Robert Hofstadter was an American physicist. He was the joint winner of the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his consequent discoveries concerning the structure of nucleons". Hofstadter was born into a Jewish family in New York City on February 5, 1915, to Polish immigrants, Louis Hofstadter, a salesman, née Henrietta Koenigsberg, he attended elementary and high schools in New York City and entered City College of New York, graduating with a B. S. degree magna cum laude in 1935 at the age of 20, was awarded the Kenyon Prize in Mathematics and Physics. He received a Charles A. Coffin Foundation Fellowship from the General Electric Company, which enabled him to attend graduate school at Princeton University, where he earned his M. S. and Ph. D. degrees at the age of 23. He did his post-doctoral research at the University of Pennsylvania and was an assistant professor at Princeton before joining Stanford University. Hofstadter taught at Stanford from 1950 to 1985.
In 1942 he married a native of Baltimore. They had three children: Laura and Pulitzer Prize-winner Douglas Hofstadter. In 1948 Hofstadter filed a patent on this for the detection of ionizing radiation by this crystal; these detectors are used for gamma ray detection to this day. Robert Hofstadter coined the term fermi, symbol fm, in honor of the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, one of the founders of nuclear physics, in Hofstadter's 1956 paper published in the Reviews of Modern Physics journal, "Electron Scattering and Nuclear Structure"; the term is used by nuclear and particle physicists. When Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics, it subsequently appears in the text of his 1961 Nobel Lecture, "The electron-scattering method and its application to the structure of nuclei and nucleons". In his last few years, Hofstadter became interested in astrophysics and applied his knowledge of scintillators to the design of the EGRET gamma-ray telescope of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory named for fellow Nobel Laureate in Physics, Arthur Holly Compton.
Stanford University's Department of Physics credits Hofstadter with being "one of the principal scientists who developed the Compton Observatory." 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics, joint winner with Rudolf Mössbauer, "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his consequent discoveries concerning the structure of nucleons." Stanford University has an annual lecture series named after Hofstadter, the Robert Hofstadter Memorial Lectures, which consists of two lectures each year, one oriented toward the general public and the other oriented toward scientists. Fermi The Big Bang Theory popular TV sitcom named one of its main characters, Leonard Hofstadter, after Hofstadter. Hofstadter, Robert, "The electron-scattering method and its application to the structure of nuclei and nucleons", Nobel Lecture Hofstadter, Robert, "Robert Hofstadter's speech at the Nobel Banquet", The Nobel Foundation, December 10, 1961. Technical reports: Hofstadter, R. "Detection of Neutrons with Scintillation Counters", Brookhaven National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy.
Hahn, B. Ravenhall, D. G. and R. Hofstadter. "High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei," Stanford University, United States Department of Energy, Office of Naval Research and United States Air Force. Chambers, E. E. and R. Hofstadter. "The Structure of the Proton", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy, Office of Naval Research and United States Air Force. Hofstadter, R. "Structure in the Proton and the Neutron", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy. Collard, H. Hofstadter, R. Hughes, E. B. Johansson, A. Yearian, M. R. Day, R. B. and R. T. Wagner. "Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Office of Naval Research, Air Force Research Laboratory. Hofstadter, R. "K-edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays: Final Technical Report,", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy. Robert Hofstadter Memorial Lectures, annually presented at the Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences, Department of Physics and as of March 2011 listed under individual years' calendars in the Department's official pages at the Stanford University website National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
The South East Dorset conurbation is a multi-centred conurbation on the south coast of Dorset in England. The area is becoming an amalgamation with the area of South West Hampshire on the fringe of the newly formed New Forest National Park; the main population centres are Bournemouth and Poole. There are a number of satellite towns peripheral to these main urban centres. In clockwise rotation these include: Wareham, Wimborne, Ferndown and Ringwood; the urban area is surrounded by a green belt. The 2011 census gave a population of 466,626 for the conurbation defined by the Office for National Statistics as the Bournemouth/Poole Built-up Area, divided it into six main parts: Bournemouth, Wimborne Minster, New Milton, Poole; the population of the conurbation increased between the 2001 and 2011 censuses because Ferndown and Wimborne Minster became part of it. The population for the conurbation according to the 2001 and 1991 censuses was 383,713 and 358,321, respectively; the South West England Regional Development Agency and the Highways Agency, which maintain's England's trunk roads, defined a South East Dorset Conurbation, with over 400,000 people.
The term has been applied to the Poole and Christchurch boroughs, excluding the surrounding towns, for example, in their recent Joint Local Transport Plan. The conurbation is the largest urban area in Britain with no part having city status. There are a number of nearby towns and villages that are only separated from the conurbation by narrow gaps; these include Bransgore Corfe Mullen Lytchett Matravers Lymington Milford on Sea Ringwood St Ives St Leonards Verwood West Moors The conurbation is served by a number of main roads. The M27 motorway, which feeds the M3 to London, ends on the eastern edge of the New Forest near Southampton, but extends west as the A31 trunk road; the A31 serves as a bypass for the conurbation, north of Poole and Bournemouth but south of many of the satellite towns, is dual carriageway for most of its length. To the west the A31 merges with the A35 at Bere Regis where they continue west to Dorchester and Exeter; the A35 runs through the centres of the main towns in the conurbation.
The A338 is the main arterial route in Bournemouth, running as a dual carriageway from Bournemouth town centre to the A31, as a single carriageway north to Salisbury. The A350 is Poole town centre's main artery, running north along Holes Bay to the A35, as a single carriageway to Bath and Bristol; the A337 runs east to the New Forest. The conurbation is served by the South Western Main Line which runs from London to Weymouth via Winchester and Dorchester. There are stations at New Milton, Hinton Admiral, Pokesdown, Branksome, Poole and Holton Heath; the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway to Bath had its southern terminus here, until its closure under the Beeching Axe. The Port of Poole has regular ro-ro ferry connections to Cherbourg and Santander, high-speed car ferries to the Channel Islands, Cherbourg and St. Malo and a regular all-freight service to the Channel Islands. Bournemouth Airport lies 5 miles north of the town centre; the airport undertook a £45 million redevelopment and serves over 50 destinations worldwide.
The Bournemouth Airport Shuttle Bus serves the airport from Bournemouth Square. Bournemouth and Poole
Radio Bergeijk is a Dutch satirical radio programme of which Peer van Eersel and Toon Spoorenberg are the anchormen. They are played by the comedians George van Houts and Pieter Bouwman respectively; the first episode was broadcast on April 3, 2001 from 00:44 AM to 01:00 AM. From on, a new episode could be heard every weekday. In January 2004 the programming of the Dutch radio changed and Radio Bergeijk was forced to broadcast just every Saturday from 13:30 to 14:00 on Radio 1. Radio Bergeijk handles controversial subjects arising in Dutch society. Examples of the most popular subjects of the programme are the national immigration policy, health care, the elderly, the society which seems to get less and less tolerant and World War II. One could see the town of Bergeijk as a small country: everything which happens in the world seems to happen in Bergeijk. Radio Bergeijk has elements of black humour, such as unfair behaviour of the anchormen, foul language and the abuse of minority groups. For instance, guests with a charitable initiative get abused by the anchormen during an interview which results in a fight.
A second example is that the town of Bergeijk always seems to be in conflict with neighbouring towns, which sometimes results in a true battle. The programme has several recurrent elements, such as local news, sports news, industrial news, interviews with politicians, live coverage on remarkable events and many more; these elements of the programme seem to have strict rules. This gives the listener a grip on the presentation style so that he can focus on the content of the programme. Sometimes, this presentation style is dropped and a major event happens live: the army of Bergeijk is sent to Bosnia and practices in Bergeijk for experience, the anchormen are mixed up in a fiery argument and one threatens to commit suicide, a group of women violently rob every man in the city, the anchormen die and are sent to the heavenly gate where they meet God, et cetera; every episode has short-term items medium-term items and long-term items which last several episodes. Peer van Eersel and Toon Spoorenberg are two divorced, old-fashioned, middle-aged men who illegally live on disability insurance benefit and voluntarily work as radio producers.
They suffer from midlife crisis and hark back to the good old days as they cannot keep up with modern developments. They have a determined, selfish, old-fashioned and short-sighted view on the subjects they discuss, always taking the opposite stand, their popularity in the town is nil, but they fulfil their "duty". Ted van Lieshout is the technician who takes care of the equipment. Although he can never be heard on the programme, he plays an important role in the show; the anchormen have brief conversations with him, but only by microphone and headphone, so the listener never hears his voice. Tedje is the one; the broadcast always gives an awkward impression, because Tedje forgets to close the microphone and the listeners can hear private conversations between Peer and Toon. This is not noticed by Peer and Toon, but when it is, it results in an embarrassing situation. Beeks. Owner of the favourite bar of Peer and Toon, he is shy but always popular with the anchormen, because he supplies the drinks.
Peer and Toon always have a great debt with this man. Theo van Deursen. Citizen of Bergeijk, he always has great initiatives. He is a regular guest at the programme. Von Hunstädt. A German veteran. Popular with the anchormen. Bets van Loon; the cleaning lady. She always leaves a strange message on the answering machine. Et cetera; the programme has tens of developed and different characters which return on a regular basis. Bergeijk is a town in the southern part of the Netherlands, close to the border of Belgium; the entire content of the programme is fictitious, but based on real events and people. Actual details such as street names, local stores and characteristics of the surrounding area of Bergeijk are used as an inspiration for the radio programme, but on a larger scale, the actual subjects are based on international events. The radio show was adapted into a celebrity comics comic strip series by Jeroen de Leijer. Radio Bergeijk George van Houts Pieter Bouwman