Charles Yorke PC was Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. The second son of Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke, he was born in London, was educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, his literary abilities were shown at an early age by his collaboration with his brother Philip in the Athenian Letters. In 1745 he published an able treatise on the law of forfeiture for high treason, in defence of the severe sentences his father had given to the Scottish Jacobite peers following the Battle of Culloden. In the following year he was called to the bar, his father being at this time Lord Chancellor, Yorke obtained a sinecure appointment in the Court of Chancery in 1747, entered Parliament as member for Reigate, a seat which he afterwards exchanged for that for the University of Cambridge. He made his mark in the House of Commons, one of his earliest speeches being in favour of his father's reform of the marriage law that led to the Marriage Act 1753. In 1750 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
In 1751 he became counsel to the East India Company, in 1756 he was appointed Solicitor-General, a place which he retained in the administration of the elder Pitt, of whose foreign policy he was a powerful defender. He in 1762 became Attorney-General under Lord Bute, he continued to hold this office when George Grenville became Prime Minister, advised the government on the question raised by John Wilkes's The North Briton. Yorke refused to describe the libel as treasonable, while pronouncing it a high misdemeanour. In the following November he resigned office. Resisting Pitt's attempt to draw him into alliance against the ministry he had quit, Yorke maintained, in a speech that extorted the highest eulogy from Horace Walpole, that parliamentary privilege did not extend to cases of libel. Yorke, henceforward a member of the Rockingham party, was elected recorder of Dover in 1764, in 1765 he again became Attorney-General in the Rockingham administration, whose policy he did much to shape, he supported the repeal of the Stamp Act, while urging the simultaneous passing of the Declaratory Act.
His most important measure was the constitution which he drew up for the province of Quebec, which after his resignation of office became the Quebec Act of 1774. On the accession to power of Chatham and Grafton in 1766, Yorke resigned office, took little part in the debates in parliament during the next four years. In 1770 he was invited by the Duke of Grafton, when Camden was dismissed from the Chancellorship, to take his seat on the woolsack, he had, explicitly pledged himself to Rockingham and his party not to take office with Grafton. The King exerted all his personal influence to overcome Yorke's scruples, warning him that the Great Seal if now refused would never again be within his grasp. Yorke yielded to the King's entreaty, he was appointed Lord Chancellor and sworn of the Privy Council on 17 January 1770, he went to his brother's house, where he met the leaders of the Opposition, feeling at once overwhelmed with shame, fled to his own house, where three days he committed suicide. The patent raising him to the peerage as Baron Morden had been made out, but his last act was to refuse his sanction to the sealing of the document.
Charles Yorke was twice married: Firstly, on 19 May 1755 to Katherine Blount Freeman, with one son: Philip Yorke, became 3rd Earl of Hardwicke. Caroline Yorke, who married John Eliot, 1st Earl of St Germans. Joseph Sydney Yorke, who became an Admiral in the Royal Navy, his wife was heiress to Tyttenhanger House, near Hertfordshire. Cannon, J. "Yorke, Charles", in L. Namier and J. Brooke The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754–1790, vol.3 new ed. London:Secker & Warburg, ISBN 0-436-30420-1 — "Yorke, Charles", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, accessed 2 March 2008; the first edition of this text is available at Wikisource: "Yorke, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Yorke, P. C.. The Life and Correspondence of Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. Octagon. ISBN 0-374-98837-4
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, was a British nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762 to 1763 under George III. He was arguably the last important favourite in British politics, he was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707 and the first Tory to have held the post. He was elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland when it was founded in 1780, he was born in Parliament Close, close to St Giles Cathedral on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh on 25 May 1713, the son of James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, his wife, Lady Anne Campbell. He attended Eton College from midsummer 1724 to Whitsun 1730, he went on to study law at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. A close relative of the Clan Campbell, Bute succeeded to the Earldom of Bute upon the death of his father, James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, in 1723, he was brought up thereafter by his maternal uncles, the 2nd Duke of Argyll and Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, 1st and only Earl of Ilay.
In August 1735, he eloped with Mary Wortley Montagu, whose parents Sir Edward and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu were slow to consent to the marriage. In 1737, he was elected a Scottish representative peer; because of his support for Argyll against Walpole, he was not re-elected in 1741. For the next several years he retired to his estates in Scotland to manage his affairs and indulge his interest in botany. In 1745, Bute moved to Westminster, where his family rented a house at Twickenham for forty-five pounds per annum, he met Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1747 at the Egham Races and became a close friend to the Prince. After the Prince's death in 1751, Bute was appointed tutor to Prince George, the new Prince of Wales. Bute arranged for the Prince and his brother Prince Edward to follow a course of lectures on natural philosophy by the itinerant lecturer Stephen Demainbray; this led to an increased interest in natural philosophy on the part of the young prince and was one in a series of events that led to the establishment of the George III Collection of natural philosophical instruments.
Furthermore, following the death of the Prince Frederick, Bute became close to his widow, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the Dowager Princess of Wales. It was rumoured that the couple were having an affair, indeed soon after John Horne Tooke published a scandalous pamphlet alluding to a liaison between Bute and the Princess. Rumours of this affair were certainly untrue, as Bute was by all indications married, he held sincere religious beliefs against adultery. In 1780 Bute was elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; because of the influence he had over his pupil, Bute expected to rise to political power following George's accession to the throne in 1760, but his plans were premature. It would first be necessary to remove both the incumbent Prime Minister and arguably the more powerful Secretary of State for the Southern Department; the Government of the day, buoyed by recent successes in the Seven Years' War, was popular and did well at the general election which, as was customary at the time, took place on the accession of the new monarch.
Supported by the king, Bute manoeuvred himself into power by first allying himself with Newcastle against Pitt over the latter's desire to declare war on Spain which, when defeated, precipitated Pitt's resignation and forcing Newcastle's resignation when the Prime Minister found himself in a small minority within the Government over the level of funding and direction of the war. Re-elected as a Scottish representative peer in 1760, Bute was indeed appointed the de facto Prime Minister, thus ending a long period of Whig dominance. Bute's premiership was notable for the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris which concluded the Seven Years' War. In so doing, Bute had to soften his previous stance in relation to concessions given to France, in that he agreed that the important fisheries in Newfoundland be returned to France without Britain's possession of Guadeloupe in return. After peace was concluded and the King decided that Britain's military expenditure should not exceed its pre-war levels but they thought a large presence was necessary in America to deal with the French and Spanish threat.
They therefore charged the colonists for the increased military levels, thus catalysing the resistance to taxes which led to the American Revolution. Bute introduced a Cider tax that charged 4 shillings per hogshead in 1763 to help finance the Seven Years' War. King George began to see through Bute, turned against him after being criticised for an official speech which the press recognised as Bute's own work; the journalist John Wilkes published a newspaper called The North Briton, in which both Bute and the Dowager Princess of Wales were savagely satirised. Bute resigned as prime minister shortly afterwards, although he remained in the House of Lords as a Scottish representative peer until 1780, he remained friendly with the Dowager Princess of Wales, but her attempts to reconcile him with George III proved futile. For the remainder of his life, Bute remained at his estate in Hampshire, where he built himself a mansion called High Cliff near Christchurch. From there he became a major literary and artistic patron.
Among his beneficiaries were Samuel Johnson, Tobias Smollett, Robert Adam, William Robertson and John Hill. He gave to the Scottish universities, his botanical w
Edmund Burke was an Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party. Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the importance of religious institutions for the moral stability and good of the state; these views were expressed in his A Vindication of Natural Society. Burke criticized British treatment of the American colonies, including through its taxation policies, he supported the rights of the colonists to resist metropolitan authority, though he opposed the attempt to achieve independence. Burke is remembered for his support for Catholic emancipation, the impeachment of Warren Hastings from the East India Company and for his staunch opposition to the French Revolution. In his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Burke asserted that the revolution was destroying the fabric of good society and traditional institutions of state and society, condemned the persecution of the Catholic Church that resulted from it.
This led to his becoming the leading figure within the conservative faction of the Whig Party, which he dubbed the "Old Whigs", as opposed to the pro-French Revolution "New Whigs", led by Charles James Fox. In the nineteenth century, Burke was praised by both liberals. Subsequently, in the twentieth century he became regarded as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism. Burke was born in Ireland, his mother Mary née Nagle was a Roman Catholic who hailed from a déclassé County Cork family, whereas his father, a successful solicitor, was a member of the Church of Ireland. The Burke dynasty descends from an Anglo-Norman knight surnamed de Burgh who arrived in Ireland in 1185 following Henry II of England's 1171 invasion of Ireland and is among the chief "Gall" families that assimilated into Gaelic society, becoming "more Irish than the Irish themselves". Burke adhered to his father's faith and remained a practising Anglican throughout his life, unlike his sister Juliana, brought up as and remained a Roman Catholic.
His political enemies accused him of having been educated at the Jesuit College of St. Omer, near Calais, of harbouring secret Catholic sympathies at a time when membership of the Catholic Church would disqualify him from public office; as Burke told Frances Crewe: Mr. Burke's Enemies endeavoured to convince the World that he had been bred up in the Catholic Faith, & that his Family were of it, & that he himself had been educated at St. Omer—but this was false, as his father was a regular practitioner of the Law at Dublin, which he could not be unless of the Established Church: & it so happened that though Mr. B—was twice at Paris, he never happened to go through the Town of St. Omer. After being elected to the House of Commons, Burke was required to take the oath of Allegiance and abjuration, the oath of supremacy, declare against transubstantiation. Although never denying his Irishness, Burke described himself as "an Englishman". According to the historian J. C. D. Clark, this was in an age "before'Celtic nationalism' sought to make Irishness and Englishness incompatible".
As a child he sometimes spent time away from the unhealthy air of Dublin with his mother's family in the Blackwater Valley in County Cork. He received his early education at a Quaker school in Ballitore, County Kildare, some 67 kilometres from Dublin, he remained in correspondence with his schoolmate from there, Mary Leadbeater, the daughter of the school's owner, throughout his life. In 1744, Burke started at Trinity College Dublin, a Protestant establishment, which up until 1793, did not permit Catholics to take degrees. In 1747, he set up a debating society, "Edmund Burke's Club", which, in 1770, merged with TCD's Historical Club to form the College Historical Society; the minutes of the meetings of Burke's Club remain in the collection of the Historical Society. Burke graduated from Trinity in 1748. Burke's father wanted him to read Law, with this in mind he went to London in 1750, where he entered the Middle Temple, before soon giving up legal study to travel in Continental Europe. After eschewing the Law, he pursued a livelihood through writing.
The late Lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the Study and Use of History was published in 1752 and his collected works appeared in 1754. This provoked Burke into writing his first published work, A Vindication of Natural Society: A View of the Miseries and Evils Arising to Mankind, appearing in Spring 1756. Burke imitated Bolingbroke's style and ideas in a reductio ad absurdum of his arguments for atheistic rationalism, in order to demonstrate their absurdity. Burke claimed that Bolingbroke's arguments against revealed religion could apply to all social and civil institutions as well. Lord Chesterfield and Bishop Warburton thought that the work was genuinely by Bolingbroke rather than a satire. All the reviews of the work were positive, with critics appreciative of Burke's quality of writing; some reviewers failed to notice the ironic nature of the book, which led to Burke stating in the preface to the second edition that it was a satire. Richard Hurd believed that Burke's imitation was near-perfect and that this defeated his purpose: an ironist "should take care by a constant exaggeration to
Tories (British political party)
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York, who became James II of England and VII of Scotland; this party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool; the Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland.
When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the Representation of the People Act 1832 removed the rotten boroughs, many of which were controlled by Tories. In the following general election, the Tory ranks were reduced to 180 MPs. Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are still referred to as Tories as they still follow and promote the ideology of Toryism; the first Tory party could trace its principles and politics, though not its organization, to the English Civil War which divided England between the Royalist supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of the Long Parliament upon which the King had declared war. This action resulted from this parliament not allowing him to levy taxes without yielding to its terms.
In the beginning of the Long Parliament, the King's supporters were few, the Parliament pursued a course of reform of previous abuses. The increasing radicalism of the Parliamentary majority, estranged many reformers in the Parliament itself and drove them to make common cause with the King; the King's party thus comprised a mixture of supporters of royal autocracy and of those Parliamentarians who felt that the Long Parliament had gone too far in attempting to gain executive power for itself and, more in undermining the episcopalian government of the Church of England, felt to be a primary support of royal government. By the end of the 1640s, the radical Parliamentary programme had become clear: reduction of the King to a powerless figurehead and replacement of Anglican episcopacy with a form of Presbyterianism; this prospective form of settlement was prevented by a coup d'état which shifted power from Parliament itself to the Parliamentary New Model Army, controlled by Oliver Cromwell. The Army had King Charles I executed and for the next eleven years the British kingdoms operated under military dictatorship.
The Restoration of King Charles II produced a reaction in which the King regained a large part of the power held by his father. No subsequent British monarch would attempt to rule without Parliament, after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, political disputes would be resolved through elections and parliamentary manoeuvring, rather than by an appeal to force. Charles II restored episcopacy in the Church of England, his first "Cavalier Parliament" began as a royalist body, passed a series of acts re-establishing the Church by law and punishing dissent by both Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants. These acts did not reflect the King's personal views and demonstrated the existence of a Royalist ideology beyond mere subservience to the Court. A series of disasters in the late 1660s and 1670s discredited Charles II's governments, powerful political interests began to agitate for a greater role of Parliament in government, coupled with more tolerance for Protestant dissenters; these interests would soon coalesce as the Whigs.
As direct attacks on the King were politically impossible and could lead to execution for treason, opponents of the power of the Court framed their challenges as exposés of subversive and sinister Catholic plots. Although the matter of these plots was fictitious, they reflected two uncomfortable political realities: first, that Charles II had undertaken measures to convert the kingdom to Catholicism; as a political term, "Tory" entered English politics during the Exclusion Bill crisis of 1678–1681. The Whigs, were those who supported the exclusion of James, the Duke of York from the succession to thrones of Scotland and England and Ireland and the Tories were those who opposed the Exclusion Bill; the Whigs tried to link the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Duke of Ormonde, with the foremost Irish Tory, Redmond O'Hanlon
Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton
Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, styled Earl of Euston between 1747 and 1757, was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. He is one of a handful of dukes, he became Prime Minister in 1768 at the age of 33, leading the supporters of William Pitt, was the youngest person to have held the office until the appointment of William Pitt the Younger 15 years later. However, he struggled to demonstrate an ability to counter increasing challenges to Britain's global dominance following the nation's victory in the Seven Years' War, he was attacked for allowing France to annex Corsica, stepped down in 1770, handing over power to Lord North. He was a son of Lord Augustus FitzRoy, a Captain in the Royal Navy, Elizabeth Cosby, daughter of Colonel William Cosby, who served as a colonial Governor of New York, his father was the third son of the 2nd Duke of Grafton and Lady Henrietta Somerset, which made FitzRoy a great-grandson of both the 1st Duke of Grafton and the Marquess of Worcester. He was notably the 1st Duchess of Cleveland.
His younger brother was the 1st Baron Southampton. From the death of his uncle in 1747, he was styled Earl of Euston as his grandfather's heir apparent. Lord Euston was educated at Newcome's School in Hackney and at Westminster School, made the Grand Tour, obtained a degree at Peterhouse, University of Cambridge. In 1756, he entered Parliament as MP for a pocket borough. However, a year his grandfather died and he succeeded as 3rd Duke of Grafton, which elevated him to the House of Lords, he first became known in politics as an opponent of Lord Bute, a favourite of King George III. Grafton aligned himself with the Duke of Newcastle against Lord Bute, whose term as Prime Minister was short-lived because it was felt that the peace terms to which he had agreed at the Treaty of Paris were not a sufficient return for Britain's performance in the Seven Years' War. In 1765, Grafton was appointed a Privy Counsellor. However, he retired the following year, Pitt formed a ministry in which Grafton was First Lord of the Treasury but not Prime Minister.
Chatham's illness, at the end of 1767, resulted in Grafton becoming the Government's effective leader, but political differences, the impact of the Corsican Crisis and the attacks of "Junius" led to his resignation in January 1770. In 1768, Grafton became Chancellor of Cambridge University, he became Lord Privy Seal in Lord North's ministry but resigned in 1775, being in favour of conciliatory action towards the American colonists. In the second Rockingham ministry of 1782, he was again Lord Privy Seal. In years he was a prominent Unitarian, being one of the early members of the inaugural Essex Street Chapel under Rev. Theophilus Lindsey when founded in 1774. Grafton had associated with a number of liberal Anglican theologians when at Cambridge, devoted much time to theological study and writing after leaving office as Prime Minister. In 1773 in the House of Lords he supported a bill to release Anglican clergy from subscribing to all the Thirty-nine Articles, he became an advocate of moral reformation of liturgical reform.
He was author of: Hints Submitted to the Serious Attention of the Clergy and Gentry, by a Layman. Serious Reflections of a Rational Christian from 1788–1797, he was a sponsor of Richard Watson's Consideration of the Expediency of Revising the Liturgy and Article of the Church of England and he funded the printing of 700 copies of Griesbach's edition of the Greek New Testament in 1796. The Duke had horse racing interests, his racing silks were sky blue, with a black cap. Grafton County, New Hampshire, in the United States, is named in his honour, as are the towns of Grafton, New South Wales, the town of Grafton, New York, the unincorporated community of Grafton and the township of Grafton, West Virginia; the Grafton Centre Shopping Mall in Cambridge is named after him, indeed lies on Fitzroy Street. Cape Grafton in Far North Queensland was named after him by Lieutenant James Cook during his first voyage of discovery. Grafton had the longest post-premiership of any prime minister in British history, totalling 41 years and 45 days.
On 29 January 1756, he married The Hon. Anne Liddell, daughter of Henry Liddell, 4th Baronet Ravensworth, they had three children: Lady Georgiana FitzRoy, who married John Smyth on 4 June 1778. George Henry FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton General Lord Charles FitzRoy, who married, Frances Mundy on 20 June 1795, had one son, he married, Lady Frances Stewart on 10 March 1799 and had three children. His sons Sir Charles FitzRoy, governor of New South Wales, Robert FitzRoy, the hydrographer, were notable for their achievements. In 1764, the Duke had a public affair with the courtesan Nancy Parsons whom he kept at his town house and took to the opera; this brazen lack of convention offended society's standards. After the Duchess had become pregnant by her lover, the Earl of Upper Ossory and the Duke were divorced by Act of Parliament, passed 23 March 1769. Three mont
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond
Field Marshal Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 3rd Duke of Lennox, 3rd Duke of Aubigny, styled Earl of March until 1750, was a British Army officer and politician. He associated with the Rockingham Whigs and rose to hold the post of Southern Secretary for a brief period, he was noteworthy for his support for the colonists during the American Revolutionary War, his support for a policy of concession in Ireland and his advanced views on the issue of parliamentary reform. He went on to be a reforming Master-General of the Ordnance first in the Rockingham ministry and in the ministry of William Pitt; the son of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Sarah Cadogan, daughter of William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan. Brother of the famous Lennox sisters, he was educated at Westminster School and Leiden University and succeeded his father as Duke of Richmond in August 1750, he was commissioned as an ensign in the 2nd Foot Guards in March 1752, promoted to captain in the 20th Regiment of Foot on 18 June 1753 and was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 11 December 1755.
Richmond became lieutenant-colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot on 7 June 1756. A second battalion of this regiment was raised and in 1757, the following year it became an independent regiment, the 72nd Foot. In May 1758 he became colonel of the 72nd Regiment. Richmond took part in the Raid on Cherbourg in August 1758 and served as aide-de-camp to Prince Frederick of Brunswick at the Battle of Minden in August 1759. Promoted to major-general on 9 March 1761, he saw the 72nd Regiment disbanded in 1763 at the end of the Seven Years' War, he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Sussex on 18 October 1763. Richmond was appointed British ambassador extraordinary in Paris and made a Privy Counsellor in 1765, in the following year he served as Southern Secretary in the Rockingham Whig administration, resigning office on the accession of Pitt the Elder in July 1766, he was promoted to lieutenant general on 30 April 1770 and was leader of the parliamentary Whigs in opposition in 1771 when Rockingham's wife was ill.
Richmond's anti-colonial positions earned him the sobriquet "the radical duke." In the debates on the policy that led to the American Revolutionary War Richmond was a firm supporter of the colonists, he initiated the debate in 1778 calling for the removal of British troops from America, during which Pitt was seized by his fatal illness. He advocated a policy of concession in Ireland, with reference to which he originated the phrase "a union of hearts" which long afterwards became famous when his use of it had been forgotten. In 1779 Richmond brought forward a motion for retrenchment of the civil list, in 1780 he embodied in a bill his proposals for parliamentary reform, which included manhood suffrage, annual parliaments and equal electoral areas. Richmond joined the Second Rockingham Ministry as Master-General of the Ordnance in March 1782, he resigned as Master-General when the Fox–North Coalition came to power in April 1783. In January 1784 he joined the First Pitt the Younger Ministry as Master-General of the Ordnance.
He now developed Tory opinions, his alleged desertion of the cause of reform led to accusations of apostasy, an attack on him by Lord Lauderdale in 1792, which nearly led to a duel. In November 1795, when Thomas Hardy and John Horne Tooke were charged with treason and cited his publications on reform in their defence, Richmond became a liability to the Government and was dismissed in February 1795, he became colonel of the Royal Horse Guards on 18 July 1795 and was promoted to field marshal on 30 July 1796. On 15 June 1797 he raised a Yeomanry artillery troop, the Duke of Richmond's Light Horse Artillery at his estate at Goodwood; the troop was equipped with his own design of Curricle gun carriage. In retirement Richmond built the famous racecourse at the family seat of Goodwood, he was a patron of artists such as George Stubbs, Pompeo Batoni, Anton Raphael Mengs, Joshua Reynolds and George Romney. Richmond was buried in Chichester Cathedral, he did have three illegitimate children by his housekeeper.
Brereton, J. M.. C. S.. History of the Duke of Wellington's Regiment. Duke of Wellington's Regiment. ISBN 978-0952155201. Heathcote, Tony; the British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. L. Barlow & R. J. Smith, The Uniforms of the British Yeomanry Force 1794–1914, 1: The Sussex Yeomanry Cavalry, London: Robert Ogilby Trust/Tunbridge Wells: Midas Books, ca 1979, ISBN 0-85936-183-7. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Lennox, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. 33. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Gilman, D. C.. "Richmond, Charles Lennox, third Duke of". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
First Rockingham ministry
The First Rockingham ministry was a British ministry headed by the Marquess of Rockingham from 1765 to 1766 during the reign of King George III. The government was made up of his followers known as the Rockingham Whigs; the most influential member of the government was the Duke of Newcastle, a former Prime Minister, who served as Lord Privy Seal. It is referred to as the only government to have been made up entirely of members of the Jockey Club, with Rockingham himself being a prominent patron and follower of the turf. Rockingham was noted for his ignorance of foreign affairs, his ministry failed to reverse the growing isolation of Britain within Europe; the Rockingham ministry fell in 1766 and was replaced by one headed by William Pitt the Earl of Chatham. October 1765 – The Duke of Cumberland the uncle of King George III, dies. May 1766 – The Duke of Grafton resigns from the cabinet. Henry Seymour Conway succeeds him as Northern Secretary, the Duke of Richmond succeeds Conway as Southern Secretary.
Lord Chamberlain – The Duke of Portland Browning, Reed. The Duke of Newcastle. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01746-5. Cook, Chris. British Historical Facts: 1760–1830. Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN 978-0-333-21512-8. Hibbert, Christopher. George III: A Personal History. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-025737-3. Simms, Brendan. Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-028984-8