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Robert Stephenson

Robert Stephenson FRS HFRSE FRSA DCL was an early English railway and civil engineer. The only son of George Stephenson, the "Father of Railways", he built on the achievements of his father. Robert has been called the greatest engineer of the 19th century. Robert was born in Willington Quay, on the Northumberland coast, the son of George Stephenson and his wife, Frances Henderson; the family moved to Killingworth. Robert attended the middle-class Percy Street Academy in Newcastle and at the age of fifteen was apprenticed to the mining engineer Nicholas Wood, he left before he had completed his three years to help his father survey the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Robert spent six months at Edinburgh University before working for three years as a mining engineer in Colombia; when he returned his father was building the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Robert developed the steam locomotive Rocket that won the Rainhill Trials in 1829. He was appointed chief engineer of the London and Birmingham Railway in 1833 with a salary of £1,500 per annum.

By 1850 Robert had been involved in the construction of a third of the country's railway system. He designed Royal Border Bridge on the East Coast Main Line. With Eaton Hodgkinson and William Fairbairn he developed wrought-iron tubular bridges, such as the Britannia Bridge in Wales, a design he would use for the Victoria Bridge in Montreal, for many years the longest bridge in the world, he worked on 160 commissions from 60 companies, building railways in other countries such as Belgium, Norway and France. In 1829 Robert married Frances Sanderson who died in 1842. In 1847 he was elected Member of Parliament for Whitby, held the seat until his death. Although Robert declined a British knighthood, he was decorated in Belgium with the Knight of the Order of Leopold, in France with the Knight of the Legion of Honour and in Norway with the Knight Grand Cross of the order of St. Olaf, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1849. He served as President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and Institution of Civil Engineers.

Robert's death was mourned, his funeral cortège was given permission by Queen Victoria to pass through Hyde Park, an honour reserved for royalty. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Robert Stephenson was born on 16 October 1803, at Willington Quay, east of Newcastle upon Tyne, to George Stephenson and Frances née Henderson known as Fanny, she was twelve years older than George, when they met was working as a servant where George was lodging. After marriage George and Fanny lived in an upper room of a cottage. Fanny was suffering from tuberculosis, so George would take care of his son in the evening. Robert recalled how he would sit on his father's left knee with his right arm wrapped around him while he watched him work or read books. In autumn 1804 George became a brakesman at the West Moor Pit and the family moved to two rooms in a cottage at Killingworth. On 13 July 1805 Fanny gave birth to a daughter who lived for only three weeks, Fanny's health deteriorated and she died on 14 May 1806. George employed a housekeeper to look after his son and went away for three months to look after a Watt engine in Montrose, Scotland.

He returned to find. He moved back into the cottage with his son and employed another housekeeper before his sister Eleanor moved in. Known to Robert as Aunt Nelly, Eleanor had been engaged to be married before travelling to London to work in domestic service. However, returning to get married Eleanor's ship was delayed by poor winds and she arrived to find her fiancé had married. Eleanor attended the local Methodist church, whereas George would not attend church, preferring on Sundays to work on engineering problems and meet his friends. Robert was first sent to a village school 1 1⁄2 miles away in Long Benton, where he was taught by Thomas Rutter. On his way to school, he would carry picks to the smith's at Long Benton to be sharpened. George was promoted in 1812 to be enginewright at Killingworth Colliery with a salary of £100 per annum, he built his first steam locomotive, Blücher, in 1814 and the following year was earning £200 per annum. George had received little formal education but was determined that his son would have one, so sent the eleven-year-old Robert to be taught by John Bruce at the Percy Street Academy in Newcastle.

Most of the children came from middle-class families, it was while he was at the academy that Robert lost most of his Northumberland accent. At first Robert was liable to catch a cold. Robert became a member of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society and borrowed books for him and his father to read. In the evening he would work with George on designs for steam engines. In 1816 they made a sundial together, still in place above the cottage door. After leaving school in 1819, Robert was apprenticed to the mining engineer Nicholas Wood, viewer of Killingworth colliery; the following year Robert's Aunt Nelly married and George married Elizabeth Hindmarsh. George had courted Elizabeth before he had met Fanny, but the relationship had been put to an end by Elizabeth's father; as an apprentice Robert

Samuel Liddell (pirate)

Samuel Liddell was a pirate and merchant active in the Caribbean. He is best known for sailing alongside Henry Jennings. Liddell had been master of the vessel Hannah as early as 1713, but was in the Caribbean by early 1716. In March of that year Governor Archibald Hamilton of Jamaica granted a privateering commission to Henry Jennings, who had just returned from plundering the wrecks of the previous years’ Spanish treasure fleet, he would be joined by fellow captains Samuel Liddell in the Cocoa Nut, James Carnegie in the sloop Discovery, Leigh Ashworth in the Mary. Aboard Jennings’ ship was future captain Charles Vane; the group headed back to the Spanish wrecks in April. En route. Liddell advised his fellow captains not to attack the French ship, since their privateering commission was only against the Spanish, he offered to go aboard the French ship “to See if they could make a Lawfull prize of her” but Jennings and Ashworth, joined by Samuel Bellamy with his partner Paulsgrave Williams, attacked anyway.

They took the French ship with no losses, Carnegie soon joined them. Twenty-three of Liddell’s crew, including his quartermaster, left him to join the other crews. Carnegie chased a fleeing French vessel, stolen by Benjamin Hornigold and Olivier Levasseur. Liddell sailed back to Jamaica rather than sail any further with Jennings and the others, his subsequent activities are not recorded. Nassau, Jennings' "home base" for piracy in the Caribbean

Amhara Governorate

Amhara Governorate was one of the six governorates of Italian East Africa. Its capital was at Gondar, it was created in 1936 with a population of more than 2 million inhabitants, but in 1938 it was reduced in size when was created to the south the Scioa Governorate. It was crossed from north to south by the newly created Strada Imperiale, that in 1937 united Asmara with Gondar and Addis Abeba. During World War II was the last stronghold maintained by the Italians in their East Africa colonies: Gondar was conquered by the British only in November 1941. Antonicelli, Franco Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915 - 1945, Saggi series 295, Torino: Einaudi, 387 p. Del Boca, Angelo Italiani in Africa Orientale: La caduta dell'Impero, Biblioteca universale Laterza 186, Roma: Laterza, ISBN 88-420-2810-X Mockler, Anthony. Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-394-54222-3 Ethiopia Italian East Africa List of Governors of the Governorates of Italian East Africa#Amhara Governorate