SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Robert Southey

Robert Southey was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the Lake Poets along with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, England's Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843. Although his fame has been eclipsed by that of Wordsworth and Coleridge, his verse still enjoys some popularity; the English word "zombie", from the Haitian French "zombi", is purported to have first been recorded by Southey in his 1819 essay History of Brazil. Southey was a prolific letter writer, literary scholar, essay writer and biographer, his biographies include the life and works of John Bunyan, John Wesley, William Cowper, Oliver Cromwell and Horatio Nelson. The last has been out of print since its publication in 1813 and was adapted as the 1926 British film Nelson, he was a renowned scholar of Portuguese and Spanish literature and history, translating a number of works from those two languages into English and writing a History of Brazil and a History of the Peninsular War. His most enduring contribution to literary history is the children's classic The Story of the Three Bears, the original Goldilocks story, first published in Southey's prose collection The Doctor.

He wrote on political issues, which led to a brief, non-sitting, spell as a Tory Member of Parliament. Robert Southey was born in Bristol, to Robert Southey and Margaret Hill, he was educated at Westminster School, at Balliol College, Oxford. Southey said of Oxford, "All I learnt was a little swimming... and a little boating." Experimenting with a writing partnership with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, most notably in their joint composition of The Fall of Robespierre, Southey published his first collection of poems in 1794. The same year, Coleridge, Robert Lovell and several others discussed creating an idealistic community on the banks of the Susquehanna River in America: Their wants would be simple and natural; each young man should take to himself a lovely woman for his wife. Southey was the first to reject the idea as unworkable, suggesting that they move the intended location to Wales, but when they failed to agree, the plan was abandoned. In 1799 Southey and Coleridge were involved with early experiments with nitrous oxide, conducted by the Cornish scientist Humphry Davy.

Southey married Edith Fricker, Coleridge's sister-in-law, at St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, on 14 November 1795; the Southeys made their home at Greta Hall, Keswick, in the Lake District, living on his tiny income. Living at Greta Hall and supported by him were Sara Coleridge and her three children and the widow of poet Robert Lovell and her son. In 1808 Southey met Walter Savage Landor, whose work he admired, they became close friends; that same year he wrote Letters from England under the pseudonym Don Manuel Alvarez Espriella, an account of a tour from a foreigner's viewpoint. Through the mouth of his pseudonym Southey is critical of the disparity between the haves and have-nots in English society, arguing that a change in taxation policy would be needed to foster a greater degree of equity. From 1809 Southey contributed to the Quarterly Review, he had become so well known by 1813 that he was appointed Poet Laureate after Walter Scott refused the post. In 1819, through a mutual friend, Southey met the leading civil engineer Thomas Telford and struck up a friendship.

From mid-August to 1 October 1819, Southey accompanied Telford on an extensive tour of his engineering projects in the Scottish Highlands, keeping a diary of his observations. This was published in 1929 as Journal of a Tour in Scotland in 1819, he was a friend of the Dutch poet Willem Bilderdijk, whom he met twice, in 1824 and 1826, at Bilderdijk's home in Leiden. He expressed appreciation of the work of the English novelist Ann Doherty. In 1837 Southey received a letter from Charlotte Brontë, he wrote back praising her talents, but discouraging her from writing professionally: "Literature cannot be the business of a woman's life," he argued. Years Brontë remarked to a friend that the letter was "kind and admirable. In 1838 Edith died and Southey remarried, to Caroline Anne Bowles a poet, on 4 June 1839. Southey's mind was giving way when he wrote a last letter to his friend Landor in 1839, but he continued to mention Landor's name when incapable of mentioning any one, he died on 21 March 1843 and was buried in the churchyard of Crosthwaite Church, where he had worshipped for forty years.

There is a memorial to him inside the church, with an epitaph written by his friend, William Wordsworth. A few of Southey's ballads are still read by British schoolchildren, the best-known being The Inchcape Rock, God's Judgement on a Wicked Bishop, After Blenheim and Cataract of Lodore; as a prolific writer and commentator, Southey introduced or popularised a number of words into the English language. The term autobiography, for example, was used by Southey in 1809 in the Quarterly Review, in which he predicted an "epidemical rage f

Executive Committee of the Communist International

The Executive Committee of the Communist International known by its acronym, ECCI, was the governing authority of the Comintern between the World Congresses of that body. The ECCI was established by the Founding Congress of the Comintern in 1919 and was dissolved with the rest of the Comintern in May 1943; the Communist International was established at a gathering convened in Moscow at the behest of the Russian Communist Party. As early as December 24, 1918, a radio appeal had been issued by the ruling party of Soviet Russia calling on "communists of all countries" to boycott any attempts of reformists to reestablish the Second International, but to instead "rally around the revolutionary Third International." The formal call for a conference of revolutionary socialist political parties and radical trade unions espousing revolutionary industrial unionism had been issued on January 24, 1919, with the gathering slated to commence in Moscow beginning on February 15. The conference which declared itself the Founding Congress of the Communist International was postponed to March 2, 1919, owing to the difficulties entailed by foreign delegates in crossing the blockade of Soviet Russia established by the Allied Nations at the end of World War I.

Only a comparatively few delegates did manage to make the trip, with a number of the places filled on an ad hoc basis by individuals in Soviet Russia not bearing formal credentials from their home organizations. For example, Boris Reinstein, a druggist from Buffalo, New York who sat ostensibly the delegate of the Socialist Labor Party of America, had been away from home for two years and had no formal authorization to represent his party. Andreas Rudniansky, a former prisoner of war stranded in Russia represented Hungary, while Christian Rakovsky, a Romanian, sat for the nearly defunct Balkan Socialist Federation. A commission chaired by Swiss radical Fritz Platten was appointed by this Founding Congress to construct an organizational apparatus for the new Third International; this commission recommended the establishment of two deliberative bodies, an Executive Committee, to handle matters of policy, a 5-member Bureau, to handle day-to-day activities. The governing Executive Committee was to be headquartered in Moscow and to include representatives from the member organizations of the Communist International.

The parties of Russia, Austria, the Balkan Federation and Scandinavia were each to "immediately send representatives to the first Executive Committee." All parties joining the Comintern before the convention of the 2nd World Congress were to be allowed a representative on this body. Until the arrival of the various elected delegates, representatives of the Russian Communist Party were to perform the functions of this Executive Committee of the Communist International; this organizational plan was approved unanimously without debate. Selected as President of ECCI was Grigorii Zinoviev, an old associate of V. I. Lenin and top figure in the Russian Communist Party. Karl Radek ensconced in a Berlin prison, was symbolically selected as Secretary of ECCI, although the actual functions fell to Angelica Balabanov, albeit only for a few weeks. Zinoviev served as editor of the official magazine of ECCI, Kommunisticheskii Internatsional, which began appearing as soon as the Founding Congress came to a close.

Although no more than the nucleus of an actual organization was created, hampered by difficult communications in the isolation of the blockade, the skeleton ECCI began to issues a series of declarations and manifestos to the workers and nations of the world. These included a manifesto of ECCI to the workers and sailors of all countries on the Hungarian Revolution, a message to the Bavarian Soviet Republic, a May Day manifesto, a manifesto on the Versailles Peace, a manifesto on foreign intervention in Soviet Russia; the early ECCI was, in short, to a large extent a propaganda body, aiming to stir the working class to socialist revolution. In the estimation of historian E. H. Carr, the summer and fall of 1920 marked the high-water mark for the prestige of the Comintern and its hopes of promoting world revolution. There would be, other functions for the organization and the Executive Committee which directed it. Owing to poor communications and the difficulty of individuals crossing the frontier during the blockade and civil war, of those invited to participate only the Communist Party of Hungary was able to send its permanent representative to ECCI prior to the convocation of the 2nd World Congress of the Comintern on July 19, 1920.

This did not mean that ECCI, the Comintern's directing body, was staffed with Russians during the 1919-1920 period, however. In addition to representatives of the Russian Communist Party Angelica Balabanova, Jan Antonovich Berzin, Nikolai Bukharin, V. V. Vorovsky, Grigorii Zinoviev, G. Klinger, a number of radicals from around the world had at various times taken part in ECCI's activities. Among this group were László Rudas of Hungary, Jacques Sadoul of France, John Reed of the Communist Labor Party of America, John Anderson of the Communist Party of America, S. J. Rutgers of the Netherlands, in addition to others from Korea, Norway, Yugoslavia and Finland. During this interval the Comintern, through ECCI and the permanent staff of the organization, began to fund the various communist parties of the world, attempting to add practical support to the literary fusillade which emanated from Moscow. Over time this financial aid provided by the Comintern w

Ya Po Ah Terrace

Ya-Po-Ah Terrace, is the tallest building in Downtown Eugene, Oregon at 212 feet. It is a controversial high-rise apartment building for senior citizens erected in 1968 at the foot of Skinner Butte. "Ya Po Ah" means high place in the language of the Kalapuya Indians who inhabited the Willamette Valley prior to the arrival of the Euro-American settlers. Ya Po Ah was the name used by the tribe for what is now called Skinner Butte, in honor of Eugene Franklin Skinner, the founder of Eugene City, he built his first log cabin on the western slopes of the butte to avoid the frequent floods of the Willamette River to the north, per the advice of the Kalapuya. The building is an 18-story, 222-unit apartment building located on the southern slopes of Skinner Butte, overlooking downtown Eugene. Ya Po Ah houses a performance hall, library and convenience stores. Constructed in 1968, public outcry over the building's size led to laws being passed soon after, limiting the height and stories of buildings in Eugene.

This was a measure taken to preserve, among the views of nearby mountains. It remains the tallest building in Eugene. A major renovation project is under way in the summer of 2019. Up until the end of the 1990s these building restrictions limited density and upward growth as the city's population grew, forcing urban sprawl outward, limited by the current Urban growth boundary. Only within the last decade has Eugene begun to amend some of these measures to promote denser growth within the city's core. Official website YaPoAh Terrace Google SketchUp