Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling. Professional rock climbing competitions have the objectives of either completing the route in the quickest possible time or attaining the farthest point on an difficult route. Due to the length of time and extended endurance required, because accidents are most to happen on the descent, rock climbers do not climb back down the route, or "downclimb" on the larger multiple pitch class III–IV, or multi-day grade IV–VI climbs. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that tests a climber's strength, endurance and balance along with mental control, it can be a dangerous activity and knowledge of proper climbing techniques and use of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes. Because of the wide range and variety of rock formations around the world, rock climbing has been separated into several different styles and sub-disciplines, such as scrambling, another activity involving the scaling of hills and similar formations, differentiated by rock climbing's sustained use of hands to support the climber's weight as well as to provide balance.
Paintings dating from 200 BC show Chinese men rock climbing. In early America, the cliff-dwelling Anasazi in the 12th century are thought to have been excellent climbers. Early European climbers used rock climbing techniques as a skill required to reach the summit in their mountaineering exploits. In the 1880s, European rock climbing became an independent pursuit outside of mountain climbing. Although rock climbing was an important component of Victorian mountaineering in the Alps, it is thought that the sport of rock climbing began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in various parts of Europe. Rock climbing evolved from an alpine necessity to a distinct athletic activity. Aid climbing, climbing using equipment that acts as artificial handhold or footholds, became popular during the period 1920–1960, leading to ascents in the Alps and in Yosemite Valley that were considered impossible without such means. However, climbing techniques and ethical considerations have evolved steadily.
Today, free climbing, climbing using holds made of natural rock while using gear for protection and not for upward movement, is the most popular form of the sport. Free climbing has since been divided into several sub-styles of climbing dependent on belay configuration. Over time, grading systems have been created in order to compare more the relative difficulties of the rock climbs. In How to Rock Climb, John Long notes that for moderately skilled climbers getting to the top of a route is not enough. Within free climbing, there are distinctions given to ascents: on-sight and redpoint. To on-sight a route is to ascend the wall without aid or any foreknowledge. Flashing is similar to on-sighting, except that the climber has previous information about the route including talking about the beta with other climbers. Redpointing means to make a free ascent of the route after having first tried it. Style is up to each individual climber and among climbers the verbiage and definitions can differ. Most of the climbing done in modern times is considered free climbing—climbing using one's own physical strength, with equipment used as protection and not as support—as opposed to aid climbing, the gear-dependent form of climbing, dominant in the sport's earlier days.
Free climbing is divided into several styles that differ from one another depending on the choice of equipment used and the configurations of their belay and anchor systems. As routes get higher off the ground, the increased risk of life-threatening injuries necessitates additional safety measures. A variety of specialized climbing techniques and climbing equipment exists to provide that safety. Climbers will work in pairs and utilize a system of ropes and anchors designed to catch falls. Ropes and anchors can be configured in different ways to suit many styles of climbing, roped climbing are thus divided into further sub-types that vary based on how their belay systems are set up. Speaking, beginners will start with top roping and/or easy bouldering and work their way up to lead climbing and beyond. Still the most popular method of climbing big walls, aid climbers make progress up a wall by placing and weighting gear, used directly to aid ascent and enhance safety; this form of climbing is used when ascent is too technically difficult or impossible for free climbing.
The most used method to ascend climbs refers to climbs where the climber's own physical strength and skill are relied upon to accomplish the climb. Free climbing may rely on top rope belay systems, or on lead climbing to establish protection and the belay stations. Anchors and protection are used to back up the climber and are passive as opposed to active ascending aids. Sub-types of free climbing are trad sport climbing. Free climbing is done as "clean lead" meaning no pitons or pins are used as protection. Climbing on short, low routes without the use of the safety rope, typical of most other styles. Protection, if used at all consists of a cushioned bouldering pad below the route and a spotter, a person who watches from below and directs the fall of the climber away from hazardous areas. Bouldering may be an arena for intense and safe competition, resulting in exceptionally high difficulty standards. Solo climbing, or soloing, is a styl
Virgil Paul "Virg" Bernero is an American politician and former mayor of Lansing, elected on November 8, 2005 and re-elected on November 3, 2009. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Prior to serving as mayor, Bernero served as a legislative aide, an Ingham County Commissioner and as a member of the Michigan House of Representatives and the Michigan Senate, he was the Democratic nominee for Governor of Michigan in 2010, losing in the November 2 general election to Republican Rick Snyder. Virgil Paul Bernero was born March 1964 in Pontiac, Michigan in the Metro Detroit area, he was the youngest of five children born to Giulio, an Italian immigrant who arrived in the US in 1948, Virginia, a first generation Italian-American. Bernero has said that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in one of his brothers and the death of another brother from AIDS in 1990 have helped to shape his life and politics. While a student at Waterford Mott High School, Bernero was elected class president three times. After graduating from there in 1982, he enrolled at Adrian College, graduating in 1986 with a B.
A. in political science. Bernero served as an Ingham County, Michigan Commissioner. Bernero ran for and won a seat in the Michigan House of Representatives in 2000, serving one term before being elected to the Michigan State Senate in 2002. Bernero was elected to the Michigan Senate on November 5, 2002, served there until his election as Mayor three years later. While he was a state senator, Bernero appeared in the documentary Fired! by Annabelle Gurwitch. The film chronicles the experiences of individuals. In it, Bernero was interviewed about his efforts to pass Michigan Senate Bill 381 of 2005, which would make it illegal for Michigan employers to fire workers for engaging in otherwise legal conduct during their off-work hours. Bernero was elected Mayor of Lansing on November 8, 2005, after defeating incumbent Mayor Tony Benavides. Bernero was re-elected as mayor of Lansing in November winning against opponent Carol Wood. Bernero was elected for his third term as mayor of Lansing in November 2013, winning against opponent Harold Leeman.
During Bernero's tenure, Lansing received more than $2 billion in new private investments that created or retained more than 12,500 jobs. During potential revenue losses and rising costs, Bernero helped to eliminate more than $80 million in city budget deficits, his tenure as mayor was not without some criticism, as several political adversaries circulated a petition to have him recalled as mayor. The petition failed to collect enough signatures to be placed on the ballot. During the final period of Bernero’s tenure there was a controversial $160,000 payout to former City Attorney Janene McIntyre, the attorney for McIntyre would not comment on how he was paid either. Bernero’s comment on the situations was “It was worth it to make everyone happy”. No reason has been given for why the payout was done. Virg announced. Bernero announced his intention to run for Governor of Michigan on February 8, 2010. On August 3, 2010, Bernero defeated primary challenger Andy Dillon by 90,326 votes or nearly 20 percentage points.
In the general election. Bernero lost to Republican Candidate Snyder, garnering 39.9% of the vote to Snyder's 58.11%. In 2004, Rep. Michael Murphy, Rep. Gretchen Whitmer were jointly awarded the Ray of Light PRISM Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Lesbian, Gay and Transgender Community, he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from his alma mater Adrian College in 2008. Bernero is married to Teri, they have two daughters and Virginia. Media related to Virgil Bernero at Wikimedia Commons Lansing Mayor Virgil Bernero official city government site Virg Bernero for Governor official campaign site
Roy Judson Snell was an American writer of fiction for young readers. Snell was born in Laddonia, Missouri on November 12, 1878 to Sarah Knight-Snell. Snell wrote several books, all in the genre of juvenile fiction. While he concentrated on stories for boys there was at least one series of mysteries for girls, he wrote under the nom de plumes of David O'Hara, James Craig and Joseph Marino. Snell and his wife Lucille had three sons, Jud and James; the latter, J. Laurie Snell, became a professor of mathematics at Dartmouth College. Jud and John found careers as a United States Navy pilot respectively. In 1938, Snell appeared on Edgar Guest's radio show "This Is My Life". In 1941 he wrote a series of war stories for boys at the request of his publisher, he retired from writing soon after the end of the World War II. He spent much of his retirement at a summer cottage on Michigan. Lucille, a concert pianist who had attended the New England Conservatory of Music, suffered from asthma, so the family vacationed in the north, at Hessel, at Isle Royale.
Here the family acquired a life-lease on a property at Tobin Harbor in Isle Royale National Park. Snell would visit schools in Detroit and Des Moines, lecturing with colored slides showing life on Isle Royale. Snell died in 1959 at the age of 80, he is buried in Wheaton Cemetery in Illinois. Source: Works by Roy J. Snell at Faded Page Works by Roy J. Snell at Project Gutenberg Obituary for Roy J. Snell from The Detroit News October 6, 1959, via Chance News