Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Wethersfield is a town in Hartford County, United States. It is located south of Hartford along the Connecticut River, its population was 26,668 in the 2010 census. Many records from colonial times spell the name "Weathersfield" and "Wythersfield", while Native Americans called it "Pyquag". "Watertown" is a variant name. The town is served by Interstate 91; the neighborhood known as Old Wethersfield is the state's largest historic district, spanning 2 sq mi and 1,100 buildings, dating back to the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Founded in 1634 by a Puritan settlement party of "10 Men" including John Oldham, Robert Seeley, Thomas Topping and Nathaniel Foote, Wethersfield is arguably the oldest town in Connecticut, depending on one's interpretation of when a remote settlement qualifies as a "town". Along with Windsor and Hartford, Wethersfield is represented by one of the three grapevines on the Flag of Connecticut, signifying the state's three oldest European settlements; the town took its name from a village in the English county of Essex.
The town was called "Watertown" named after Watertown, Massachusetts until February 21, 1637 when it was incorporated as a town along with Windsor and Hartford. During the Pequot War, on April 23, 1637, Wangunk chief Sequin, who had lived with the colonists in Wethersfield but had been forced out after a few years, attacked Wethersfield with Pequot help, they killed six men and three women, a number of cattle and horses, took two young girls captive. They were daughters of Abraham Swain or William Swaine and were ransomed by Dutch traders. Four witch trials and three executions for witchcraft occurred in the town in the 17th century. Mary Johnson was convicted of witchcraft and executed in 1648, Joan and John Carrington in 1651. In 1669, landowner Katherine Harrison was convicted, although her conviction was reversed, she was banished and her property seized by her neighbors. From 1716 to 1718, Yale University was located in Wethersfield. Silas Deane, commissioner to France during the American Revolutionary War, lived in the town.
His house is now part of the Webb-Deane-Stevens Museum. In May 1781, at the Webb House on Main Street, General George Washington and French Lt. Gen. Rochambeau planned the Siege of Yorktown, which culminated in the independence of the rebellious colonies; the Wethersfield Volunteer Fire Department was chartered by the Connecticut Legislature on May 12, 1803, making it the first formally chartered fire department in Connecticut, is one of the oldest chartered volunteer fire department in continuous existence in the United States. Wethersfield was "for a century at least, the centre of the onion trade in New England", during the late 1700s and early to middle 1800s. "Outsiders dubbed the Connecticut village'Oniontown,' with a crosshatch of affection and derision, for this was home of the world-famous Wethersfield red onion."In addition, the town was home to William G. Comstock, a well-known 19th century gardening expert and author of the era's most prominent gardening book, Order of Spring Work.
In 1820, Comstock founded what would become Comstock, Ferre & Company America's oldest continuously operating seed company, pioneering the commercial sale of sealed packets of seeds as he had learned from the Amish. Other nationally prominent seed companies in and around the town are the offspring of this agricultural past. A meteorite fell on Wethersfield on November 8, 1982, it was the second meteorite to fall in the town in the span of 11 years, crashed through the roof of a house without injuring the occupants, as the first Wethersfield meteorite had done. The 1971 meteorite was sold to the Smithsonian, the 1982 meteorite was taken up as part of a collection at the Yale Peabody Museum. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 13.1 square miles, of which 12.3 square miles is land and 0.81 square miles, or 6.10%, is water. Wethersfield is bordered by Hartford on the north, Rocky Hill on the south, Newington on the west, across the Connecticut River by East Hartford on the northeast and Glastonbury on the east.
As of the 2000 census, there were 26,268 people, 11,214 households, 7,412 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,119.9 people per square mile. There were 11,454 housing units at an average density of 924.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.19% White, 2.09% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 1.58% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.82% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.19% of the population. There were 11,214 households, out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.89. The town population was distributed with 20.1% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 23.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $53,289, the median income for a family was $68,154. Males had a median income of $43,998 versus $37,443 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,930. About 2.4% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, i
Connecticut Route 99
Route 99 is a state highway in Connecticut running for 10.64 miles from Route 9 in Cromwell, through the town of Rocky Hill, ending in Wethersfield at the Hartford city line. The road continues into Hartford as a local road, it follows the former alignment of Route 9 from prior to that route's upgrade to a freeway. Route 99 begins as the northbound Exit 18 ramp of Route 9 in Cromwell. At the end of the off ramp, the road continues north as Main Street.. Main Street is a two-lane road that goes north through Cromwell up to Rocky Hill for about 5.6 miles. At the junction with Elm Street, the road becomes a four-lane road known as the Silas Deane Highway; the Silas Deane Highway continues through Rocky Hill up to the town of Wethersfield. It serves as the main thoroughfare of these two towns providing access to several shopping centers. Route 99 has interchanges with Interstate 91 in Rocky Hill and the Wilbur Cross Highway in Wethersfield. At the Hartford city line, Route 99 ends but the road continues into downtown Hartford as Wethersfield Avenue.
The entire length of Route 99 is known as the George Washington Memorial Highway. The alignment of Route 99 was designated as part of New England Interstate Route 10 in the 1920s; the Silas Deane Highway was built in 1930 and New England Route 10 was shifted west to use the new highway. In the 1932 state highway renumbering, the alignment was re-designated as Route 9; when Route 9 was upgraded to an expressway between I-91 and I-95 in 1969, the old surface alignment became Route 99. Conn. Rt. 99 Photo
Interstate 91 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of the region; the Interstate's southern end is in New Haven, Connecticut, at Interstate 95 and its northern end is at Derby Line, Vermont, a village in the town of Derby at the Canadian border, where it continues past the Derby Line-Rock Island Border Crossing as Autoroute 55. I-91 is the longest of three Interstate highways whose entire route is located within the New England states and is the only primary Interstate Highway in New England to intersect all five of the others that run through the region; the largest cities along its route are New Haven, Hartford, Springfield, Brattleboro, White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, Vermont in order from south to north. I-91 is 290 miles long and travels nearly straight north and south: 58 miles in Connecticut, 55 miles in Massachusetts, 177 miles in Vermont. I-91 parallels U. S. Route 5 for all of its length, many of the exits along I-91 provide direct or indirect access to the older highway.
Much of the route of I-91 follows the Connecticut River, traveling from Hartford, northward to St. Johnsbury, Vermont. I-91 is the major north–south transportation corridor for the center of the state, it is the main route between the larger cities of New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts. As such, it is always trafficked, maintains at least three lanes in each direction through Connecticut except for a short portion in Hartford at the interchange with I-84 and in Meriden at the interchange with Route 15; the three cities serve as Connecticut's control points along its length of the Interstate. I-91 begins just east of downtown New Haven at an interchange with I-95, Route 34. At the bottom of the ramp for exit 5, US 5 begins at the first of its many interchanges with the freeway. Leaving New Haven, I-91 follows a northeastward trek into North Haven, where it meets the southern end of the Route 40 expressway, it travels through the eastern part of Wallingford before entering the eastern part of the city of Meriden.
In Meriden, about halfway between Hartford and New Haven, I-91 sees a complex set of interchanges with the Wilbur Cross Parkway, the Route 66 expressway, its first spur route, I-691. I-691 provides the city of Waterbury. Leaving Meriden, I-91 enters Middlesex County as it travels through the western part of Middletown before entering Cromwell, where it has an interchange with the Route 9 expressway, it enters Hartford County in the town of Rocky Hill, enters Wethersfield, where it meets the southern end of the Route 3 expressway, which leads to Glastonbury and the Route 2 expressway via the Putnam Bridge over the Connecticut River. From here to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, I-91 parallels the river, never more than five miles from its shore. I-91 enters the Hartford city limits. In Hartford, I-91 it has a set of interchanges with US 5/Route 15, which provides access from I-91 north to I-84 east, from I-84 west to I-91 south via the Charter Oak Bridge. I-91 has an interchange with I-84, where all other movements to and from I-84 take place.
Before leaving the city limits, an HOV lane begins that has its own set of interchanges up to exit 38. I-91 enters Windsor, where it meets the western end of its other Connecticut spur route, I-291. At the Windsor–Windsor Locks town line, it meets the eastern terminus of the Route 20 expressway, which provides direct access to Bradley International Airport. A couple miles north, I-91 crosses the Connecticut River on the Dexter Coffin Bridge into East Windsor. After traveling through East Windsor and Enfield, it crosses the Massachusetts state line into Longmeadow at milepost 58. I-91 travels 55 miles through the Pioneer Valley of western Massachusetts paralleling the Connecticut River. I-91 serves as the major transportation corridor through three Massachusetts counties, linking the cities of Springfield and Greenfield; the three cities serve as the control cities listed on guide and mileage signs, along with Brattleboro, Vermont beginning with the first northbound conventional mileage sign in Longmeadow.
In Springfield, I-91 has an interchange with I-291 at exit 8, a 5.44-mile-long spur going eastbound connecting with the Massachusetts Turnpike, for travelers going either east to Boston or west to Albany, New York. North of Springfield, I-91 enters Chicopee itself where there is an interchange with the spur of I-391 at exit 12 before turning westward to cross the Connecticut River into West Springfield. I-391 provides direct access to Holyoke center, while I-91 continues on the western side of the river. Just after the river crossing, exit 14 is a major interchange with the Massachusetts Turnpike before entering the city of Holyoke where exit 15 is located. Just after exit 16 U. S. Route 202, I-91 goes from three lanes to two lanes in each direction to the Vermont state line. After a short exit-less stretch, I-91 enters Northampton, passing the Northampton Airport and an oxbow lake; the towns of Hadley and Amherst, home to the main campus of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, are accessible from I-91 exits in Northampton via Route 9.
Continuing north, I-91 enters Hatfield, where it begins a straight section—nearly six miles without a bend in the road. Several exits provide Route 10 in Hatfield and Whately before entering Deerfield. I-91 has two exits in Greenfield. At
Berlin is a town in Hartford County, United States. The population was 19,866 at the 2010 census, it was incorporated in 1785. The geographic center of Connecticut is located in the town. Berlin is residential and industrial, is served by the Amtrak station of the same name. Berlin has two hamlets: Kensington and East Berlin; the greatest boom to Berlin industry resulted from the decision of the Patterson brothers to start their business on West Street. For twenty years until 1760, they kept their work in the family selling their wares from a basket; when demand increased they took apprentices into the shop and engaged peddlers to travel throughout the colonies selling the shiny, useful articles. As others learned the trade, they soon hired apprentices. There were so many that the noise of the whitesmiths and their hammering could be heard in every part of town; the town took parts away from Wethersfield, Middletown and Farmington. Berlin was one of the birthplaces of interchangeable parts manufacturing and of the industrial revolution in the United States, in the workshop of Simeon North.
The town was known as Kensington. In 1659, Sergeant Richard Beckley purchased 300 acres from Chief Tarramuggus, built a home for his family and became the first settler in what was to become Berlin. Other families followed, in 1686, Captain Richard Seymour led a group of families from Farmington to begin the first settlement on Christian Lane. By 1705, the first ecclesiastical society was recognized and the area renamed the Great Swamp Society; the first meetinghouse and cemetery were established a few years and the first school house built in 1717. 1722 brought reorganization to the Society. Parts of the towns of Farmington and Middletown were added to increase the land area, the name changed to Kensington. In 1772, the Society was divided into an eastern half, called Worthington, the western section, which retained the name of Kensington. 1785 brought incorporation of the town, called Berlin. New Britain remained a part of Berlin until 1850. Around 1740, Edward and William Pattison, two brothers from Ireland, emigrated to Berlin and set up the first tinware business in the colonies.
Wares in baskets were pedaled from house to house as surplus accumulated, by mule and wagon, traveling all over America and to Canada. This was the birth of "The Yankee Peddler". During the years from 1700-1750, farms and blacksmiths sprang up through the Great Swamp. Most residents of this area were skilled in one or more of these trades, which were recognized and allowed by the British government. A blacksmith was crucial for daily living needs such as nails, hinges, hooks, cooking utensils, parts for wagons and sleds. Small ironworks sprang up near local waterpower. In addition to tinware, ammunition was made from the local lead mines during the Revolutionary War. East Berlin Milling Co. produced cotton and woolen yarn, spun into clothing and blankets. Simeon North, manufacturer of pistols, became the first official pistol maker for the United States Government when he developed a system of interchangeable parts for pistols. In the 1800s, business of all sorts thrived in Berlin. Makers of wagons, hats, books, woolen clothes and blankets and coffin makers, sleighs and suits, were all local industries.
Berlin was on the direct route from New Haven to Hartford, with taverns and inns, which were regular stagecoach stops for fresh horses and sleeping accommodations. Two meetinghouses had been built, one in Kensington Parish, still in use today as the Kensington Congregational Church; the Worthington Meetinghouse was in continuous use as a church, town hall and town offices until 1974. Berlin was proud to have one of the 75 official post offices designated by Benjamin Franklin, first Postmaster General. A historic marker showing that the next post office was in Hartford, 11 miles away, is still located on Worthington Ridge. By the late 1700s, a village library had been started, the town boasted of five school districts. In the mid 1800s, the Worthington Academy was built, which housed 125 students from neighboring states; the Berlin Railroad Depot opened as a way station on New Haven and Hartford line. Today, this train station is one of the last places in the U. S. that sells tickets to anywhere in the U.
S. or Canada. The mid 1800s brought competition from mass-produced products, it brought the establishment of the brick making industry locally, which produced 90,000 bricks daily until the 1960s. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 27.0 square miles, of which 26.3 square miles is land and 0.66 square miles, or 2.45%, is water. The geographic center of Connecticut is located in Berlin; the west side of Berlin is flanked by the Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to nearly the Vermont border. Notable mountains of the Metacomet ridge in Berlin include the Hanging Hills, Lamentation Mountain, Short Mountain, Ragged Mountain; the 51-mile Metacomet Trail and the 50-mile Mattabesett Trail traverse the ridge. As of the 2010 census Berlin had a population of 19,866; the racial makeup of the population was 94.9% white, 0.7% black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.6% from some o
Hartford County, Connecticut
Hartford County is a county located in the north central part of the U. S. state of Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, the population was 894,014, making it the second-most populous county in Connecticut. Hartford County contains the city of Hartford, the state capital of Connecticut and the county's most populous city, with an estimated 123,243 residents in 2016. Hartford County is included in the Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hartford County was one of four original counties in Connecticut established on May 10, 1666, by an act of the Connecticut General Court; the act establishing the county states: This Court orders that the Townes on the River from yee north bounds of Windsor wth Farmington to ye south end of ye bounds of Thirty Miles Island shalbe & remaine to be one County wch shalbe called the County of Hartford. And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe kept at Hartford on the 1st Thursday in March and on the first Thursday in September yearely.
As established in 1666, Hartford County consisted of the towns of Windsor, Hartford and Middletown. The "Thirty Miles Island" referred to in the constituting Act was incorporated as the town of Haddam in 1668. In 1670, the town of Simsbury was established, extending Hartford County to the Massachusetts border. In the late 17th to early 18th centuries, several more towns were established and added to Hartford County: Waterbury in 1686, Windham in 1694, Hebron in 1708, Coventry in 1712, Litchfield in 1722. In 1714, all of the unincorporated territory north of the towns of Coventry and Windham in northeastern Connecticut to the Massachusetts border were placed under the jurisdiction of Hartford County. Windham County was constituted in 1726, resulting in Hartford County losing the towns of Windham, Coventry and Ashford. Northwestern Connecticut, placed under the jurisdiction of New Haven County in 1722, was transferred to Hartford County by 1738. All of northwestern Connecticut was constituted as the new Litchfield County in 1751.
In 1785, two more counties were established in what was now the U. S. state of Connecticut: Tolland and Middlesex. This resulted in the modern extent of Hartford County. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the establishment of several more towns resulted in minor adjustments in the bounds of the county; the final adjustment resulting in the modern limits occurred on May 8, 1806, when the town of Canton was established. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 751 square miles, of which 735 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in Connecticut by land area. The county is divided into two unequal parts by the Connecticut River, watered by Farmington, Podunk and other rivers; the surface is diverse: part of the river valleys are alluvial and subject to flooding, while other portions of the county are hilly and mountainous. Hampden County, Massachusetts Tolland County New London County Middlesex County New Haven County Litchfield County As of the census of 2000, there were 857,183 people, 335,098 households, 222,505 families residing in the county.
The population density was 1,166 people per square mile. There were 353,022 housing units at an average density of 480 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.90% White, 11.66% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 2.42% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 6.43% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. 11.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.2% were of Italian, 11.2% Irish, 9.1% Polish, 6.5% English, 5.7% French and 5.3% German ancestry. 78.4% spoke English, 10.3% Spanish, 2.6% Polish, 1.9% French and 1.6% Italian as their first language. There were 335,098 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.20% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,756, the median income for a family was $62,144. Males had a median income of $43,985 versus $33,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,047. About 7.10% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 7.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 894,014 people, 350,854 households, 227,831 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,216.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 374,249 housing units at an average density of 509.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72.4% white, 13.3% black or African American, 4.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 7.1% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 15.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 15.9% were Italian
A commuter town is a populated area with residents who work elsewhere, but in which they live and sleep. The term additionally implies a community that has little commercial or industrial activity beyond a small amount of locally oriented retail business. A commuter town may be called by many other terms: "exurb", "bedroom community", "bedroom town", "bedroom suburb", "dormitory town", "dormitory suburb", or, less "dormitory village". In Japan, a commuter town may be referred to with the wasei-eigo coinage "bed town". Suburbs and commuter towns coincide, but are not synonymous. Similar to college town, resort town and mill town, the term commuter town describes the municipality's predominant economic function. A suburb, in contrast, is a community of lesser size, political power and/or commerce comparative to a nearby community, of greater economic importance. A town's economic function may change, for example when improved transport brings commuters to industrial suburbs or railway towns in search of suburban living.
Some suburbs, for example Teterboro, New Jersey and Emeryville, remained industrial when they became surrounded by commuter towns. As a general rule, suburbs are developed in areas adjacent to a main employment center, such as a town or a city, but may or may not have many jobs locally, whereas bedroom communities have few local businesses, most residents who have jobs commute to employment centers some distance away. Commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, with a ring of green space separating them from the larger city or town. Where urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas, this is not the case. Commuter towns can arise for a number of different reasons. Sometimes, as in Sleepy Hollow, New York or Tiburon, California, a town loses its main source of employment, leaving its residents to seek work elsewhere. In other cases, a pleasant small town, such as Warwick, New York, over time attracts more residents but not large businesses to employ them, requiring denizens to commute to employment centers.
Another cause relevant in the American South and West, is the rapid growth of once-small cities. Owing to the earlier creation of the Interstate Highway System, the greatest growth was seen by the sprawling metropolitan areas of these cities; as a result, many small cities were absorbed into the suburbs of these larger cities. However, commuter towns form when workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work and must seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living; the late 20th century dot-com bubble and United States housing bubble drove housing costs in Californian metropolitan areas to historic highs, spawning exurban growth in adjacent counties. For example, most cities in western Riverside County, California can be considered exurbs of Orange County and Los Angeles County, California; as of 2003, over 80% of the workforce of Tracy, California was employed in the San Francisco Bay Area. A related phenomenon is common in the resort towns of the American West that require large workforces, yet emphasize building larger single-family residences and other expensive housing.
For example, the resort town of Jackson, Wyoming has spawned several nearby bedroom communities, including Victor, Driggs and Alpine, where the majority of the Jackson workforce resides. On Long Island, New York, many of the workforce who serve The Hamptons reside in communities more modest and more suburban than their workplace, giving rise to a daily reverse commuter flow from more dense to less dense areas. In certain major European cities, such as Berlin and London, commuter towns were founded in response to bomb damage sustained during World War II. Residents were relocated to semi-rural areas within a 50-mile radius, firstly because much inner city housing had been destroyed, secondly in order to stimulate development away from cities as the industrial infrastructure shifted from rail to road. Around London, several towns – such as Basildon, Crawley and Stevenage – were built for this purpose by the Commission for New Towns. In some cases, commuter towns can result from negative economic conditions.
Steubenville, for instance, had its own regional identity along with neighboring Weirton, West Virginia until the collapse of the steel industry in the 1980s. Combined with easier access to the much larger city of Pittsburgh via the Steubenville Pike and the Parkway West, Steubenville has shifted its marketing efforts to being a commuter town to Pittsburgh, as well as one with a lower cost of living in Ohio compared to tax-heavy Pennsylvania. In 2013, Jefferson County, Ohio was added to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area as part of its larger Combined Statistical Area. Where commuters are wealthier and small town housing markets weaker than city housing markets, the development of a bedroom community may raise local housing prices and attract upscale service businesses in a process akin to gentrification. Long-time residents may be displaced by new commuter residents due to rising house prices; this can be influenced by zoning restrictions in urbanized areas that prevent the construction of suitably cheap housing closer to places of employment.
The number of commuter towns increased in the US and the UK during the 20th century because of a trend for people to move out of the cities into the surrounding green belt. Commuter towns were developed by railway companies to create demand for their l