospitaller land, became known as the "inner inn" and the "middle inn"; these became the Inner Temple and the Middle Temple, were distinct societies by 1388, when they are mentioned in a year book. The Hospitallers leased the land to the Inner Temple for £10 a year, with students coming from Thavie's Inn to study there. There are few records of the Inner Temple from the 14th and 15th centuries—indeed, from all the societies, although Lincoln's Inn's records stretch back to 1422.
The Temple was sacked by Wat Tyler and his rebels during the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, with buildings pulled down and records destroyed. John Stow wrote that, after breaking into Fleet Prison the rebels: went to the Temple to destroy it, plucked down the houses, tooke off the tyles of the other buildings left; this house they spoyled for wrathe they bare to the prior of St. John's, unto whom it belonged, after a number of them had sacked this Temple, what with labour and what with wine being overcome, they lay down under the walls and housing, were slain like swyne, one of them killing another for old grudge and hatred, a
His Honour the Honourable Ratcliffe Pring was a lawyer and the first Attorney-General in colonial Queensland. Pring was born on 17 October 1825 at Crediton, England, the second son of Thomas E. Pring, solicitor, he was educated at Shrewsbury School, entered at the Inner Temple in November 1845, being called to the Bar in June 1849. Pring suffered from bronchitis which motivated him to immigrate to Australia, arriving in Sydney in 1853, he practised as a barrister on the Moreton Bay and Goulburn court circuits of New South Wales with much success. In 1857 a Northern Supreme Court for New South Wales was established in Brisbane. Pring was appointed as its Crown Prosecutor and a Queen's Counsel by Sir William Montagu Manning, the Solicitor-General for New South Wales. Pring took up residence in Brisbane in April 1857. On 27 March 1860 Pring was elected to the first Legislative Assembly of Queensland for the district of Eastern Downs, served under Robert Herbert as Attorney-General in the first Ministry formed under responsible government from December 1859 to August 1865.
In the second Herbert Ministry he filled the same office from July to August 1866. He was Attorney-General in the Robert Mackenzie Ministry from August 1867 to November 1868. Pring served as member of the Queensland Legislative Council from 24 April 1862 to 26 May 1863, he served in the Assembly for Ipswich from 30 May 1863 to 4 August 1866. He was elected in Town of Brisbane on 17 August 1870, he contributed to many acrimonious debates in 1871, which culminated in January 1871 in physical violence. On 10 January 1871, Pring interrupted the member for Clermont, Oscar de Satge. Clark complained about Pring's "extremely offensive and personal remarks in regard to the Member for Clermont" and proceeded to make insulting remarks about Pring. Pring called on the Speaker to rebuke Clark, which he did. Pring proposed that Clark exit parliament for five minutes to "settle all things", which the Speaker declared to be out of order. Pring responded by calling Clark "the dirty wretch"; the Speaker told Pring not to continue this behaviour.
Pring threatened to kick Clark, by which time the Legislative Assembly was in an uproar with the Speaker unable to restore order. Clark and Pring continued to trade insults. Pring rose as if to leave the Assembly, but, as he walked past Clark, he attacked Clark by grabbing his collar with one hand and tugged at Clark's beard with the other hand, yelling "Come outside and we will settle it"; the Sergeant-at-Arms went to Pring saying "I take you in charge". Pring responded "Do you? You will have to catch me first!" and raced out of the chamber, the Sergeant-at-Arms was unable to catch him. The Speaker issued a warrant for Pring's arrest for his contempt of Parliament 9, but did not sign it in order to allow Pring to end the matter by apologising, calling on Pring to attend the House on 16 January. However, Pring did not apologise but resigned the following day, evidently believing that would bring the matter to an end. However, on 22 January, the Speaker, in the absence of an apology from Pring, proceeded with the warrant and Pring was arrested in Dalby where Pring had gone on Court business.
However, the police did not know what action to take after arresting Pring as he could not be delivered to the Parliament, now in recess, so they ended up releasing him. Pring returned to Brisbane triumphant, where he addressed a crowd of sympathisers from the balcony of the Australian Hotel in Albert Street, promising that he would return to Parliament, he was elected in Carnarvon from 25 November 1873 to 2 January 1874. Following the retirement of Thomas Blacket Stephens due to illness, in May 1875 Pring stood for election for the South Brisbane seat in the Queensland Legislative Assembly, but was defeated by Richard Ash Kingsford. However, Pring was elected in Brisbane City from 12 February 1878 to 15 November 1878 and for Fortitude Valley from 26 November 1878 to 28 May 1879. In 1863 Pring was offered the position of first Chief Justice of Queensland, over the head of the Judge Alfred Lutwyche, but declined the post, Sir James Cockle was appointed. Pring died at his residence in Brisbane on Thursday 26 March 1885, after a 14-month illness, of cardiac asthma.
He was buried in Toowong Cemetery. He left his wife destitute. Ratcliffe Pring was a tenant of the now heritage-listed Newstead House in Brisbane
Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of St Michael and St George; the Order of St Michael and St George was awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, can be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs; the Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.
People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander, it is the traditional award for members of the FCO. The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi, its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael subduing Satan in battle; the Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse.
The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947. The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817, it was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean". In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
In 1965 the order was opened to women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967. The British Sovereign appoints all other members of the Order; the next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Grand Masters include: 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales 1910–1917: None 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of KentThe Order included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers; the Usher of the Order is known as the Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords. Prelate – The Rt. Rev. David Urquhart Chancellor – Rt Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary – Sir Simon McDonald Registrar – Sir David Manning King of Arms – Sir Jeremy Greenstock Lady Usher of the Blue Rod – Dame DeAnne Julius Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions, which vary by rank: The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star; the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold, it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately.
In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows. At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used: The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders, it is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and
Legislative Assembly of Queensland
The Legislative Assembly of Queensland is the sole chamber of the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Elections are held every four years. Voting is by the full-preferential voting form of the alternative vote system; the Assembly has 93 members, who have used the letters MP after their names since 2000. There is the same population in each electorate; the Assembly first sat in May 1860 and produced Australia's first Hansard in April 1864. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms; the Legislative Assembly was the lower house of a typical Westminster-style bicameral parliament. The upper house was the Legislative Council, its members appointed for life by the government of the day; the first sitting, in May 1860, was held in the old converted convict barracks in Queen Street.
It consisted of 26 members from 16 electorates, nearly half of whom were squatters. Early sessions dealt with issues of land, railways, public works, immigration and gold discoveries. In April 1864, Australia's first Hansard was produced, it was the second Hansard to be made in the Commonwealth, after Nova Scotia in 1855. That year saw member numbers increased to 32, by 1868—as more redistributions occurred—the number grew to 42. Members were not paid until 1886 excluding the working class from state politics; the Assembly was elected under the'first-past-the-post' system 1860 to 1892. From until 1942 an unusual form of preferential voting called the'contingent vote' was used; this was introduced by a conservative government to hinder the emerging Labor Party from gaining seats with minority support. In 1942 the plurality system was reintroduced; the Labor government in power had seen its vote decline in the 1940s and sought to divide the opposition. In 1962, it was replaced with full preferential voting, as the governing conservatives wanted to take advantage of a split in Labor.
In 1992, this was changed to the optional preferential system used. After 1912, electorates elected only a single member to the Assembly. In 1922, the Legislative Council was abolished, with the help of members known as the "suicide squad", who were specially appointed to vote the chamber out of existence; this left Queensland with a unicameral parliament—currently the only Australian state with this arrangement. From 1948 until the reforms following the end of the Bjelke-Petersen era, Queensland used an electoral zoning system, tweaked by the government of the day to maximise its own voter support at the expense of the opposition, it has been called a form of gerrymander, however it is more referred to as an electoral malapportionment. In a classic gerrymander, electoral boundaries are drawn to take advantage of known pockets of supporters and to isolate areas of opposition voters so as to maximise the number of seats for the government for a given number of votes and to cause opposition support to be "wasted" by concentrating their supporters in fewer electorates.
The Queensland "gerrymander", first introduced by the Labor Party government of Ned Hanlon in 1949 used a series of electoral zones based on their distance from Brisbane. Queensland was divided into three zones—the metropolitan zone, the provincial cities zone and the rural zone. While the number of electors in each seat in a zone was equal, there was considerable variation in the number of electors between zones, thus an electorate in the remote zone might have as few as 5,000 electors, while a seat in the metropolitan zone might have as many as 25,000. Using this system the Labor government was able to maximise its vote in its power base of the provincial city zone. With the split in the party in the late 1950s the ALP lost office and a conservative Coalition government led by the Country Party under Frank Nicklin came to power, which, as discussed above modified the voting system to introduce preferential voting, to take advantage of Labor's split, it separated the provincial cities from their hinterlands.
The hinterlands were added to the rural zone. As the divisions in the ALP abated in the early 1970s, tensions in the conservative coalition grew, the conservative government, now led by Joh Bjelke-Petersen, modified the zoning system to add a fourth zone—a remote zone, comprising seats with fewer electors, thus the conservative government was able to isolate Labor support in provincial cities and maximise its own rural power base. On average, the Country Party needed only 7,000 votes to win a seat, compared with 12,800 for a typical Labor seat; the entrenchment of a Coalition government was caused by socio-economic and demographic changes associated with mechanisation of farms and urbanisation which led to a drift of working class population from rural and remote electorates to the cities. By the late 1980s the decline in the political fortunes of the National Party, together with rapid growth in south east Queensland meant that the zonal system was no longer able to guarantee a conservative victory.
In addition, in 1988 the Federal Labor Government held four constitutional referendums—one of, for the adoption of fair electoral systems around
Great Eastern Railway
The Great Eastern Railway was a pre-grouping British railway company, whose main line linked London Liverpool Street to Norwich and which had other lines through East Anglia. The company was grouped into the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923. Formed in 1862 after the amalgamation of the Eastern Counties Railway and several other smaller railway companies the GER served Cambridge, Colchester, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn, Norwich, Southend-on-Sea, East Anglian seaside resorts such as Hunstanton and Cromer, it served a suburban area, including Enfield, Chingford and Ilford. This suburban network was, in the early 20th century, the busiest steam-hauled commuter system in the world; the majority of the Great Eastern's locomotives and rolling stock were built at Stratford Works, part of, on the site of today's Stratford International station and the rest was adjacent to Stratford Regional station. The GER owned 1,200 miles of line and had a near-monopoly in East Anglia until the opening of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway in 1893 although there were a number of minor lines, such as the Mid-Suffolk Light Railway that stayed resolutely independent until after the grouping in 1923.
Between 1851 and 1854 the Eastern Counties Railway under the chairmanship of David Waddington had negotiated arrangements to work most of the other railways in East Anglia resulting in a network of lines totalling 565 miles. Whilst Parliament favoured competition it was aware that the ECR was at war with its neighbours and whilst these working arrangements were approved there was a condition that a bill for full amalgamation was presented by 1861. Waddington was replaced by Horatio Love. By 1860 many shareholders were unhappy listing several grievances they saw as getting in the way of their dividend payments; these included continual conflict over working of other lines and distrust of the joint committee, inadequate services to and from London, on-going litigation and law costs and a lack of progress on amalgamation. By February 1862 the bill had its second reading and was followed by a lengthy committee process where various parties petitioned against the bill. On 7 August 1862 the bill passed and the Great Eastern Railway was formed by the amalgamation of the Eastern Counties Railway and a number of smaller railways.
Unsurprisingly the first GER board had a strong Eastern Counties flavour with Horatio Love in the chair and James Goodson the deputy chair. The board consisted of six former ECR directors with two Eastern Union Railway, two Norfolk Railway and one each from the Northern and Eastern Railway and East Anglian Railway. Operational costs were high on new sources of revenue needed quickly. Work at improving suburban services was put in hand and trains from London to Norwich speeded up to give businessmen and merchants more time to conduct their business. A new suburban line to Enfield Town via Seven Sisters was proposed as well as a new London terminus to replace an inadequate Bishopsgate. By August 1863 receipts were increasing and many of the pre-amalgamation disputes were being settled; the GER and Great Northern Railway each submitted bills for a line from March to Spalding and although the GNR was successful the GER was awarded running rights over the new line which would become part of the Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint Railway.
Steamboat services were seen as a new source of revenue with services running from Harwich to Rotterdam and Antwerp. A change of leadership occurred with Horatio Love being replaced by James Goodson as Chairman with Captain Henry Jervis-White-Jervis as his deputy. Love was considered too cautious and some on the board still resented his role prior to amalgamation at the ECR. Various directors were allocated specific responsibilities leaving Goodson free to develop new schemes and represent the GER on lines where they had a financial interest. Following an accident at North Wootton in early August 1863, where the deaths of five passengers was attributed to the poor state of the rolling stock, a large rolling stock order was placed. By December 1863 the financial picture was looking better and in early 1864 the GER started looking a new railway to move coal from South Yorkshire to London via Spalding and the GN link from Spalding to March; the Great Eastern was in an expansionist phase with further locomotives and wagons under construction.
More ships were being ordered for Antwerp and Rotterdam traffic and proposals for 28 miles of new metropolitan lines and a new city terminus. In March 1864, a joint committee of the House of Commons and House of Lords approved the East London Line which would link the North London, Great Eastern and London and Blackwall railways; the parliamentary bill for the new freight line failed although other bills including the construction of a new London terminus were approved. That year the GER was in talks about expansion northwards with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway which lead to the deposition of a bill in early 1865; the board meeting of February 1865 saw passenger receipts outstripping goods receipts. Fish traffic from Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth was growing and money was being spent on stations, replacing wooden bridges and upgrading the track. However, a number of shareholders voiced concern; the following month the House of Commons rejected the joint GER/L&YR bill forcing the GER to re-start negotiations with the Great Norther
Ickleton is a village and civil parish about 9 miles south of Cambridge in Cambridgeshire, England. The village is beside the River Cam, close to where a southern branch of the Icknield Way crossed the river; the eastern and southern boundaries of the parish form part of the county boundary with Essex, the Essex town of Saffron Walden is only about 4.5 miles southeast of the village. The village is grouped around three streets: Abbey Street, Frogge Street, Church Street, which leads into Brookhampton Street; the village is at the eastern end of its parish. A Neolithic axe-head has been found in the parish, suggesting a human presence before 2500 BC. About 1.5 miles southwest of the village near Valance Farm is a late Bronze Age bowl barrow, close to the supposed route of the pre-Roman Icknield Way. The barrow and its surrounding ditch are well-preserved, about 80 feet in diameter and 3 to 4 feet high. Other Bronze Age remains found in the parish include a gold bracelet and a torq. South of the village on the side of Coploe Hill is a series of earth banks that may be Bronze Age.
They start about 1,200 yards south of the village and extend 0.5 miles south, as far as the Essex county boundary. About 700 yards south of the parish church, just west of Frogge Street, is the site of a Roman villa; the site is just across the River Cam from the site of a Roman fort at Great Chesterford. The villa was of modest size, it had an outhouse or barn; the site was excavated in 1842. About 0.5 miles north of the village, just over the boundary in Duxford parish, is the site of a Romano-British settlement. There are records of continuous Anglo-Saxon settlement at Ickleton for at least 1,000 years, its toponym is derived from Old English, meaning "Icel's farm" or "estate associated with a man named Icel". In the late 10th or early 11th century Elfhelm of Wratting, a thegn of King Edgar the Peaceful, left one hide of land at Icelingtune to his kinsman called Elfhelm. In the reign of Edward the Confessor in the middle of the 11th century, 20 hides of land were being farmed in the parish. Squitrebil held 191⁄2 of them from the King, Estred held the other 1⁄2 hide from Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia.
After the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 most English estates were taken from their owners and granted to Norman barons. In 1067 William the Conqueror granted the manor of Hichelintone to Eustace II, Count of Boulogne, making Ickleton part of the Honour of Boulogne; the Domesday Book of 1086 records 43 tenants in the parish,In 1125 Stephen of Blois and Eustace II's granddaughter, Matilda of Boulogne, were married, making Stephen Count of Boulogne jure uxoris. In 1135 Stephen became King of England and in 1141 he granted Ickleton to Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1st Earl of Essex. However, Mandeville became an outlaw in 1143 and was killed in 1144, Ickleton seems to have reverted to the Crown. In about 1150 Stephen and Maud granted Ickleton to Eupheme, second wife of Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford, as a wedding present. In about 1153 Eupheme granted £5 worth of land at Ickleton to Colne Priory. By the end of that year Eupheme had died and the rest of Ickleton seems to have reverted to the Honour of Boulogne.
When William I, Count of Boulogne died in 1159, King Henry II took possession of the Honour. There was a number of smaller manors in the parish. By 1162 the hospital at Montmorillon in Poitou, France held an estate at Ickleton; the steward of William I, Count of Boulogne had granted the land, the Hundred Rolls of 1279 recorded that it covered about 100 acres and was tenanted by one Thomas the deacon. In 1300 Montmorillon hospital conveyed the estate to 2nd Earl of Pembroke. In 1305 Thomas relinquished his tenancy, the Earl granted the estate to a Sir John Wollaston for the rest of the latter's life; when the Earl died in 1324 he left the estate to his granddaughter Elizabeth de Comyn, but it continued to be called the Valence manor. Elizabeth and her husband Richard Talbot, 2nd Baron Talbot sold the manor in 1332 and it changed hands again in 1333, 1334 and 1344. In 1344 Valence manor was bought jointly by John Illegh, rector of Icklingham and Thomas Keningham, a fellow of Michaelhouse, Cambridge.
In 1345 Illegh made over his share of the estate to Michaelhouse. In 1546 during the Reformation Michaelhouse was dissolved by Act of Parliament, along with King's Hall and the two were merged to form Trinity College, Cambridge; the Valence manor was granted to the new college, in 1612 it was expanded to 307 acres. When Ickleton parish was inclosed in 1814 Trinity College was allotted 243 acres, named Vallance Farm, it increased this to 340 acres by 1946. There was a Valence manor house by 1324, there are subsequent records of it in 1461 and 1508, it may have been the same as the Valence manor house recorded in 1612, 1685 and 1726 on the south side of Mill Lane. It was a substantial house with six rooms on two solars upstairs; the present Vallance farm in Grange Road has a brick farmhouse built in about 1825 for Trinity College's tenant. By 1183 Ralph Brito held land at Ickleton of the Honour of Boulogne. By 1221 it had passed by marriage to Robert Hovel, whose bride was the daughter of Ralph's heir Thomas Brito.
In 1222 a William Brito released a carucate of land to Hovel. The small estate came to be called Hovells Manor. In 1253 Ralph Hovel confirmed a grant of 140 acres of land Hovells Manor at Ickleton, to the Cistercian Tilty Abbey in Essex. Tilty Abbey held Hovells Manor by 1279, when the Hundred Rolls recorded that it covered 190 acres (77
Board of Trade
The Board of Trade is a British government department concerned with commerce and industry within the Department for International Trade. Its full title is The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations, but is known as the Board of Trade, known as the Lords of Trade and Plantations or Lords of Trade, it has been a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom; the Board has gone through several evolutions, beginning with extensive involvement in colonial matters in the 17th Century, to powerful regulatory functions in the Victorian Era, to being dormant in the last third of 20th century. In 2017, it was revitalized as an advisory board headed by the International Trade Secretary who has nominally held the title of President of the Board of Trade, who at present is the only privy counsellor of the Board, the other members of the present Board filling roles as advisers; the board was first established as a temporary committee of England's Privy Council to advise on colonial questions in the early 17th century, when these settlements were forming.
The Board would evolve into a government department with considerable power and a diverse range of functions, including regulation of domestic and foreign commerce, the development and interpretation of the Acts of Trade and Navigation, the review and acceptance of legislation passed in the colonies. Between 1696 and 1782 the Board of Trade, in partnership with the various secretaries of state over that time, held responsibility for colonial affairs in British America; the newly created office of Home Secretary held colonial responsibility until 1801, when the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was established. Between 1768 and 1782 while with the Secretary of State for the Colonies, whose secretaryship was held jointly with the presidency of the Board of Trade, the latter position remained vacant. Following the loss of the American War of Independence, both the board and the short-lived secretaryship were dismissed by the king on 2 May 1782 and the board was abolished by the Civil List and Secret Service Money Act 1782.
Following the Treaty of Paris 1783, with the continuing need to regulate trade between its remaining colonies, the independent United States and all other countries, a new Committee of Council on Trade and Plantations was established by William Pitt the Younger. Mandated by an order in Council on 5 March 1784, the committee was reconstructed and strengthened by a second order, on 23 August 1786, under which it operated for the rest of its existence; the committee has been known as the Board of Trade since 1786, but this name was only adopted by an act of 1861. The new Board's first functions were consultative like earlier iterations, its concern with plantations, in matters such as the approval of colonial laws, more accomplished; as the industrial revolution expanded, the board's work became executive and domestic and from the 1840s a succession of acts of parliament gave it regulatory duties, notably concerning railways, merchant shipping, joint stock companies. This department was merged with the Ministry of Technology in 1970, to form the Department of Trade and Industry.
The Secretary of State for Trade and Industry was President of the Board of Trade. The full Board has met only once since the mid-20th century, during commemorations of the bicentenary of the Board in 1986. In 2016, the role of President of the Board of Trade was transferred to the Secretary of State for International Trade; the Board was reconstituted in October 2017. In 1622, at the end of the Dutch Twelve Years' Truce, King James I directed the Privy Council of England to establish a temporary committee to investigate the causes of various economic and supply problems, the decline in trade and consequent financial difficulties; this would be followed by a number of temporary committees and councils to regulate the colonies and their commerce. The Board's formal title remains "The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations". In 1634, Charles I appointed a new commission for regulating plantations, it was headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury with its primary goals to increase royal authority and the influence of the Church of England in the colonies with the great influx of Puritans to the New World.
Soon after however, the English Civil Wars erupted and initiated a long period of political instability in England and the resultant loss of productivity for these committees. Between 1643 and 1648 the Long Parliament would establish a parliamentary Commission for Plantations to take the lead in colonial and commercial affairs; this period saw the first regulation of Royal tonnage and poundage and begin the modernization of customs and excise as growing sources of government revenue. During the Interregnum and Commonwealth three acts of the Rump Parliament in 1650 and 1651 are notable in the historical development of England's commercial and colonial programs; these include the first Commission of Trade to be established by an Act of Parliament on 1 August 1650. The instructions to the named commissioners, headed by Henry Vane the Younger, included consideration of both domestic a