Ruderic was the Visigothic king in Hispania between 710 and 712. He is well-known as "the last king of the Goths", he is an obscure figure about whom little can be said with certainty. He was the last Goth to rule from Toledo, but not the last Gothic king, a distinction which belongs to Ardo. Roderic's election as king was disputed and he ruled only a part of Hispania with an opponent, ruling the rest, he faced a rebellion of the Umayyad invasion. He was killed at the Battle of Guadalete, his widow Egilona is believed to have married Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa, the first Muslim governor of Hispania. According to the late Chronicle of Alfonso III, Roderic was a son of Theodefred, himself a son of king Chindaswinth, of a woman named Riccilo. Roderic's exact date of birth is unknown but was after 687, estimated from his father's marriage having taken place after his exile to Córdoba following the succession of King Egica in that year. According to the Chronicle of 754, Roderic "tumultuously invaded the kingdom with the encouragement of the senate."

Historians have long debated the exact meaning of these words. What is recognised is that it was not a typical palace coup as had occurred on previous occasions, but rather a violent invasion of the palace which divided the kingdom, it is that the "invasion" was not from outside the kingdom. Nonetheless, it is possible that Roderic was a regional commander or an exile when he staged his coup; the "tumult" which surrounded this usurpation was violent, though whether or not it involved the deposition or assassination of the legitimate king, Wittiza, or was a consequence of his recent natural death has divided scholars. Some scholars believe that the king Achila, who ruled in opposition to Roderic, was in fact Wittiza's son and successor and that Roderic had tried to usurp the throne from him; the senate with which Roderic accomplished his coup was composed of the "leading aristocrats and also some of the bishops." The participation of churchmen in the revolt is disputed, some arguing that the support of the bishops would not have led to the act being labelled a usurpation.

The body of leading temporal and ecclesiastical lords had been the dominant body in determining the Visigothic succession since the reign of Reccared I. The palatine officials, had not been much affected by royal measures to decrease their influence in the final decades of the kingdom, as their effecting of a coup in 711 indicates. After the coup, the division of the kingdom into two factions, with the southwest in Roderic's hands and the northeast in the hands of Achila is confirmed by archaeological and numismatic evidence. Roderic's twelve surviving coins, all bearing the name Rvdericvs, were minted at Toledo his capital, "Egitania" Idanha-a-Velha; the regions in which the coins have been discovered do not overlap and it seems probable that the two rulers ruled in opposition from different regions. It is unknown to whom the provinces of Baetica fell; that Roderic and Achila never appear to have come into military conflict is best explained by the preoccupation of Roderic with Arab raids and not to a formal division of the kingdom.

A Visigothic regnal list mentions "Ruderigus" as having reigned seven years and six months, while two other continuations of the Chronicon Regum Visigothorum record Achila's reign of three years. In contrast to the regnal lists, which cannot be dated, the Chronicle of 754, written at Toledo, says that "Rudericus" reigned for a year. According to the Chronicle of 754, Roderic upon securing his throne gathered a force to oppose the Arabs and Berbers, who were raiding in the south of the Iberian peninsula and had destroyed many towns under Tariq ibn Ziyad and other Muslim generals. While Arabic sources make the conquest of Hispania a singular event undertaken at the orders of the governor Musa ibn Nosseyr of Ifriqiya, according to the Chronicle, written much nearer in date to the actual events, the Arabs began disorganised raids and undertook to conquer the peninsula only with the fortuitous death of Roderic and the collapse of the Visigothic nobility. Paul the Deacon's Historia Langobardorum records that the Saracens invaded "all Hispania" from Septem.

Roderic made several expeditions against the invaders before he was deserted by his troops and killed in battle in 711 or 712. The Chronicle of 754 claims that some of the nobles who had accompanied Roderic on his last expedition did so out of "ambition for the kingdom" intending to allow him to die in battle so that they could secure the throne for one of themselves. Whatever their intentions, most of them seem to have died in the battle as well. Other historians have suggested that low morale amongst the soldiery because of Roderic's disputed succession was the cause of defeat; the majority of Roderic's soldiers may have been poorly unwilling slave conscripts. The location of the battle is debatable, it occurred near the mouth of the Guadalete river, hence its name, the Battle of Guadalete. According to Paul the Deacon, the site was the otherwise unidentifiable "Transductine promontories". According to th

Mary and the Witch's Flower

Mary and the Witch's Flower is a 2017 Japanese animated fantasy film directed by Hiromasa Yonebayashi, produced by Studio Ponoc founder Yoshiaki Nishimura, animated by Studio Ponoc, distributed by Toho in Japan. Based on The Little Broomstick by Mary Stewart, this is Studio Ponoc's first feature film; the film tells a story of a girl named Mary Smith who finds "fly-by-night", a mysterious flower that can give her the power to become a witch for only one night. The film was released in Japan on 8 July 2017. In the English-language version of the film, concurrently released with a subtitled version in the United States on 19 January 2018, the film features the voices of Ruby Barnhill, Kate Winslet, Jim Broadbent. On December 15, 2016, a press conference was held by Nishimura, he had worked with Ghibli on "When Marnie Was There" and Arrietty. At the beginning of the conference, he said, "This is the first movie since leaving Studio Ghibli. At Studio Ponoc, we are working diligently with Yoshiaki Nishimura, a producer and excellent staff."When Nishimura was asked about the establishment of the new studio he said, "When the Studio Ghibli producer Toshio Suzuki notified me about the dissolution of the Ghibli Production Department, I was stimulated by the oversea creators when I went to the Academy Awards venue with "The Tale of Princess Kaguya" Remember that you received it."

After announcing it was based on The Little Broomstick, Nisimura said "Marnie of Memories is a work that proved that Yonebayashi, who excels at dynamic painting, sealed his specialty and can draw trivial emotions. But as a producer, I want to see dynamic animation, so I decided to do a fantasy with a cheerful girl moving around." When asked if he consulted with Takahata or Miyasaki, he said he did not show Miyazaki any storyboards but he did talk to him. They both said the same thing, "be prepared". Yonebayashi announced the voice actors on April 13, 2017. Composer Muramatsu Takatsugu, who scored Yonebayashi's last film When Marnie Was There, is in charge of the soundtrack for Mary and the Witch's Flower. Joshua Messick, one of the world's leading performers of the hammered dulcimer, participated in the score recording; the theme song is "Rain", performed by Sekai no Owari. The story opens with an explosion inside a stone tower that burst open a wall and leaves the place in flames. A young red-haired girl races away.

Climbing to the end of a large tree branch, she's cornered there, but escapes when a broom flies by and she leaps on it. The people left behind send magical creatures after her; some time Mary Smith moves into the northern English estate of her Great-Aunt Charlotte ahead of her parents. The bored, friendless girl tries to make herself useful through chores, but she messes up. A local boy named Peter teases her for both her wild red hair, which she hates. Tib-cat and Gib-cat, Peter's cats, lead Mary to some mysterious glowing flowers. Zebedee, the estate gardener, identifies the flowers as "fly-by-night"; the next day, Gib-cat Mary follows Tib-cat to go look for her. Tib-cat leads her to a broomstick ensnared in a tree's roots. Mary accidentally bursts a fly-by-night bulb on it; the bulb releases magical power in the form of a blue gelatinous substance, making the broomstick come to life and enabling Mary to ride it like a witch. The Little Broomstick whisks Mary and Tib-cat away to a complex of buildings hidden in the clouds, known as Endor College for witches.

It soon becomes clear that this is the people from the opening scene. Head mistress Madam Mumblechook assumes Mary is a new pupil with Tib-cat as her familiar, takes her on a tour of the college; the tour reveals a campus with modern technology and conveniences, wherein witches take courses in the magic arts alongside fields of science such as chemistry. During the tour Madam introduces Mary to the college's renowned chemistry teacher. Mary finds herself able to perform advanced spells such as invisibility. Madam and Doctor Dee become convinced that Mary is a prodigy, because of her performance as well as her red hair, which turns out be a distinguishing feature among the best witches. At Madam's office, Mary finds a spell book hidden behind a picture of fly-by-night. Mary admits that her magical ability comes from fly-by-night, that Tib-cat belongs to Peter. Madam's attitude to Mary changes, but she still lets Mary return home once Mary turns over a piece of paper with Peter's address on it. She'd used it to deliver a package for her great aunt.

That night, Madam sends a message to Mary informing her that she's kidnapped Peter, demands that Mary turn the fly-by-night bulbs to her. She and Tib-cat fly back to Endor with the bulbs, but Madam and Doctor Dee imprison her instead in Doctor Dee's transformation spell lab. Mary finds Peter locked in the lab with her, discovers that Doctor Dee has been experimenting on animals transforming them into fantastic creatures, including Gib-cat. In the spell book, Mary finds a spell that can undo all magic, she uses it to undo all the transformations and to unlock the lab, they try to escape on the Little Broomstick. Before she is carried off she vows to come back for him; the Little Broomstick takes Mary to an isolated cottage on a tiny island. Voices welcome here home, lighting lanterns and opening the door, acting as if she's coming back. Within the cottage, Mary finds notes on transformation spells and a mirror that Great-Aunt Charlotte uses to contact her. Charlotte uses a sort of flas

Purple Rain (song)

"Purple Rain" is a song by Prince and The Revolution. It is the title track from the 1984 album of the same name, which in turn is the soundtrack album for the 1984 film of the same name, was released as the third single from that album. A power ballad, the song is a combination of rock, R&B, orchestral music. Prince explained the meaning of "Purple Rain" as follows: "When there's blood in the sky – red and blue = purple... purple rain pertains to the end of the world and being with the one you love and letting your faith/god guide you through the purple rain.""Purple Rain" reached number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 and stayed there for two weeks. It reached number one in Belgium and the Netherlands, it is certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. It is considered to be one of Prince's signature songs. Following Prince's death in 2016, "Purple Rain" rose to number one on the US and UK iTunes Charts, allowing "Purple Rain" to re-enter the Billboard Hot 100 reaching number four.

It re-entered the UK Singles Chart at number 6, making it two places higher than its original peak of number 8. Peaking at number 12 in France, "Purple Rain" reached number one on April 30, 2016. "Purple Rain" is ranked number 144 on the Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time and is included in The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll. During the Super Bowl XLI halftime show in 2007, in which Prince was the featured performer, "Purple Rain" was the last song of his set. Prince performed the song as the opening of a medley of his hits with Beyoncé at the 2004 Grammy Awards. "Purple Rain" was the final song Prince performed live following his performance of it during his final concert in Atlanta, Georgia on April 14, 2016. "Purple Rain" was written as a country song and intended to be a collaboration with Stevie Nicks. According to Nicks, she received a 10-minute instrumental version of the song from Prince with a request to write the lyrics, but felt overwhelmed.

She said: "I just got scared. I said, ` I can't do it. I wish I could. It's too much for me.'" At a rehearsal, Prince asked his backing band to try the song: "I want to try something before we go home. It's mellow." According to Lisa Coleman, Prince changed the song after Wendy Melvoin started playing guitar chords to accompany the song: "He was excited to hear it voiced differently. It took it out of that country feeling. We all started playing it a bit harder and taking it more seriously. We played it for six hours straight and by the end of that day we had it written and arranged." Prince explained the meaning of "Purple Rain" as follows: "When there's blood in the sky – red and blue = purple... purple rain pertains to the end of the world and being with the one you love and letting your faith/god guide you through the purple rain." The title track of Prince's preceding album, "1999", included similar references to a doomed ending under a purple sky. "Purple Rain" opens with a lone guitar followed by live drumming and a prominent Yamaha CP70 Electric grand piano, evoking images of church gospel music.

Three verses are each followed by a chorus, with a building emotional delivery. In the context of the film, each verse ties into a different strained relationship Prince's character has and his desire to reconcile; the song is dedicated to his father in the movie, not ex-girlfriend Denise Matthews better known as Vanity. After the final chorus, a guitar solo takes over the song; the song ends with orchestral strings. Prince's vocal range spans from the low note of F3 to the high note of A5; the song was recorded during a benefit concert for the Minnesota Dance Theatre at the First Avenue nightclub in Minneapolis on August 3, 1983. The performance was guitarist Wendy Melvoin's live debut with The Revolution, at the age of 19. City Pages described the 70-minute performance as Prince's "sweatiest and most soulful hometown concert yet", drummer Bobby Z stated, "it was one of the best concerts we did"; the concert was recorded by David Rivkin using a mobile recording unit brought in from the Record Plant in New York City, staffed by engineers Dave Hewitt and Koster McAllister.

David Z's connection to Prince is deeper than most professional relationships. David's older brother Cliff Rifkin was the regional promotion executive for Warners in Minneapolis, who expedited Prince's label signing. David Z's younger brother, Bobby Z, would become Prince's drummer in the Revolution. David Z wasn't surprised when he was requested to set up the live recording on August 3, 1983, "With Prince, you never knew," he says. "I thought we were recording a concert. I knew. You just had to go in prepared to record whatever it was going to be as well as you could." The basic tracks for three songs were used on the Purple Rain soundtrack: "Purple Rain", "I Would Die 4 U", "Baby I'm a Star". Prince performed overdubs while working at Sunset Sound in Los Angeles from August to September 1983. A solo and the third verse from the original recording were edited out, changing the length from eleven to eight minutes; the extra verse was removed because it diluted the emotional impact of the song. After recording the