Calakmul is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region. It is 35 kilometres from the Guatemalan border, Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands. Calakmul was a major Maya power within the northern Petén Basin region of the Yucatán Peninsula of southern Mexico, Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph of the snake head sign, to be read Kaan. Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed the Kingdom of the Snake or Snake Kingdom and this Snake Kingdom reigned during most of the Classic period. Calakmul itself is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 people and had governance, at times, there are 6,750 ancient structures identified at Calakmul, the largest of which is the great pyramid at the site. Structure 2 is over 45 metres high, making it one of the tallest of the Maya pyramids, four tombs have been located within the pyramid.
Like many temples or pyramids within Mesoamerica the pyramid at Calakmul increased in size by building upon the temple to reach its current size. The size of the monumental architecture is approximately 2 square kilometres. In ancient times the city core was known as Ox Te Tuun, another name associated with the site, and perhaps a larger area around it, is Chiik Naab. The lords of Calakmul identified themselves as kuhul kaanal ajaw, Divine Lords of the Snake, Calakmul is located in Campeche state in southeastern Mexico, about 35 kilometres north of the border with Guatemala and 38 kilometres north of the ruins of El Mirador. The ruins of El Tintal are 68 kilometres to the southwest of Calakmul and were linked to both El Mirador and Calakmul itself by causeway, Calakmul was about 20 kilometres south of the contemporary city of Oxpemul and approximately 25 kilometres southwest of La Muñeca. The city is located on a rise about 35 metres above a large seasonal swamp lying to the west and this swamp measures approximately 34 by 8 kilometres and was an important source of water during the rainy season.
The location of Calakmul at the edge of a bajo provided two additional advantages, the soils along the edge of the swamp and access to abundant flint nodules. The city is situated on a formed by a natural 35-metre high limestone dome rising above the surrounding lowlands. This dome was artificially levelled by the Maya, at the beginning of the 21st century the area around Calakmul remained covered by dense forest. During the 1st millennium AD the area received moderate and regular rainfall, calakumul is now located within the 1,800, 000-acre Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. At its height in the Late Classic period the city is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 inhabitants, the city was the capital of a large regional state with an area of about 13,000 square kilometres. During the Terminal Classic the citys population declined dramatically and the population plummeted to 10% of its former level
Casas Grandes is a prehistoric archaeological site in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. Construction of the site is attributed to the Mogollon culture, Casas Grandes has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is under the purview of INAH. Casas Grandes is one of the largest and most complex Mogollon culture sites in the region, settlement began after 1130 CE, and would see the larger buildings developed into multi-storied dwellings after 1350 CE. The community was abandoned approximately 1450 CE, Casas Grandes complex is located in a wide, fertile valley on the Casas Grandes or San Miguel River,35 miles south of Janos and 150 miles northwest of the state capital, the city of Chihuahua. The settlement relied on irrigation to support its agriculture, the archaeological zone is contained within the eponymous modern municipio of Casas Grandes. The valley and region have been inhabited by groups for thousands of years. Between CE1130 and 1300, the inhabitants began to congregate in small settlements in this wide fertile valley.
The largest identified settlement is today as Paquimé or Casas Grandes. It began as a group of 20 or more house clusters, each with a plaza and these single-story adobe dwellings shared a common water system. Evidence shows that Paquimé had a water control system that included underground drain systems, channels for water to get to the homes. After being burned about 1340, Casas Grandes was rebuilt with multi-story apartment buildings to replace the small buildings, Casas Grandes consisted of about 2,000 adjoining rooms built of adobe, I-shaped Mesoamerican ballcourts, stone-faced platforms, effigy mounds, and a market area. About 350 other, smaller settlement sites have found in the Casas Grandes area. Archaeologists believe that the area controlled by Casas Grandes was relatively small. The population may have been about 2,500 in Casas Grandes with perhaps 10,000 people living within its area of control, specialized craft activities included the production of copper bells and ornaments, extensive pottery, and beads from marine molluscs.
These crafts were probably distributed by a trading network. Casas Grandes pottery has a white or reddish surface, with ornamentation in blue, brown and it is sometimes considered of better manufacture than the modern pottery in the area. Effigy bowls and vessels were formed in the shape of a painted human figure. Casas Grandes pottery was traded among prehistoric peoples as far north as present-day New Mexico and Arizona, the archaeologist Stephen Lekson has noted that Paquimé is aligned on roughly the same longitudinal axis as Chaco Canyon and Aztec Ruins, with an error of only a few miles
Yagul is an archaeological site and former city-state associated with the Zapotec civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, located in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The site was declared one of the countrys four Natural Monuments on 13 October 1998, the site is known locally as Pueblo Viejo and was occupied at the time of the Spanish Conquest. After the Conquest the population was relocated to the modern town of Tlacolula where their descendants still live. Yagul was first occupied around 500-100 BC, around 500-700 AD, residential and ceremonial structures were built at the site. However, most of the remains date to 1250-1521 AD. The site was excavated in the 1950s and 60s by archaeologists Ignacio Bernal, vestiges of human habitation in the area, namely cliff paintings at Caballito Blanco, date to at least 3000 BC. After the abandonment of Monte Albán about 800 AD, the regions established themselves in various small centers such as Lambityeco, Mitla. Yagul comes from the Zapotec language, it is formed from ya and gul, Yagul is located just off Highway 190 between the city of Oaxaca and Mitla, about 36 km from the former.
The site is situated on a volcanic outcrop surrounded by fertile alluvial land, the Salado river flows to the south. Occupation at Yagul dates as far back as the Middle to Late Preclassic, elaborate Preclassic period burials have been excavated at Yagul, accompanied by ceramic effigy vessels that indicate the increasing influence of Monte Albán upon the local elite. In the Late Postclassic, immediately prior to the Spanish Conquest, Yagul is one of the most studied archaeological sites in the Valley of Oaxaca. The construction stone at Yagul is mainly river cobbles formed from volcanic rock such as basalt, about 30 tombs have been found at Yagul, sometimes located in pairs. A few of these bear hieroglyphic inscriptions, situated atop the cliffs to the northeast of the site and protected by natural and artificial walls, it has an excellent vantage point over the whole Tlacolula Valley. It has several points, including one reached by a narrow bridge. Unexcavated residential areas lie on terraces to the south and west of the hill, Classic Period residences are to the northwest of the excavated ceremonial centre and lower class Postclassic residences are presumed to lie around the site core.
The ceremonial center was excavated in 1974 by Bernal and Gamio and it composes the vast majority of what has been excavated, and what can be seen today. The ceremonial center consists of a number of large patios bordered by monumental architecture, and includes a ballcourt, some of the structures in this area are, Ballcourt. The restored ballcourt has an east-west orientation and is the largest in the Valley of Oaxaca, a carved serpents head, now in the Regional Museum in Oaxaca, was found fixed to the top of the south wall
San Miguel de Allende
San Miguel de Allende is a city and municipality located in the far eastern part of the state of Guanajuato in central Mexico. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío and it is 274 km from Mexico City and 97 km from the state capital of Guanajuato. However, the town waned during and after the war, and its Baroque/Neoclassical colonial structures were discovered by foreign artists who moved in and began art and cultural institutes such as the Instituto Allende and the Escuela de Bellas Artes. This gave the town a reputation, attracting artists such as David Alfaro Siqueiros and this attracted foreign art students, especially former U. S. soldiers studying on the G. I. Bill after the Second World War, the main attraction of the town is its well-preserved historic center, filled with buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries. This and the nearby Sanctuary of Atotonilco have been declared World Heritage Sites in 2008, the city has been known by various names since the Spanish founded the settlement.
It was called Izcuinapan by the indigenous peoples, the Spanish originally called it San Miguel el Grande and sometimes San Miguel de los Chichimecas. San Miguel refers to the founder of the city, Father Juan de San Miguel, the name of the town was changed in 1826 to San Miguel de Allende in order to honor Ignacio Allende, who was born here. The surrounding municipality is officially called Allende, both seat and municipality are called San Miguel, the municipality has a coat of arms that was designed by a group called Amigos de San Miguel, but it has not been officially recognized. Before the arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century, a small chapel was built and a village started near the indigenous village by Juan de San Miguel. He decided to dedicate the Spanish town to the Archangel Michael, the arrival and colonization provoked the locals. The Chichimecas began attacking Spanish travelers in the area and in 1551 and this and continuous water supply problems caused the original location to be abandoned and moved.
The village was officially re-established in 1555 by Juan de San Miguels successor, Bernardo Cossin and it was refounded both as a mission and as a military outpost. The new site was just northwest of the old one at a place with two water springs and with terrain better suited for defense. The two springs supplied all of the water until the 1970s. Today, this site is occupied by the Santa Escuela Church. By the mid 16th century, silver had been discovered in Zacatecas, indigenous attacks on caravans continued and San Miguel became an important military and commercial site. To quell these attacks as well as rebellions against Spanish rule and he gave indigenous groups limited self rule and excused them from taxation
The citys population at the 2010 census was 220,389, and the municipality for which it serves as municipal seat had a population of 259,005. The city was founded in 1540 by Spanish conquistadores as San Francisco de Campeche atop the pre-existing Maya city of Can Pech, the Pre-Columbian city was described as having 3,000 houses and various monuments, of which little trace remains. The city retains many of the old colonial Spanish city walls and fortifications protected the city from pirates. The state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, the Spaniards lived inside the walled city, while the natives lived in the surrounding barrios of San Francisco and San Román. These barrios still retain their original churches, the one in Guadalupe is almost 500 years old, founded in 1540 by Francisco Montejo, Campeche was terrorized by pirates and marauders until the city started fortification in 1686. San Francisco de Campeche was originally a village, Ah Kim Pech.
The city of Campeche was founded in 1540 and fortified against pirates during the 17th century and it still has the appearance of a fortress. Historical monuments and buildings, such as the Franciscan cathedral, old Maya ruins, the state of preservation and quality of its architecture earned it the status of a World Heritage Site in 1999. More than one thousand buildings with a historic value have survived as witnesses of space, the French engineer Louis Bouchard de Becour was commissioned to unify all the defensive works that surrounded the city with a wall. At its completion, the surrounding the city of Campeche was 2,560 meters in length, forming an irregular hexagon around the main part of the city. These bulwarks now serve different functions, Used as the Botanical Garden Xmuch´haltún, San Francisco, Protects the Land Gate. Houses the library of the INAH, San Juan, Protects the Land Gate. Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, Also protects the Sea Gate and it is the largest one and holds the Museum of City History.
San Carlos, Holds the City Museum and this fort was the first one built. It contained four gates to access to the main quarters. The main entrances are the Puerta de la tierra, built in 1732, the Land Gate is kept as a tourist attraction, having a light and sound show three nights each week and keeping original supplies and items from the 17th century. The other gates were Guadalupe and San Román, connecting to the outside neighborhoods, two main forts protected the city from two nearby hills on each side, the forts of San José el Alto and San Miguel. These forts gave long-range artillery coverage and served as look-outs and they were built before the walls of the city
Xochimilco is one of the 16 mayoralities or boroughs within Mexico City. The borough is centered on the independent city of Xochimilco. Today, the borough consists of the eighteen “barrios” or neighborhoods of this city along with fourteen “pueblos” or villages that surround it, covering an area of 125 km2. Xochimilco is best known for its canals, which are left from what was an extensive lake and these canals, along with artificial islands called chinampas, attract tourists and other city residents to ride on colorful gondola-like boats called “trajineras” around the 170 km of canals. This canal and chinampa system, as a vestige of the area’s pre-Hispanic past, has made Xochimilco a World Heritage Site. In 1950, Paramahansa Yogananda in his celebrated classic Autobiography of a Yogi wrote that if there is a beauty contest. However, severe environmental degradation of the canals and chinampas has brought that status into question, the borough of Xochimilco was created in 1928, when the federal government reorganized the Federal District of Mexico City into sixteen boroughs.
The Xochimilco borough was centered on what was the city of Xochimilco, the area’s historic separation from Mexico City proper remains in its culture. While officially part of the city, its identity is more like a suburb and this historic center was designated as a Barrio Mágico by the city in 2011. The borough is center-south of the center of Mexico City. It extends over 125 km2, accounting for 8. 4% of the Federal District’s territory and it is the third largest borough, after Tlalpan, and Milpa Alta. The borough has an emblem, known as an Aztec glyph, in spite of the serious environmental issues,77. 9% of the territory is designated as ecological reserve,15. 2% as residential and 4.6 as commercial and industrial. The borough is divided into eighteen “barrios, ” which make up the old city of Xochimilco, there are 45 smaller divisions called “colonias” and twenty major apartment complexes. The city acts as the government for all the communities of the borough. These offices are located on Calle Guadalupe I.
Ramirez 4, the borough has 11.4 km of primary roadway and 4,284,733 square metres of paved surface. Major thoroughfares include the Xochimilco-Tulyehualco road, Nuevo León, Periférico Sur, Avenida Guadalupe, many of the areas of the borough are still semi-rural, with communities that still retain many old traditions and economic activities. For example, San Antonio Molotlán is noted for textiles and its Chinelos dancers, San Lorenzo Tlaltecpan is known for the production of milk and there are still a large number of stables in the area. The most notable neighborhoods/communities include Xaltocan, Ejidos de Tepepan, La Noria, Las Cruces, Ejidos de Xochimilco, San Francisco Caltongo is one of the oldest neighborhoods of the borough
Sanctuary of Atotonilco
The Sanctuary of Atotonilco is a church complex and a World Heritage Site, designated along with nearby San Miguel de Allende, Mexico. The main feature of the complex is the rich Mexican Baroque mural work that adorns the main nave and this was chiefly the work of Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre over a period of thirty years. The mural work has led the complex to be dubbed the Sistine Chapel of Mexico, the complex remains a place of worship and penance to this day, attracting as many as 5,000 visitors every week. The Sanctuary, officially called the “Santuario de Dios y de la Patria” and it is located in the small, rural community of Atotonilco, which had a population in 2005 of 597. Today, this community is known as the Santuario de Atotonilco and is a World Heritage Site along with the historic center of San Miguel de Allende. Atotonilco is located fourteen km outside the town of San Miguel de Allende in an area that is a combination of dry grassland and desert studded with thistles, sweet acacia and mesquite trees.
The appearance of the landscape has been compared to that of Jerusalem, the area has a large number of thermal and fresh water springs. When the sanctuary was built, there were 27 fresh water springs to support gardens around the complex, on the outside the church complex is very plain with high walls that give it a fortress appearance. The outer walls are ten meters high, the cupolas reach twelve meters. The main entrance is simple under an arch that faces east, towards Jerusalem. To the south along the facade is the Casa de Ejercicios. To the north is Santa Escuela de Cristo, in front of the main facade is a narrow atrium, which was once used as a cemetery. Today, it is shaded by trees and surrounded by a small fence, the main church is a single nave without a cupola, lined on the north and south flanks by chapels and chambers. On the north side of the nave, there are the new sacristy, the Rosary Chapel, the chambers of Father Neri, the Belen Chapel/Baptistery, the only exception to this are the Neoclassical altars which were installed later.
Most of the work was done by Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre with some done by José María Barajas over a period of thirty years with almost no free space left among the numerous images. The style of the painting imitates Flemish painting which was known through Belgian prints that the Spanish brought over from Europe. This mural work has led the complex to be called the “Sistine Chapel of America ” or the “Sistine Chapel of Mexico. ”Along the main nave of the church, especially along the ceiling, at the entrance area, there are images related to the Last Judgment. In the highest part Jesus appears crowned and with a carrying a cross
Palenque, anciently known as Lakamha, was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date from ca.226 BC to ca and it is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen,150 m above sea level. It averages a humid 26 °C with roughly 2160 mm of rain a year, the most famous ruler of Palenque was Kinich Janaab Pakal, or Pacal the Great, whose tomb has been found and excavated in the Temple of the Inscriptions. By 2005, the area covered up to 2.5 km². Mythological beings used a variety of glyphs in their titles indeed suggests a complex early history. For instance, Kuk Bahlam, the founder of the Palenque dynasty, is called a Toktan Ajaw in the text of the Temple of the Foliated Cross. The famous structures that we know today probably represent an effort in response to the attacks by the city of Calakmul. He is best known through his funerary monument, dubbed the Temple of Inscriptions after the text preserved in the temples superstructure.
At the time Alberto Ruz Lhuillier excavated Pakals tomb it was the richest and best preserved of any scientifically excavated burial known from the ancient Americas. It held this position until the discovery of the rich Moche burials at Sipan, the extensive iconography and textual corpus has allowed for study of Classic period Maya mythology and ritual practice. After him, a king came to power, nicknamed Casper by archaeologists, the next two kings were probably Caspers sons. Little was known about the first of these, Butz Aj Sak Chiik, until 1994, the first tablet mentioned his successor Ahkal Mo Naab I as a teenage prince, and therefore it is believed that there was a family relation between them. For unknown reasons, Akhal Mo Naab I had great prestige, when Ahkal Mo Naab I died in 524, there was an interregnum of four years, before the following king was crowned en Toktán in 529. Kan Joy Chitam I governed for 36 years and his sons Ahkal Mo Naab II and Kan Balam I were the first kings who used the title Kinich, which means the great sun.
This word was used by kings, Balam was succeeded in 583 by Yohl Iknal, who was supposedly his daughter. The inscriptions found in Palenque document a battle that occurred under her government in which troops from Calakmul invaded and sacked Palenque and these events took place in 599. A second victory by Calakmul occurred some years later, in 611, under the government of Aj Ne Yohl Mat. In this occasion, the king of Calakmul entered Palenque in person, consolidating a significant military disaster, Aj Ne Yohl Mat was to die in 612
A pictogram, called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance, a pictogram may be used in subjects such as leisure and geography. Some pictograms, such as Hazards pictograms, are elements of formal languages, pictograph has a rather different meaning in the field of prehistoric art, including recent art by traditional societies. Here it means art painted on surfaces, as opposed to petroglyphs that are carved or incised. Such images may or may not be considered pictograms in the general sense, early written symbols were based on pictographs and ideograms. Ancient Sumerian and Chinese civilizations began to adapt such symbols to represent concepts, pictographs are still in use as the main medium of written communication in some non-literate cultures in Africa, the Americas, and Oceania.
Pictographs are often used as simple, representational symbols by most contemporary cultures, one example of many is the Rock art of the Chumash people, part of the Native American history of California. In 2011, UNESCOs World Heritage List added Petroglyph Complexes of the Mongolian Altai, because of their graphical nature and fairly realistic style, they are widely used to indicate public toilets, or places such as airports and train stations. Contemporary artist Xu Bing created Book from the Ground, a language made up of pictograms collected from around the world. A Book from the Ground chat program has been exhibited in museums, pictograms are used in many areas of modern life for commodity purposes, often as a formal language. In statistics, pictograms are chartsin which icons represent numbers to make it more interesting, a key is often included to indicate what each icon represents. All icons must be of the size, but a fraction of an icon can be used to show the respective fraction of that amount.
For example, the table, can be graphed as follows, Key, =10 letters As the values are rounded to the nearest 5 letters. This is why road signs and similar material are often applied as global standards expected to be understood by nearly all. A standard set of pictographs was defined in the international standard ISO7001, other common sets of pictographs are the laundry symbols used on clothing tags and the chemical hazard symbols as standardized by the GHS system. Pictograms have been popularized in use on the web and in software, better known as icons displayed on a computer screen in order to help user navigate a computer system or mobile device
Zacatecas is a city and municipality in Mexico, and the capital and largest city of the state of Zacatecas. Located in north-central Mexico, the city had its start as a Spanish mining camp in the mid-16th century, native Americans had already known about the areas rich deposits of silver and other minerals. Due to the wealth that the mines provided, Zacatecas quickly became one of the most important cities in New Spain, the colonial part of the city is a World Heritage Site, due to the Baroque and other structures built during its mining days. Mining still remains an important industry, the name Zacatecas is derived from the Zacateco people and has its roots in Nahuatl. The name means people of the grasslands, the first people to populate the area arrived approximately 10,000 years ago, when the climate was wetter and warmer, with different vegetation and wildlife. These peoples were mining silver and other metals in these hills long before the Europeans arrived, the Spanish came to the Zacatecas area via Guadalajara.
In 1540, Nuño de Guzmán traveled from Mexico City conquering what are now the states of Michoacán, one of Guzmáns lieutenants, Cristobal de Oñate, conquered the area around what is now Guadalajara. Another, Pedro Almindes Chirinos Peralmindes, went to explore the lands to the north, taking Zacatecas with little trouble, and the area initially was simply frontier. Other expeditions followed, including one by Juan de Tolosa in 1546, who brought back samples from Cerro de la Bufa. A mining camp was established at the foot of Cerro de la Bufa. The Zacatecos initially fought the permanent presence of the Spanish, but the potential of the area strengthened the Europeans’ resolve. Surveys of the surrounding hills were undertaken by Tolosa, Diego de Ibarra, Baltasar Temiño de Bañuelos, Andrés de Villanueva. A military mining camp was established in 1548 and called Minas de Nuestra Señora de Remedios. The first major vein of silver was found in 1548 in a mine called San Bernabe and this was followed by similar finds in mines called Albarrada de San Benito, Vetagrande and others.
This brought a number of people to Zacatecas, including craftsmen, clerics. In 1550, royalty found its way to Zacatecas in the person of Leonor Cortés Moctezuma, doña Leonor married Juan de Tolosa. The settlement grew over the space of a few years one of the most important cities in New Spain. The success of the led to the arrival of indigenous people