Unix is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, others. Intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix variants from vendors including University of California, Microsoft, IBM, Sun Microsystems. In the early 1990s, AT&T sold its rights in Unix to Novell, which sold its Unix business to the Santa Cruz Operation in 1995; the UNIX trademark passed to The Open Group, a neutral industry consortium, which allows the use of the mark for certified operating systems that comply with the Single UNIX Specification. As of 2014, the Unix version with the largest installed base is Apple's macOS. Unix systems are characterized by a modular design, sometimes called the "Unix philosophy"; this concept entails that the operating system provides a set of simple tools that each performs a limited, well-defined function, with a unified filesystem as the main means of communication, a shell scripting and command language to combine the tools to perform complex workflows.
Unix distinguishes itself from its predecessors as the first portable operating system: the entire operating system is written in the C programming language, thus allowing Unix to reach numerous platforms. Unix was meant to be a convenient platform for programmers developing software to be run on it and on other systems, rather than for non-programmers; the system grew larger as the operating system started spreading in academic circles, as users added their own tools to the system and shared them with colleagues. At first, Unix was not designed to be multi-tasking. Unix gained portability, multi-tasking and multi-user capabilities in a time-sharing configuration. Unix systems are characterized by various concepts: the use of plain text for storing data; these concepts are collectively known as the "Unix philosophy". Brian Kernighan and Rob Pike summarize this in The Unix Programming Environment as "the idea that the power of a system comes more from the relationships among programs than from the programs themselves".
In an era when a standard computer consisted of a hard disk for storage and a data terminal for input and output, the Unix file model worked quite well, as I/O was linear. In the 1980s, non-blocking I/O and the set of inter-process communication mechanisms were augmented with Unix domain sockets, shared memory, message queues, semaphores, network sockets were added to support communication with other hosts; as graphical user interfaces developed, the file model proved inadequate to the task of handling asynchronous events such as those generated by a mouse. By the early 1980s, users began seeing Unix as a potential universal operating system, suitable for computers of all sizes; the Unix environment and the client–server program model were essential elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers. Both Unix and the C programming language were developed by AT&T and distributed to government and academic institutions, which led to both being ported to a wider variety of machine families than any other operating system.
Under Unix, the operating system consists of many libraries and utilities along with the master control program, the kernel. The kernel provides services to start and stop programs, handles the file system and other common "low-level" tasks that most programs share, schedules access to avoid conflicts when programs try to access the same resource or device simultaneously. To mediate such access, the kernel has special rights, reflected in the division between user space and kernel space - although in microkernel implementations, like MINIX or Redox, functions such as network protocols may run in user space; the origins of Unix date back to the mid-1960s when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bell Labs, General Electric were developing Multics, a time-sharing operating system for the GE-645 mainframe computer. Multics featured several innovations, but presented severe problems. Frustrated by the size and complexity of Multics, but not by its goals, individual researchers at Bell Labs started withdrawing from the project.
The last to leave were Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna, who decided to reimplement their experiences in a new project of smaller scale. This new operating system was without organizational backing, without a name; the new operating system was a single-tasking system. In 1970, the group coined the name Unics for Uniplexed Information and Computing Service, as a pun on Multics, which stood for Multiplexed Information and Computer Services. Brian Kernighan takes credit for the idea, but adds that "no one can remember" the origin of the final spelling Unix. Dennis Ritchie, Doug McIlroy, Peter G. Neumann credit Kernighan; the operating system was written in assembly language, but in 1973, Version 4 Unix was rewritten in C. Version 4 Unix, still had many PDP-11 dependent codes, is not suitable for porting; the first port to other platform was made five years f
Paul Graham (programmer)
Paul Graham is an English-born computer scientist, venture capitalist and essayist. He is best known for his work on Lisp, his former startup Viaweb, co-founding the influential startup accelerator and seed capital firm Y Combinator, his blog, Hacker News, he is the author of several programming books, such as: On Lisp, ANSI Common Lisp, Hackers & Painters. Technology journalist Steven Levy has described Graham as a "hacker philosopher". Paul Graham grew up in Pittsburgh, where he attended Gateway High School. Graham received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from Cornell University, he attended Harvard University, earning Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Computer Science. He has studied painting at the Rhode Island School of Design and at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence. In 1996, Graham and Robert Morris founded the first application service provider. Viaweb's software, written in Common Lisp, allowed users to make their own Internet stores. In the summer of 1998 Viaweb was sold to Yahoo! for 455,000 shares of Yahoo! stock, valued at $49.6 million.
After the acquisition, the product became Yahoo! Store, he gained fame for his essays, of which he posts to his personal website, paulgraham.com. Essay subjects range from "Beating the Averages", which compares Lisp to other programming languages and introduced the hypothetical programming language Blub, to "Why Nerds are Unpopular", a discussion of nerd life in high school. A collection of his essays has been published as Hackers & Painters by O'Reilly, which includes a discussion of the growth of Viaweb and what Graham perceives to be the advantages of Lisp to program it. In 2001, Graham announced. Over the years since, he has written several essays describing features or goals of the language, some internal projects at Y Combinator have been written in Arc, most notably the Hacker News web forum and news aggregator program. In 2005, after giving a talk at the Harvard Computer Society published as "How to Start a Startup", Graham along with Trevor Blackwell, Jessica Livingston and Robert Morris started Y Combinator to provide seed funding to a large number of startups those started by younger, more technically oriented founders.
Y Combinator has now invested in more than 1300 startups, including Justin.tv, Dropbox and Stripe. BusinessWeek included Paul Graham in 2008 edition of its annual feature, The 25 Most Influential People on the Web. In 2008, Paul Graham married Jessica Livingston. In response to the proposed Stop Online Piracy Act, Graham announced in late 2011 that no representatives of any company supporting it would be invited to Y Combinator's Demo Day events. Graham proposed a "disagreement hierarchy" in a 2008 essay "How to Disagree", putting types of argument into a seven-point hierarchy and observing that "If moving up the disagreement hierarchy makes people less mean, that will make most of them happier." Graham suggested that the hierarchy can be thought of as a pyramid, as the highest forms of disagreement are rarer. Following this hierarchy, Graham notes that articulate forms of name-calling are no different from crude insults. Graham considers the hierarchy of programming languages with the example of "Blub", a hypothetically average language "right in the middle of the abstractness continuum.
It is not the most powerful language, but it is more powerful than Cobol or machine language." It was used by Graham to illustrate a comparison, beyond Turing completeness, of programming language power, more to illustrate the difficulty of comparing a programming language one knows to one that one does not. Graham considers a hypothetical Blub programmer; when the programmer looks down the "power continuum", he considers the lower languages to be less powerful because they miss some feature that a Blub programmer is used to. But when he looks up, he fails to realise that he is looking up: he sees "weird languages" with unnecessary features and assumes they are equivalent in power, but with "other hairy stuff thrown in as well"; when Graham considers the point of view of a programmer using a language higher than Blub, he describes that programmer as looking down on Blub and noting its "missing" features from the point of view of the higher language. Graham describes this as the "Blub paradox" and concludes that "By induction, the only programmers in a position to see all the differences in power between the various languages are those who understand the most powerful one."The concept has been cited by writers such as Joel Spolsky.
Anaphoric macro – first appeared in Paul Graham's On Lisp Official website Inc. magazine profile Audio: What Business Can Learn From Open Source Video: "Be Good": Paul Graham at Startup School 08 Paul Graham provides stunning answer to spam e-mails Techcrunch interview Roberts, Russ. "Graham on Start-ups and Creativity". EconTalk. Library of Economics and Liberty; the Hundred-Year Language, an essay Paul Graham's essays in all languages
RTML is a proprietary programming language used by Yahoo!'s Yahoo! Store and Yahoo! Site web hosting services; the language originated at Viaweb, a company founded in 1995 by Paul Graham and Robert T. Morris, as the template language for their e-commerce platform. RTML stands for "Robert T. Morris Language"; the RTML editor was offered as an option for customers who wanted to customize their online stores more than the built-in templates allowed. The built-in templates were written in RTML, provided the starting point for most people who used the language. In 1998, Yahoo! bought Viaweb for $49.6 million and renamed the service Yahoo! Store. Yahoo! Later offered the RTML-based content management system in a hosting platform without a shopping cart, under the name Yahoo! Site. In 2003, Yahoo! Renamed the Yahoo! Store service Yahoo! Merchant Solutions, at the same time began offering new customers the choice of a more standard PHP/MySQL web hosting environment instead of the RTML-based Store Editor; as of 2006, many new Yahoo!
Merchant Solutions sites and legacy Yahoo! Stores continue to be built using the Store Editor and RTML. Although Yahoo!'s documentation does not mention it, RTML is implemented on top of a Lisp-based system. The language is somewhat unusual in that the programmer cannot edit the source code directly as text. Instead, keywords are presented as hyperlinks in a browser-based HTML interface. Clicking on a keyword selects it, its attributes can be edited. Blocks of code can be popped from a clipboard, using the stack metaphor; the editor maintains the code's s-expression structure automatically, visually represents it in the web interface using indentation instead of Lisp's parentheses. Most of the keywords correspond to HTML elements, but there are conditionals and other control flow features that make it a "real" programming language. RTML templates are evaluated dynamically for each pageview during editing, but for the live site a "publish" process generates static HTML files from them. Yahoo!'s documentation used to say that RTML was an acronym for "Real Time Markup Language," but Graham admitted that "we made up various explanations for what RTML was supposed to stand for, but I named it after Robert Morris, the other founder of Viaweb, whose username is rtm."
Yahoo!'s own RTML Reference Yahoo! Merchant Solutions Developer Network - Yahoo's Directory of Merchant Solutions Developers Yahoo! Merchant Solutions Developer site Lisp in Web-Based Applications - transcript of a talk by Paul Graham that mentions RTML RTML section of YourStoreForums.com - a forum for Yahoo store owners with a dedicated RTML section Yahoo Small Business - Yahoo Small Business Official Website
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. It uses a computer network to spread itself, relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Worms always cause at least some harm to the network if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer. Many worms are designed only to spread, do not attempt to change the systems they pass through. However, as the Morris worm and Mydoom showed these "payload-free" worms can cause major disruption by increasing network traffic and other unintended effects; the actual term "worm" was first used in The Shockwave Rider. In that novel, Nichlas Haflinger designs and sets off a data-gathering worm in an act of revenge against the powerful men who run a national electronic information web that induces mass conformity. "You have the biggest-ever worm loose in the net, it automatically sabotages any attempt to monitor it...
There's never been a worm with that tough a head or that long a tail!"On November 2, 1988, Robert Tappan Morris, a Cornell University computer science graduate student, unleashed what became known as the Morris worm, disrupting a large number of computers on the Internet, guessed at the time to be one tenth of all those connected. During the Morris appeal process, the U. S. Court of Appeals estimated the cost of removing the virus from each installation at between $200 and $53,000. Morris himself became the first person tried and convicted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Any code designed to do more than spread the worm is referred to as the "payload". Typical malicious payloads might delete files on a host system, encrypt files in a ransomware attack, or exfiltrate data such as confidential documents or passwords; the most common payload for worms is to install a backdoor. This allows the computer to be remotely controlled by the worm author as a "zombie". Networks of such machines are referred to as botnets and are commonly used for a range of malicious purposes, including sending spam or performing DoS attacks.
Worms spread by exploiting vulnerabilities in operating systems. Vendors with security problems supply regular security updates, if these are installed to a machine the majority of worms are unable to spread to it. If a vulnerability is disclosed before the security patch released by the vendor, a zero-day attack is possible. Users need to be wary of opening unexpected email, should not run attached files or programs, or visit web sites that are linked to such emails. However, as with the ILOVEYOU worm, with the increased growth and efficiency of phishing attacks, it remains possible to trick the end-user into running malicious code. Anti-virus and anti-spyware software are helpful, but must be kept up-to-date with new pattern files at least every few days; the use of a firewall is recommended. In the April–June 2008 issue of IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, computer scientists described a new and effective way to combat internet worms; the researchers discovered how to contain worms that scanned the Internet randomly, looking for vulnerable hosts to infect.
They found that the key was to use software to monitor the number of scans that machines on a network send out. When a machine started to send out too many scans, it was a sign that it has been infected, which allowed administrators to take it off line and check it for malware. In addition, machine learning techniques can be used to detect new worms, by analyzing the behavior of the suspected computer. Users can minimize the threat posed by worms by keeping their computers' operating system and other software up to date, avoiding opening unrecognized or unexpected emails and running firewall and antivirus software. Mitigation techniques include: ACLs in routers and switches Packet-filters TCP Wrapper/ACL enabled network service daemons Nullroute Beginning with the first research into worms at Xerox PARC, there have been attempts to create useful worms; those worms allowed testing by John Shoch and Jon Hupp of the Ethernet principles on their network of Xerox Alto computers. The Nachi family of worms tried to download and install patches from Microsoft's website to fix vulnerabilities in the host system—by exploiting those same vulnerabilities.
In practice, although this may have made these systems more secure, it generated considerable network traffic, rebooted the machine in the course of patching it, did its work without the consent of the computer's owner or user. Regardless of their payload or their writers' intentions, most security experts regard all worms as malware. Several worms, like XSS worms, have been written to research. For example, the effects of changes in social activity or user behavior. One study proposed what seems to be the first computer worm that operates on the second layer of the OSI model, it utilizes topology information such as Content-addressable memory tables and Spanning Tree information stored in switches to propagate and probe for vulnerable nodes until the enterprise network is covered. Botnet Code Shikara Computer and network surveillance Computer virus Email spam Father Christmas Self-replicating machine Timeline of computer viruses and worms Trojan horse XSS worm Zombie Malware Guide – Guide for understanding and preventing worm infections on Vernalex.com.
"The'Worm' Programs – Early Experience with a Distributed Computation", John Shoch and Jon Hupp, Communications of the ACM, Volum
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Millington, New Jersey
Millington is an unincorporated community located within Long Hill Township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. The area is served as United States Postal Service ZIP code 07946. Other communities in Long Hill Township include Gillette and the hamlet of Meyersville, it borders the southern side of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge with access to Lord Stirling Park. The Passaic River forms its southern border; the Raptor Trust, a famous bird rehabilitation and education center within the Great Swamp is inside the town limits. Clover Hill Swimming Club was located there, it lost a 1966 civil rights case. In 2013, the lake is not sanitary for swimming; the only activity that takes place at this lake now, 2013, is fishing. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population for ZIP Code Tabulation Area 07946 was 3,144 Students in public school attend the Long Hill Township School System for grades K-8 and attend Watchung Hills Regional High School in Somerset County for grades 9-12. Millington School is the only active school still located in the town.
It had an enrollment of 505 students as of the 2005-06 school year. The Town Hall used to be used as the old school house of the town built in the 19th century; the town has a train stop on the Gladstone Branch of Millington Station. Millington Station was built in 1901, after the West Line Railroad was extended from Summit to Bernardsville during the years 1870–71. Millington Station was entered into the National Register of Historic Places on June 22, 1984. Another building on the register is the Boyle/Hudspeth-Benson House. See List of Registered Historic Places in Morris County, New Jersey for other examples in the area. Garden State Fireworks, founded in 1890, is located there. Millington Savings Bank started as Millington Building and Loan in 1911 in the town and has grown to other branches in the area. People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with Millington include: Jack H. Jacobs, Medal of Honor recipient in 1969 for his heroic actions during the Vietnam War. Robert Tappan Morris, computer scientist and entrepreneur best known for creating the Morris Worm in 1988, considered the first computer worm on the Internet.
Fieldtripcom The Raptor Trust Google maps Long Hill Schools Long Hill History Weather Averages