Rock Drawings in Valcamonica

The rock drawings in Valcamonica are located in the Province of Brescia and constitute the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world. The collection was recognized by Unesco in 1979 and was Italy's first recognized World Heritage Site. Unesco has formally recognized more than 140,000 figures and symbols, but new discoveries have increased the number of catalogued incisions to between 200,000 and 300,000; the petroglyphs are spread on all surfaces of the valley, but concentrated in the areas of Darfo Boario Terme, Capo di Ponte, Nadro and Paspardo. Many of the incisions were made over a time period of eight thousand years preceding the Iron Age, while petroglyphs of the last period are attributed to the people of Camunni, mentioned by Latin sources; the petroglyph tradition does not end abruptly. Engravings have been identified from the Roman period, medieval period and are even contemporary, up to the 19th century. Most of the cuts have been made using the "martellina" technique and lesser numbers obtained through graffiti.

The figures are sometimes superimposed without apparent order. Others instead appear to have a logical relationship between them; this approach explains the scheme of images, each of, an ideogram, not the real object, but its "idea". Their function pertains to celebratory rituals: commemorative and propitiatory. Among the most-famous symbols found in Valcamonica is the so-called "Rosa camuna", adopted as the official symbol of the region of Lombardy. In the 1960s, the archaeologist Emmanuel Anati, among the first to systematically study the area, drew up a chronology of rock carvings, it compared the style and types of the symbols to identify possible correlations with the traditional historical periodization, from Prehistory to the Middle Ages. According to Anati's research results, Val Camonica is divided into Proto-Camunian, Camunian I, II, III, IV and Post-Camunian periods; the earliest rock carvings date back to epipaleolithic, several millennia after the retreat of the glacier that covered the Val Camonica.

Those carvings were the work of passing nomadic hunters, following the migrations of their prey. The figures represented in fact depict large animals such as deer and elk, which are the typical prey of that period; the drawings describe animals wounded with spears. This kind of rock art can be typical for hunters-gatherers and associated with blades and microlites industry. Similar representations are present in the town park stone carvings of Luine. During the Neolithic period, agricultural practices spread in Val Camonica, correlated with the formation of the first sedentary settlements. In the field of rock art, human figures and sets of geometric elements, such as rectangles and dots, constitute the main elements of the compositions and complete the symbolic meaning of the anthropomorphical petroglyphs. Similar carvings are present in the Regional Reserve of Rock Engravings of Ceto and Paspardo; the pertaining to the Neolithic of the schematic anthropomorphic figures, so called "oranti", is questioned, as some scholars refer them to the Bronze Age.

According to this interpretation, the only set of figures pertaining to the Neolithic, or to a Neolithic-first Copper Age phase, is constituted by the geometric patterns, which are interpreted as topographic representation of a cultivated and ploughed land. During this period, domesticated animals are encountered such as dogs and bulls. Till the end of the Camunian II period, objects of worshipping became wider; the dog, the first-domesticated animal started to be worshipped. During the Copper Age, new symbols appeared, documenting the emergence of the wheel, the wagon and the first forms of metallurgy. Alpine rock art began to develop in this period. Rocks were stained with celestial symbols, weapons, depictions of plowing, chains of human-beings and other signs. Although the anthropomorphic figures were primitive at first these images were more intense and more complicated by adding weapons, astral disks and rectangular that symbolize the world in addition to simple figures; these monuments, preserved in the Archaeological Park of National Massi Cemmo and in that of Asinino-Anvòia, indicate a ritual function linked to the veneration of ancestors.

During the Bronze Age, engravings on rock outcrops took on the issue of weapons, reflecting the greater emphasis given them by the warriors in the camunian society of the time. Continuing emphasis was given in continuity with engravings from earlier eras; the engravings of the Iron Age are attributed to the people of Camunni and constitute about 70-80% of all census figures. These works manifest their ideals of heroic superiority. Dominant themes include representations of duels and human figures large ones, flaunting their weapons, their muscles and their genitals. There are figures of cabins, footprints, hunting scenes and other symbols. Topographic patterns are present in the centr

Childhood leukemia

Childhood leukemia is leukemia that occurs in a child and is a type of childhood cancer. Childhood leukemia is the most common childhood cancer, accounting for 29% of cancers in children aged 0–14 in 2018. There are multiple forms of leukemia that occur in children, the most common being acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed by acute myeloid leukemia. Survival rates vary depending on the type of leukemia, but may be as high as 90% in ALL. Leukemia is a cancer of the blood, it develops in the soft inner part of bones where new blood cells are made. When a child has leukemia, the bone marrow produces white blood cells. Normal healthy cells only reproduce; the body will regulate the production of cells by sending signals of. When a child has leukemia, the cells do not respond to the signals telling them when to stop and when to produce cells; the bone marrow becomes crowded resulting in problems producing other blood cells. Common childhood leukemia signs and symptoms include excessive tiredness, easy bruising or bleeding, bone pain and paleness.

Leukemia is described either as "acute", which grows or "chronic", which grows slowly. The vast majority of childhood leukemia is acute, chronic leukemias are more common in adults than in children. Acute leukemias develop and worsen quickly. Chronic leukemias develop over a slower period of time, but are more difficult to treat than acute leukemias; the following are some of the main types of leukemia. The most common form childhood leukemia is acute lymphocytic leukemia, which makes up 75-80% of childhood leukemia diagnoses. ALL is a form of leukemia that affects lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells which fights infection; when a patient has ALL, the bone marrow makes too many immature white blood cells and they do not mature correctly. These white blood cells do not work to fight infection; the white blood cells over-produce, crowding the other blood cells in the bone marrow. Another type of acute leukemia is acute myelogenous leukemia. AML accounts for most of the remaining cases of leukemia in children, comprising about 20% of childhood leukemia.

AML is cancer of the blood. The marrow continues to produce abnormal cells that crowd the other blood cells and do not work properly to fight infection. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a specific type of AML. In this leukemia promyelocytes are build up in the bone marrow. A specific chromosome translocation is found in patients with APL. Genes on chromosome 15 change places with genes on chromosome 17; this genetic change prevents the promyelocytes from maturing properly. Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a chronic leukemia that develops over months to years. CML does occur. CML patients have too many immature white blood cells being produced, the cells crowd the other healthy blood cells. A chromosome translocation occurs in patients with CML. Part of chromosome 9 breaks off and attaches itself to chromosome 22, facilitating exchange of genetic material between chromosomes 9 and 22; the rearrangement of the chromosomes changes the positions and functions of certain genes, which causes uncontrolled cell growth.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is another form of chronic leukemia, but is rare in children. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a form of leukemia in which myelomonocytic cells are overproduced, it is sometimes considered a myeloproliferative neoplasm. It is rare and most occurs in children under the age of four. In JMML, the myelomonocytic cells produced by the bone marrow and invade the spleen and intestines. Most initial symptoms of leukemia are related to problems with the bone-marrow function. There are a variety of symptoms; the symptoms tend to appear in acute leukemia and over time in chronic leukemia. Symptoms in the different types of childhood leukemia include: feelings of fatigue or weakness repetitive infections or fever bone and joint pain refusing to walk, which results from bone pain or fatigue easy bleeding or bruising increased paleness of skin abdominal pain or fullness, which may cause shortness of breath or loss of appetite swollen lymph nodes under the arms, in the groin and neck.

Enlarged spleen or liver weight loss rash The exact cause of most cases of childhood leukemia is not known. Most children with leukemia do not have any known risk factors. One hypothesis is that childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is caused by a two-step process, starting with a prenatal genetic mutation and exposure to infections While this theory is possible, there is not enough evidence in patients to either support or refute the relationship between infection and developing ALLThere is evidence linking maternal alcohol consumption to AML development in children. Indoor insecticide exposure has been linked to the development of childhood leukemias. High levels of coffee consumption during pregnancy have been linked to childhood leukemia as well, it has been suggested that allergies are linked to the development of childhood leukemia but this is not supported by current evidence. Childhood leukemia is diagnosed in a variety of ways; the diagnostic procedures confirm if there is leukemia present, the extent of the leukemia, the type of leukemia.

The diagnostic procedures are similar for the different types of leukemias: A bone-marrow a

Bohumila Grögerová

Bohumila Grögerová was a Czech and Czechoslovak poet, experimental poet, translator. She translated more than 180 writings from French and German in collaboration with her professional and life partner, Czech poet Josef Hiršal, who died in 2003, she authored children's books and radio plays. Grögerová was born on 7 August 1921 in Czechoslovakia, she graduated from Městské dívčí reálné gymnázium. She enrolled at Charles University in Prague, but left before completing her studies in Czech and Russian. In 2009, Grögerová won the Magnesia Litera prizes for best poetry book and best book for her collection, Rukopis; the Czech chapter of PEN International honored her with its lifetime achievement award in 2009 as well. Bohumila Grögerová died in Prague on 22 August 2014 at the age of 93