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Rockefeller Brothers Fund

The Rockefeller Brothers Fund is a philanthropic foundation created and run by members of the Rockefeller family. It was founded in New York City in 1940 as the primary philanthropic vehicle for the five third-generation Rockefeller brothers: John D. Rockefeller III, Laurance and David, it is distinct from the Rockefeller Foundation. The Rockefellers are an industrial and banking family that made one of the world's largest fortunes in the oil business during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the Fund's stated mission is to "advance social change that contributes to a more just and peaceful world." The current president of RBF is Stephen Heintz, appointed to the post in 2000. Valerie Rockefeller serves as RBF's chairwoman, she succeeded Richard Rockefeller, the fifth child of David Rockefeller, who served as RBF's chairman until 2013. The Rockefeller Brothers Fund was established in 1940 by the five sons of Jr.. The five Rockefeller brothers served as the Fund's first five trustees. In 1951, the Fund grew when it received a $58 million endowment from John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

As the RBF's founding generation passed on, new family members joined the board, moving the Fund's giving further to the political left. In 1999, the Fund merged with the Charles E. Culpeper Foundation. In November 2006, David Rockefeller pledged $225 million to the Fund that would create the David Rockefeller Global Development Fund after his death. In September 2014, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund announced that it planned to divest its assets from fossil fuels. On disinvesting from fossil fuels, the president of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Stephen Heintz, said: "We see this as both a moral imperative and an economic opportunity"; the Rockefeller Family Fund and the Rockefeller Brothers Fund are independent, distinct institutions. From 1956 to 1960, the Fund financed a study conceived by its president, Nelson Rockefeller, to analyze the challenges facing the United States. Henry Kissinger was recruited to direct the project. Seven panels were constituted that looked at issues including military strategy, foreign policy, international economic strategy, governmental reorganization, the nuclear arms race.

The military subpanel's report was rush-released about two months after the USSR launched Sputnik in October 1957. Rockefeller urged the Republican Party to adopt the finding of the Special Studies Project as its platform; the findings of the project formed the framework of Nelson Rockefeller's 1960 presidential election platform. The project was published in its entirety in 1961 as Prospect for America: The Rockefeller Panel Reports; the archival study papers are stored in the Rockefeller Archive Center at the family estate. Nelson Rockefeller Laurance Rockefeller Dana S. Creel William M. Dietel Colin G. Campbell Stephen B. Heintz Harr, John Ensor, Peter J. Johnson, The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988. Nielsen, The Big Foundations, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973. Rockefeller, Memoirs, New York: Random House, 2002. Official website

Varma (surname)

Varmā, Varman, or Burman are surnames found in India and South-East. The surnames of people from the Marwari or Marwadi an Indian ethnic group. According to Ayodhya Prasad Sah, the title was used by some Brahmins in parts of Odisha, although it is recommended for the Kshatriyas. In Kerala, Varma was a given name used by several male members of the Travancore Royal Family and Cochin Royal Family and other royal families. Notable people with surname "Varma" or its variants include: Sachin Dev Burman, Indian music composer and singer belonged to the Tripura royal family Rahul Dev Burman, Indian music composer and singer, son of Sachin Dev Burman Nabadwipchandra Dev Burman, from the Tripura royal family. I. D. Aman Verma, Indian actor and T. V. host Aman Verma Amit Verma Anshul Verma, Indian politician and member of the 16th Lok Sabha Anupama Verma, Indian actress Anurag Verma, New Zealand cricketer Aru Krishansh Verma, Indian film actor Arun Verma, Indian politician and member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Atul Verma, Indian archer Baboo Lal Verma, Indian politician and state minister of the Government of Rajasthan Beni Prasad Verma, Indian politician and former Minister of Steel Bhagwati Charan Verma, 20th-century Hindi writer and winner of the Sahitya Akademi Award Bhanu Pratap Singh Verma, Indian politician who entered the Parliament of India in 2014 Bindeshwari Prasad Verma, Indian politician and first Speaker of the Bihar Legislative Assembly Binod Bihari Verma, 20th-century Indian genealogist and writer Chandradeo Prasad Verma, Indian politician and three time member of the Lok Sabha Cheti Lal Verma, 20th-century Indian industrialist Chotelal Verma, Indian politician and member of the Sixteenth Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Daya-Nand Verma, Indian mathematician after whom Verma modules are named Deepak Verma, British actor and producer Deven Verma, Indian actor Dhirendra Verma, 20th-century Indian poet and linguist Gajendra Verma, Indian composer and playback singer H. C.

Verma, Indian experimental nuclear physicist H. L. Verma, business science academic and administrator Harish Verma, Indian actor Hemraj Verma, Indian politician and member of the Sixteenth Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Hikmat Singh Verma, Fiji Indian politician and former member of the House of Representatives of Fiji Inder Verma, molecular biologist J. S. Verma, Chief Justice of India Jai Verma, Indian Hindi writer Jai Prakash Verma, Indian politician Jhunnilal Verma, Indian lawyer and politician K. C. Verma, former director of RAW – India's foreign intelligence agency Kamla Verma, Indian politician and a former cabinet minister Kaushal Kumar Verma, Indian mathematician Kimi Verma, Indian actress and fashion designer Lalji Verma, Indian politician and member of both houses of the Uttar Pradesh Legislature Mahendra K. Verma, Indian physicist working in magnetohydrodynamics Mahesh Verma, Indian prosthodontist Manikya Lal Verma, Indian politician and member of the Constituent Assembly of India Mayur Verma, Indian television actor Mihika Verma, Indian television actress and former model Motilal Verma, activist in the Indian independence movement Nakul Verma, Indian cricketer Narendra Singh Verma, Indian politician and Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Neelam Verma, Canadian television anchor and former Miss Universe finalist Neena Verma, Indian politician and member of the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly Nirmal Kumar Verma, Indian admiral who served as Chief of the Naval Staff Nirmal Verma, Indian Hindi writer and translator O.

P. Verma, Indian administrator who served as governor for two states Om Prakash Verma, Indian politician and member of the Sixteenth Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Parvesh Verma, Indian politician and member of the Parliament of India Phool Chand Verma, Indian politician, member of the Lok Sabha and a leader of Bharatiya Janata Party Pony Verma, Bollywood choreographer Purnima Verma and social worker and a Member of Parliament R. L. P. Verma, member of Lok Sabha and a leader of Bhartiya Janata Party Raghunath Singh Verma, Indian politician and member of the Lok Sabha Rajeev Verma, Indian actor Rajesh Verma, Indian politician and member of the Lok Sabha Rakesh Verma, Indian politician Rakesh Kumar Verma, Indian politician and Member of the Legislative Assembly Ram Murti Verma, Indian politician and member of the Sixteenth Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Ramdeo

Liu Tienan

Liu Tienan is a former Chinese politician and senior economic official. He served as the Director of the National Energy Administration between 2011 and 2013, the Deputy Director of the National Development and Reform Commission from 2008 to 2011, Deputy Director of the Revitalizing Old Industrial Bases in Northeast China Special Working Group between 2006 and 2008. In 2013, Liu was dismissed for corruption-related offenses. In December 2014, Liu was convicted on charges of bribery, sentenced to life in prison. Liu was born in Beijing with his ancestral home in Qi County, Shanxi. Liu graduated from Beijing University of Northeastern University. Liu joined the Communist Party of China in June 1976. In 1983, he worked as an officer in State Planning Commission until 1996. Liu worked at the Chinese foreign mission to Japan as an economic liaison officer between 1996 and 1999. While he worked at the embassy, Liu met a woman surnamed "Xu", studying for her doctorate degree at the time and working as an interpreter.

Liu began a romantic relationship with Xu soon after. Xu subsequently migrated to Canada. While in Japan Liu earned an honorary degree at Nagoya City University with Xu's help; the most serious allegation against Liu centers around his relationship with businessman Ni Ritao. In 2003, Liu met with Ni during the re-structuring of the latter's paper products company. Ni Ritao, a native of Wenzhou, was in the process of acquiring a large number of state-owned assets in the paper-making industry; as Liu's department had jurisdiction over the re-structuring process of Ni's company, the two developed a working relationship. Ni grew his businesses through building relationships with various state agency officials, including Liu. Many officials and their children became top shareholders or were listed as executives in Ni's business ventures. Chinese media reported that Liu, along with the help of his wife Guo Jinghua, his son Liu Decheng, his mistress Xu, worked together with Ni to set up several corporations in the Vancouver area in Canada.

One of these companies, CGR Investments Inc. was set up in the province of British Columbia, with 90% of the initial equity owned by Ni, 10% owned by Guo. In addition, Ni set up another corporation called "Sun Wave Investments Ltd.". Xu was listed as the chief executive for both companies. CGR was registered to a private residence in the Vancouver suburb of Burnaby. Once Liu Decheng reached the age of majority and began studying in Canada, he took over his mother's shares in CGR in December 2005, it was unclear. In addition, Ni set up a series of corporations under the "Sun Wave" umbrella, many of which were shell corporations which never had operational activities, it was alleged that Liu used his influence to secure a $100-million loan from The Export-Import Bank of China and the China Minsheng Bank in Ni's purchase of the New Skeena Pulp Mill located in the city of Prince Rupert, an asset, indirectly under the control of Ni through one of his corporate vehicles. In 1999, Liu was appointed as the Vice-Chairman of State Development Planning Commission, an agency that oversaw regulations for some state-owned enterprises.

The National Development and Reform Commission was founded in 2003 and took over some of the responsibilities of the Planning Commission, Liu became a director of its Industry Department, as well as a senior official in the special working group on revitalizing the economy of Northeastern China. At year-end review meetings in 2005, Liu said that he would decline banquet invitations from anyone below the level of a provincial governor. Liu's superior Song Xiaowu said that Liu conducted himself in a high-profile manner having police vehicles escort his entourage to ensure smooth flow of traffic on his trips to the provinces. During the NDRC's performance evaluations of civil servants in 2006, Liu was put up for promotion, but was rebuffed by some of his colleagues for his "arrogant" behavior. Nonetheless he was still appointed to become the Deputy Director of the Northeast China working group at the end of 2006, which placed him at the same rank as a Deputy Minister. Liu was critical of the policies of his then-superior Zhang Guobao.

In March 2008, Liu was appointed as the Vice-Chairman of Reform Commission. In December 2010, Liu was appointed as the Chairman of National Energy Administration, a body under the NDRC that oversees energy affairs in China. In September 2011, Liu gained a seat on the powerful National Energy Commission, a supra-ministerial energy coordination body, chaired by the Premier. In November 2011, Caijing Magazine reported that Liu's wife and son held shares in overseas companies, but did not directly mention Liu by name. Liu's alleged haughty behavior alienated many officials in the department. In May 2012, many senior retired officials signed a joint letter to the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, China's top anti-corruption body, to report Liu's alleged corrupt behaviors. On December 6, 2012, the deputy chief editor of Caijing magazine, Luo Changping, reported Liu to the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. Luo outlined three allegations against Liu Tienan. Luo promptly posted these allegations to his public Weibo account.

British première of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9

The British première of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 known as his "Choral Symphony", took place in London at the Argyll Rooms on 21 March 1825. The concert was given by the Philharmonic Society. Sir George Smart, Charles Neate and Ferdinand Ries were important in making Ludwig van Beethoven's music known at the Philharmonic Society. George Smart and Charles Neate were original members of the Philharmonic. Smart in 1814 gave the first performance in Britain of Beethoven's Christ on the Mount of Olives. Neate met Beethoven, who supervised his musical studies there. In subsequent years Neate corresponded with Beethoven, publicized the composer's works at the Philharmonic. Ries, a pupil of Beethoven, lived in London from 1813 to 1824, he was introduced to the Philharmonic, many of his compositions were performed at their concerts. Ries wrote to Beethoven on behalf of the Philharmonic in 1817. However, the visit did not take place. In 1822 Beethoven, considering a visit to London, wrote to Ries inquiring what remuneration the Society would give for a symphony.

That year the Society decided to offer £50 for a new symphony. The minutes stated: "10. November 1822. Resolved that an offer of £50 be made to Beethoven for a M. S. Sym, he having permission to dispose of it at the expiration of Eighteen Months after the receipt of it. It being a proviso that it shall arrive during the Month of March next."Beethoven wrote to Ries several times during 1823, that completion of the new work was delayed. The manuscript was complete by April 1824. Neate invited Beethoven to London for the 1825 season to conduct the symphony, offering 300 guineas for him to bring two new compositions. Meanwhile, the symphony had been performed in Vienna, on 7 May 1824; the first part of the concert on 21 March 1825 consisted of a symphony by Joseph Haydn. The second part consisted of the new symphony by Beethoven; the programme described the work: "New Grand Characteristic Sinfonia, MS. with Vocal Finale, the principal parts of which to be sung by Madame Caradori, Miss Goodall, Mr Vaughan and Mr Phillips."The leader of the orchestra was Franz Cramer, the conductor was Sir George Smart.

The text of "Ode to Joy" in the last movement was sung in Italian, the translation having been added in London. The reviewer in The Harmonicon wrote: "In the present symphony we discover no diminution of Beethoven's creative talent, but with all the merits that it unquestionably possesses, it is at least twice as long as it should be.... The last movement, a chorus... does not... mix up with the three first movements.... What relation it bears to the symphony we could not make out. E must express our hope that this new work of the great Beethoven may be put into a more produceable form; the fourth and last movement... is one of the most extraordinary instances I have witnessed, of great powers of mind and wonderful science, wasted upon subjects infinitely beneath its strength. But... parts of this movement... are beautiful... — but here, while we are enjoying the delights of so much science and melody... we are snatched away from such eloquent music, to rude and extraneous harmonies.... I must consider this new symphony as the least excellent of any Beethoven has produced, as an unequal work, abounding more in noise and confusion of design, than in those grand and lofty touches he so well knows how to make us feel...."

Ignatius of Moscow

Ignatius I redirects here. It can refer to Ignatius I Daoud. Ignatius was a Russian Orthodox bishop of Greek descent, the second Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia in 1605–1606 though his status is now disputed and he is omitted from the list of Patriarchs of Moscow by the Russian Orthodox Church. Ignatius was reported to be of Cretan descent, he came to Russia in 1595 as a member of an ecclesiastic mission, sent by the Patriarch of Constantinople. He took part in the coronation of Boris Godunov. In the early 17th century, Ignatius was appointed Archbishop of Ryazan. After the death of Godunov, he expressed support to False Dmitriy I and before the pretender reached Moscow, was swearing in his supporters in Tula. On 30 June 1605, Ignatius was elected patriarch by the council of bishops to replace Patriarch Job, sent into exile for refusing to acknowledge the pretender's rights for Russian throne. Ignatius performed the coronation of False Dmitriy I on 21 July 1605 and also celebrated the coronation of his wife Marina Mnishek and their marriage.

At that time, Ignatius was an ardent opponent of the Unia. After the assassination of False Dmitriy I, Ignatius was removed from his see and confined in the Chudov Monastery by the order of Tsar Vasili IV. In 1610, patriarch Ignatius supported False Dmitriy II. In April this year the patriarch Hermogen calling on the Russians to participate to arms and the expulsion of the Poles from the country was thrown into prison in the Monastery Czudowskim, his duties were taken over, this time without the confirmation of this fact by the council, by Ignatius. But the latter did not want to remain in the civil war-stricken Russia and December 27, 1611 made an attempt to escape from Moscow. In the vicinity of Smolensk, Ignatius was assaulted and stopped in the Polish camp outside the city. Polish King Sigismund III Vasa hoped that in the future will be able to renew war with Russia, intended to use the former patriarch person Ignatius was taken to Vilnius and settled in the Holy Trinity Church of the Basilian Monastery.

At that time he converted from Russian Orthodoxy to Byzantine Rite Catholicism, thus entering into full communion with the Pope. The date of the death of Ignatius traditionally were positioned around 1640, but in more recent studies mentioned much earlier years 1618 or 1619; the clergyman was buried in the church of the Holy Trinity in the Basilian monastery in Vilnius. His remains were removed from the tomb and exported out of the city by the Russian army after the capture of Vilnius in 1655. Due to his active role in the installation of False Dmitriy I to the Moscow throne and conversion to the Unia, Ignatius has suffered from damnatio memoriae in subsequent ages and is not counted among the legitimate patriarchs by the Russian Orthodox Church. Though his predecessor Patriarch Job was removed from his post by force, the legitimacy of Ignatius' election and his status as patriarch was not questioned by his contemporaries. Profile at Site

Charles Moskos

Charles Constantine Moskos, Jr. was a sociologist of the United States military and a professor at Northwestern University. Described as the nation's "most influential military sociologist" by The Wall Street Journal, Moskos was a source for reporters from The New York Times, The Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, USA Today, other periodicals, he was the author of the "don't ask, don't tell" policy, which prohibited homosexual service members from acknowledging their sexual orientation from 1993 to 2011. Moskos was born May 1934, in Chicago, Illinois to Greek immigrant parents from southern Albania. In his book Greek Americans: Struggle and Success, which he jokingly called "his bestseller" bought only by Greek Americans, he recalled that his father, christened Photios, adopted the name Charles after pulling it out of a hat full of "slips with appropriately American-sounding first names." Charles Moskos attended Princeton University, where he graduated cum laude in 1956, on tuition scholarship and waited tables to pay for room and board.

He was drafted into the U. S. Army right after graduation in 1956. Moskos served with the Army's combat engineers in Germany where he wrote his first article, "Has the Army Killed Jim Crow?" for the Negro History Bulletin. After leaving the military, he enrolled at UCLA, where he earned his master's and doctoral degrees in 1963, his first teaching job was at the University of Michigan, but he was soon recruited to Northwestern University, where he was one of the most popular sociology professors in the school. "Students rush to his classes to hear enthralling lectures peppered with cheesy jokes and anecdotes," the Daily Northwestern recalled in a May 2008 editorial, written the month before his death. "They may be drawn by his famed don't-ask-don't-tell military policy, but they stick around to experience his grandfather-like interactions that make every student feel addressed." Along with a number of other notable Greek Americans, he was a founding member of the Next Generation Initiative, a leadership program aimed at getting students involved in public affairs.

Moskos took many research trips to war-torn countries. He visited American troops in Vietnam. Non-American military visits include: United Nations Force in Cyprus, Italian Army in Albania, Greek Army in Bosnia, British Army in Iraq. Moskos advocated restoring the military draft, he insisted that enforcing a shared military experience for Americans of different classes and economic backgrounds forged a sense of common purpose. "This shared experience helped instill in those who served, as in the national culture a sense of unity and moral seriousness that we would not see again -- until after September 11, 2001," he wrote in a November 2001 article in Washington Monthly. "It's a shame that it has taken terrorist attacks to awaken us to the reality of our shared national fate." Charles Moskos was a respected source for the military and the media and his influence in the military went high. Military commanders such as Gen. James L. Jones, the U. S. Marine Corps commandant, Gen. Gordon R. Sullivan, former U.

S. Army chief of staff sought his advice. In 2005 Moskos completed a study for the Joint Chiefs of Staff on international military cooperation, he was author of several books, including The American Enlisted Man, The Military - More Than Just A Job?, Soldiers and Sociologists, The New Conscientious Objection, A Call To Civic Service, Reporting War When There Is No War. He was the author of All That We Can Be: Black Leadership And Racial Integration The Army Way, which won the Washington Monthly award for the best political book of 1996. In addition, he published well over one hundred articles in scholarly journals and news publications such as The New York Times, The Washington Post, Chicago Tribune, Atlantic Monthly, the New Republic, his work has been translated into fourteen languages. He was a leading figure in the field of civil-military relations, he was president of the Inter-University Seminar on Society and Chair. In addition, he was consulted by Presidents Bill Clinton and George H. W. Bush and testified before Congress on issues of military personnel policy several times.

In 1992, he was appointed by Bush to serve on the President's Commission on the Assignment of Women in the Military. He was decorated by the governments of the United States and the Netherlands for his research and held the Distinguished Service Medal, the U. S. Army's highest decoration for a civilian, he served as Chair of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society. What Moskos called his "real fame" came when he coined the phrase "don't ask, don't tell". In 1993, to help break an impasse between the Clinton administration and military leadership over the status of gays in the military, Moskos devised a compromise policy and coined the phrase "don't ask, don't tell". Suggested as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Seek, Don't Flaunt" to Senate Armed Forces Committee Chairman Senator Sam Nunn, it was shortened to "don't ask, don't tell". Secretary of Defense Les Aspin approved the policy, it was recommended to the President. In the following months, Moskos worked with the White House, the Armed Forces, the Senate Armed Forces Committee to draft the policy, adopted.

In 2000, Moskos told academic journal Lingua Franca that