Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS was an English natural philosopher and polymath. As a young adult, he was a financially impoverished scientific inquirer, but came into wealth and good reputation following his actions as Surveyor to the City of London after the great fire of 1666. At that time, he was the curator of experiments of the Royal Society, a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry, he was an important architect of his time—though few of his buildings now survive and some of those are misattributed—and was instrumental in devising a set of planning controls for London, the influence of which remains today. Allan Chapman has characterised him as "England's Leonardo". Hooke studied at Wadham College, during the Protectorate where he became one of a knit group of ardent Royalists led by John Wilkins. Here he was employed as an assistant to Thomas Willis and to Robert Boyle, for whom he built the vacuum pumps used in Boyle's gas law experiments, conducted the experiments themselves, he observed the rotations of Mars and Jupiter.

In 1665 he inspired the use of microscopes for scientific exploration with Micrographia. Based on his microscopic observations of fossils, Hooke was an early proponent of biological evolution, he investigated the phenomenon of refraction, deducing the wave theory of light, was the first to suggest that matter expands when heated and that air is made of small particles separated by large distances. He proposed, he performed pioneering work in the field of surveying and map-making and was involved in the work that led to the first modern plan-form map, though his plan for London on a grid system was rejected in favour of rebuilding along the existing routes. He came near to an experimental proof that gravity follows an inverse square law, first hypothesised that such a relation governs the motions of the planets, an idea, developed by Isaac Newton, formed part of a dispute between the two which caused Newton to try to erase Hooke's legacy, he originated the terraqueous globe theory of geology, disputed the literal Biblical account of the age of the Earth, hypothesised the idea of extinction, wrote numerous times of the likelihood that fossils on hill and mountain tops had been raised there by "earthquakes", a general term of the time for geological processes.

Much of Hooke's scientific work was conducted in his capacity as curator of experiments of the Royal Society, a post he held from 1662, or as part of the household of Robert Boyle. In life, Hooke became party to jealous intellectual disputes, which may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity outside of his association with Newton in particular. Much of what is known of Hooke's early life comes from an autobiography that he commenced in 1696 but never completed. Richard Waller mentions it in his introduction to The Posthumous Works of Robert Hooke, M. D. S. R. S. Printed in 1705. In the chapter Of Dr. Dee's Book of Spirits, Hooke argues that John Dee made use of Trithemian steganography, to conceal his communication with Queen Elizabeth I; the work of Waller, along with John Ward's Lives of the Gresham Professors and John Aubrey's Brief Lives, form the major near-contemporaneous biographical accounts of Hooke. Robert Hooke was born in 1635 in Freshwater on the Isle of Wight to Cecily Gyles.

Robert was the last of four children, two boys and two girls, there was an age difference of seven years between him and the next youngest. Their father John was a Church of England priest, the curate of Freshwater's Church of All Saints, his two brothers were ministers. Robert Hooke was expected to join the Church. John Hooke was in charge of a local school, so was able to teach Robert, at least at home due to the boy's frail health, he was a Royalist and certainly a member of a group who went to pay their respects to Charles I when he escaped to the Isle of Wight. Robert, grew up to be a staunch monarchist; as a youth, Robert Hooke was fascinated by observation, mechanical works, drawing, interests that he would pursue in various ways throughout his life. He dismantled a brass clock and built a wooden replica that, by all accounts, worked "well enough", he learned to draw, making his own materials from coal and ruddle. On his father's death in 1648, Robert was left a sum of forty pounds that enabled him to buy an apprenticeship.

Hooke was an apt student, so although he went to London to take up an apprenticeship, studied with Samuel Cowper and Peter Lely, he was soon able to enter Westminster School in London, under Dr. Richard Busby. Hooke mastered Latin and Greek, made some study of Hebrew, mastered Euclid's Elements. Here, too, he embarked on his lifelong study of mechanics, it appears that Hooke was one of a group of students whom Busby educated in parallel to the main work of the school. Contemporary accounts say he was "not much seen" in the school, this appears to be true of others in a similar position. Busby, an ardent and outspoken Royalist, was by all accounts trying to preserve the nascent spirit of scientific inquiry th

List of birds of North America (Galliformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Galliformes, are native to North America. Order: Galliformes Family: Cracidae The chachalacas and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae; these are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats, they are dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colorful facial ornaments. Black guan, Chamaepetes unicolor NT Crested guan, Penelope purpurascens LC Gray-headed chachalaca, Ortalis cinereiceps LC Great curassow, Crax rubra VU Highland guan, Penelopina nigra VU Horned guan, Oreophasis derbianus EN E Plain chachalaca, Ortalis vetula LC Rufous-bellied chachalaca, Ortalis wagleri LC Rufous-vented chachalaca, Ortalis ruficauda LC Trinidad piping guan, Pipile pipile CR West Mexican chachalaca, Ortalis poliocephala LC White-bellied chachalaca, Ortalis leucogastra LC Order: Galliformes Family: Numididae Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris LC Order: Galliformes Family: Odontophoridae The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.

Banded quail, Philortyx fasciatus LC Bearded wood partridge, Dendrortyx barbatus VU Black-breasted wood quail, Odontophorus leucolaemus LC Black-eared wood quail, Odontophorus melanotis LC Black-throated bobwhite, Colinus nigrogularis LC Buffy-crowned wood partridge, Dendrortyx leucophrys LC California quail, Callipepla californica LC Crested bobwhite, Colinus cristatus LC Elegant quail, Callipepla douglasii LC Gambel's quail, Callipepla gambelii LC Long-tailed wood partridge, Dendrortyx macroura LC Marbled wood quail, Odontophorus gujanensis NT Montezuma quail, Cyrtonyx montezumae LC Mountain quail, Oreortyx pictus LC Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus NT Ocellated quail, Cyrtonyx ocellatus VU Scaled quail, Callipepla squamata LC Singing quail, Dactylortyx thoracicus LC Spotted wood quail, Odontophorus guttatus LC Tacarcuna wood quail, Odontophorus dialeucos VU Tawny-faced quail, Rhynchortyx cinctus LC Order: Galliformes Family: Phasianidae Phasianidae consists of the pheasants and their allies.

These are terrestrial species, variable in size but plump with broad short wings. Many species have been domesticated as a food source for humans. Chukar, Alectoris chukar LC Common peafowl, Pavo cristatus LC Dusky grouse, Dendragapus obscurus LC Gray partridge, Perdix perdix LC Greater prairie chicken, Tympanuchus cupido VU Greater sage-grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus NT Gunnison sage-grouse, Centrocercus minimus EN Himalayan snowcock, Tetraogallus himalayensis LC Lesser prairie chicken, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus VU Ocellated turkey, Meleagris ocellata NT Ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus LC Rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta LC Ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbellus LC Sharp-tailed grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus LC Sooty grouse, Dendragapus *fuliginosus LC Spruce grouse, Falcipennis canadensis LC White-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucura LC Wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo LC Willow ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus LC

Piano Trio (Clara Schumann)

Written in 1846, the Piano Trio in G minor, opus 17 by Clara Schumann was her only piano trio and was composed during her stay in Dresden 1845-1846. During the development of the Trio, she was going through hardships in life, her husband Robert Schumann was ill. This trio was completed during the summer of 1846 when they traveled to Norderney in attempts to improve Robert's health conditions. While in Norderney, Clara suffered from miscarriage. A year after the composition of her piano trio, Robert composed his first piano trio, op.63. It is seen that Clara's trio has had great influences on Robert's trio as they both share many interesting similarities, their works were paired at concerts. Clara Schumann's compositions include 30 Lieder, choral music, solo piano pieces, 1 piano concerto and orchestral works; the Piano Trio has been called "probably" the "masterpiece" among her compositions. The work, written for a piano trio comprising piano and cello, was her first attempt at writing music for instruments other than the voice and piano.

The composition is in four movements: Allegro moderato in G minor, in common time with a tempo of 152 crotchets to the minute. Scherzo and Trio in B-flat major and E-flat major, respectively; the Scherzo has a tempo of 160 crotchets to the minute. The Trio is in 3/4 time and shows no change in tempo from the Scherzo. Andante in G major, in 6/8 time and 112 quavers to the minute. Allegretto in G minor, in 2/4 time and 96 crotchets to the minute; the overall key of this movement is G Minor, with a lot modulation both to closer and more distant keys. The structure of the movement is Sonata form, with a Codetta and a Coda, it is in Allegro moderato. It relies on chromaticism to attract the audience. Throughout the movement, each instrument has its own soloist moment on top of an exceptional balance between three instruments; this balance makes it clear that Clara had a great understanding of writing for these three instruments although she was a pianist. The 2nd movement consists of three sections; the Scherzo is in B-flat major, the same key as the relative major of the first movement, it instructed to be played in the "Tempo di minuetto" which means slow and playful.

The melody is played by the violin, while the cello accompanies the melody through pizzicato as the piano plays chords. These contrasts between the cello and piano create the mood of the "Tempo di minuetto". After Scherzo, a contrasting section, appears, it is more lyrical than Scherzo. However, the overall mood of the piece is still playful. At last, it goes back to Scherzo to finish the movement; the 3rd movement, begins with 8 measures of a piano solo. Soon after, the violin takes over the lovely theme. In the middle of movement all three parts play dotted rhythms, which contribute to the contrast of the emotion of the piece; the piece could be described as "bittersweet". The last movement, Allegretto, is in Sonata form again; the opening is similar to the opening theme of the first movement, which resembles "dramatic intensity". The first movement of the trio was chosen by exam board Pearson Edexcel to feature as one of the new A-level music set works, with first examination taking place in 2018.

It is one of three works in the'Instrumental Music' area of study, the others being Vivaldi's Concerto in D Minor op.3, the first movement of Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique. List of compositions by Clara Schumann Piano Trio in G minor: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Clara Schumann: Trio Für Violine, Cello Und Klavier Op. 17 - I - Allegro moderato on YouTube Clara Schumann: Piano Trio in G minor on YouTube Performed by the Galos Piano Trio at St. Martin in the Fields 26 May 2015. Clara Schumann: Piano Trio in G minor - LSO Discovery A-level Seminar 2016 on YouTube