click links in text for more info

Community Service Foundation

The Community Service Foundation, founded in 1957 in Harbor Bluffs, Florida is now headquartered in Clearwater, Florida. Its goal is to provide help on a local level to poor residents of Pinellas County, it started as a funded organization and has evolved into a regionally funded effort. CSF's first project, in 1962, was a center in Ridgecrest, Florida for pre-teen children as an educational and recreational outlet; the Foundation and the Friends of Ridgecrest, from three adjoining communities, created a core lending library at the center, with an emphasis on books relevant to the community's culture - for example "Singing Heart", a small book about Marian Anderson written by Lenore Spivey. The community center still serves the area's residents 50 years later. CSF participated in President Lyndon B. Johnson's "VISTA" program, Volunteers in Service to America, training VISTA volunteers at a former migrant labor camp north of Bradenton in 1966; the Foundation now focuses on affordable housing for low-income Pinellas County residents.

CSF was created in October 1957 by his wife Lenore. Before her death and his first wife Dorothy, a Quaker, sponsored the Community Workshop Association in Wallinngford, Pennsylvania in the early 1950s. Spivey was the founder and CEO of The Spivey Company in Philadelphia, manufacturer of material handling systems. Born in Greenville, Georgia, he died in 1971 at age 84. Executive Directors at CSF have included Thomas P. "Pat" Hardeman, Charles Mann for 31 years, Jerry Spilatro for 19 years, current ED Perry Bean. Tampa Bay Newspapers, September 27, 2006. Golf Calendar - Tournament to benefit Community Service Foundation Community Service Foundation Official site

Aeroflot Flight 3352

Aeroflot Flight 3352 was a Tupolev Tu-154 airline flight on a domestic route from Krasnodar to Novosibirsk, with an intermediate landing in Omsk. While landing at Omsk Airport on Thursday, 11 October 1984, the aircraft crashed into maintenance vehicles on the runway, killing 174 people on board and 4 on the ground. While a chain of mistakes in airport operations contributed to the accident, its major cause was an air traffic controller falling asleep on duty; as of 2019, this remains the deadliest aviation accident on Russian territory. At 5:00 am local time, Flight 3352 was preparing to land at Tsentralny Airport in Omsk, a key Russian city in southwestern Siberia, which has a population of over 1 million and is the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. At the time, this was the only aircraft approaching Omsk, it was cleared for landing when it contacted the airport. At 5:20 am, worried that the continuing rain would make the runway overly slippery, the airport ground maintenance crew requested permission to dry the runway.

The ground controller on duty gave permission and proceeded to fall asleep soon after, in the process forgetting to switch on the "runway occupied" warning. Under airport regulations, this procedure should never have happened; the maintenance crew, following the airport's routine, moved three vehicles to the runway: a UAZ-469 all-terrain vehicle with an attached trailer, operated by a driver and crew manager in front. The latter were equipped with dry air compressors and loaded with fuel, weighed 16–20 tons; the drying detail proceeded to violate their own safety rules while performing their tasks: all of their vehicles should have their top, flickering lights on continuously. However, the lights were too bright for the maintenance workers' liking, so they kept them lit only until they started and after they finished their work; this intentional oversight was to play a part in the pilots being unable to see the vehicles on the runway. In contrast, the runway crew saw the Tu-154 coming at them from a good distance, its landing lights on.

They did attempt to contact ground control three times about the lights, but received no response and so ignored them, thinking they were being tested by a plane not on final approach. Around 5:36 am, Flight 3352 requested permission to land from the approach controller; the request was sent twice. The controller verified the runway status, which remained unoccupied contacted the ground controller and received no response, subsequently contacted the flight controller on internal radio and received an inaudible reply that sounded like "..ree" and was taken as "free". The approach controller cleared the landing, though unable to see the runway, in spite of regulations that required him to keep the flight in the air and double check the runway's status. Both the ground controller and secondary controller should have been able to see the runway, but the former was asleep, the latter was absent due to staff shortages. At 5:38 am, the flight passed the lowest height; the aircraft landed at a normal 240 km/h.

On touchdown, the flight crew saw the array of drying vehicles and attempted to turn the aircraft, but were unable to avoid the collision. The plane crashed into the Ural truck and 200 metres down the runway crashed into the KrAZ, igniting the 7 tons of fuel in each truck and the aircraft's fuel tank; the plane overturned and broke into pieces, some of which crashed into the UAZ-469. A catastrophic fracture of the fuel tanks caused burning fuel to leak into the fuselage, incinerating all but one passenger; the cockpit section flew past the burning vehicles. It suffered no major damage, all four crew members survived, suffering only minor injuries, they ran to the crash site in an attempt to help the passengers. Four ground maintenance crew were killed inside the vehicles. One survivor in the passenger seat of the UAZ caught on fire, extinguished. A state investigation concluded that the accident was caused by a chain of mistakes owing to the negligence of air traffic controllers, as well as disobedience of basic airport maintenance and safety regulations.

The ground controller was found directly responsible, as he fell asleep on the job and thus did not respond to emergency queries. At a hearing he could not recollect his actions during the time in question, but did not deny the charges, he was committed suicide in prison. In addition, the flight operations manager was sentenced to 15 years in prison, the approach controller to 13 years, the head of airport maintenance to 12 years. All three appealed their sentences, to no avail. Future inspections at numerous other Soviet airports found similar types and numbers of violations of safety regulations, resulting in the firing of several high-level officials thereafter. No pilot error or aircraft deficiency was found; the plane's weight and balance were within its defined norms. Owing to poor visibility, the crew could not detect the obstructions on the runway. While they did have some reasonable doubts as to whether or not the runway was occupied, these were allayed by the approach controller's reassurances.

The crew had only a few seconds to avoid the collision on the ground.

Teri Kasam

Teri Kasam: is a 1982 Indian Bollywood movie directed by A. C. Tirulokchandar and starring Kumar Gaurav, Poonam Dhillon, Girish Karnad, Ranjeeta Kaur and Nirupa Roy; the film was a remake of Tamil film Puguntha Veedu, earlier remade in Telugu as Puttinillu Mettinillu and in Kannada as Devara Gudi. Kumar Gaurav as Tony Poonam Dhillon as Dolly Girish Karnad as Rakesh Nirupa Roy as Parvati Monty Nath as Monty Paintal as Tony's Friend Rakesh Bedi as Tony's Friend Mushtaq Merchant as Tony's Friend Manmauji as Tony's Friend Birbal as Hotel ManagerRanjeeta Kaur All songs of the movie were sung by Amit Kumar, became popular. Filmfare Nomination as Best Male Playback Singer Award - Amit Kumar for the song "Yeh Zameen Gaa Rahi Ha" Teri Kasam on IMDb Cult of Kumar

Curb chain

A curb chain, or curb strap, is a piece of horse tack required for proper use on any type of curb bit. It is a flat linked chain or flat strap that runs under the chin groove of the horse, between the bit shank's purchase arms, it has a buckle or hook attachment and English designs have a "fly link" in the middle to hold a lip strap. On English bridles the horse is bridled with the curb chain undone on one side connected once on the horse. On western bridles, the curb chain is kept buckled to both sides of the bit; the main use of the curb chain is to control the lever action of a curb bit. Additionally, it helps to in place within the mouth. On English pelham and double bridles the curb chin is attached by a ring to a lip strap, which helps keep the lip strap in place while the lip strap in turn prevents the curb chain from being lost if it becomes unhooked; the curb chain applies pressure to the curb groove under a horse's chin when the curb rein of the bit is used. When the curb rein is pulled, the shank of the bit rotates back towards the chest of the horse and the cheek of the bit rotates forward.

The curb chain is attached to the rings at the end of the cheek, so, as the cheek moves forward, the chain is pulled and tightened in the curb groove. Once it comes in contact with the curb groove of the horse it acts as a fulcrum, causing the cannons of the bit mouthpiece to push down onto the horse's bars, thus amplifying the bit's pressure on the bars of the horse's mouth; the tightness of the curb chain has a great effect on the action of the bit. If the bit is used without a curb chain, it loses its leverage action. If used with a loose curb chain, it allows the shanks to rotate more before the curb chain is tight enough to act as a fulcrum and exert pressure; this extra rotation can warn the horse before pressure is exerted on his mouth, so he may respond beforehand. Conversely, a loose curb chain can be undesirable, allowing the bit to rotate in the mouth too much, causing the port a high port, to become too vertical and press against the palate, painful, can damage the mouth in extreme cases, can cause the horse to gape.

Additionally, it can nullify the correct action of the curb, making its use pointless. There are two undesirable consequences when using a tight curb chain. First, the bit exerts curb pressure and increased pressure on the bars as soon as pressure is applied to the reins. Therefore, a tight curb chain is much harsher, provides less finesse in signaling the horse than a looser curb chain would, as the horse is never given a chance to respond before the curb chain engages. Secondly, an tight curb chain causes the mouthpiece to push down on the sensitive tongue, never allowing the horse relief. A curb chain is adjusted so it comes into action when the shank rotates 45 degrees back. However, skilled riders with experience with the curb bit may adjust the chain tighter to accommodate the needs of the individual horse, type of equipment, training situation. However, keeping the curb chain looser allows more accommodation for rider error; the curb chain should be applied by twisting it clockwise on one hook until it is flat, attaching it to the other hook.

A twisted curb chain is far harsher in its effect than a flat one. Curb chains vary in linkage. Thinner curb chains are more severe, ones that are too thin are banned in competition, any curb chain could cause sores if the chain is not adjusted properly and used with discretion. For horses that are sensitive or that are rubbed by the chain, a cover made of rubber, leather, or gel can be used, or a leather curb strap. However, it is important that the rider check that the curb is being used and is not the cause of the rubs. Price, Steven D. ed. The Whole Horse Catalogue. New York: Simon and Schuster/Brigadore Press, 1977

Skree Township, Clay County, Minnesota

Skree Township is a township in Clay County, United States. The population was 166 at the 2000 census. Skree Township was named for a Norwegian immigrant and pioneer farmer. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 33.8 square miles, of which, 33.6 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 166 people, 62 households, 48 families residing in the township; the population density was 4.9 people per square mile. There were 64 housing units at an average density of 1.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 0.60 % Asian. There were 62 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.0% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.0% were non-families. 21.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the township the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $46,250, the median income for a family was $51,250. Males had a median income of $32,083 versus $26,250 for females; the per capita income for the township was $15,174. About 4.3% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 11.8% of those sixty five or over