Orlando Furioso is an Italian epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto which has exerted a wide influence on culture. The earliest version appeared in 1516, although the poem was not published in its form until 1532. Orlando Furioso is a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardos unfinished romance Orlando Innamorato, in its historical setting and characters, it shares some features with the Old French Chanson de Roland of the eleventh century, which tells of the death of Roland. The story is a romance which stemmed from a tradition beginning in the late Middle Ages and continuing in popularity in the 16th century. Orlando is the Christian knight known in French as Roland, the action takes place against the background of the war between Charlemagnes Christian paladins and the Saracen army that has invaded Europe and is attempting to overthrow the Christian empire. The poem is about war and love and the ideal of chivalry. It mixes realism and fantasy and tragedy, the stage is the entire world, plus a trip to the moon.
The poem is divided into forty-six cantos, each containing a number of eight-line stanzas in ottava rima. Ottava rima had been used in previous Italian romantic epics, including Luigi Pulcis Morgante, Ariostos work is 38,736 lines long in total, making it one of the longest poems in European literature. Ariosto began working on the poem around 1506, when he was 32, the first edition of the poem, in 40 cantos, was published in Ferrara in April 1516 and dedicated to the poets patron Ippolito dEste. A second edition appeared in 1521 with minor revisions, Ariosto continued to write more material for the poem and in the 1520s he produced five more cantos, marking a further development of his poetry, which he decided not to include in the final edition. They were published after his death by his illegitimate son Virginio under the title Cinque canti and are regarded by some modern critics. The third and final version of Orlando Furioso, containing 46 cantos, Ariosto had sought stylistic advice from the humanist Pietro Bembo to give his verse the last degree of polish and this is the version known to posterity.
The first English translation by John Harington was published in 1591 at the behest of Queen Elizabeth I, Ariostos poem is a sequel to Matteo Maria Boiardos Orlando Innamorato. The name Orlando is a translation of Roland from the 12th-century Song of Roland, the latter contained the magical elements and love interest that were generally lacking in the more austere and warlike poems about Carolingian heroes. Ariosto continued to mix these elements in his poem as well as adding material derived from Classical sources, Ariosto has an ironic tone rarely present in Boiardo, who treated the ideals of chivalry much more seriously. In Orlando Furioso, instead of chivalric ideals, no longer alive in the 16th century and his allies – who include Marsilio, the King of Spain, and the boastful warrior Rodomonte – besiege Charlemagne in Paris. Meanwhile, Charlemagnes most famous paladin, has been tempted to forget his duty to protect the emperor through his love for the pagan princess Angelica
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
The Basque attack was a retaliation for Charlemagnes destruction of the city walls of their capital, Pamplona. As the Franks retreated across the Pyrenees back to France, the rearguard of Frankish lords was cut off, stood its ground, Roncevaux was Charlemagnes only military defeat. There are numerous works about the battle, some of which change. The battle is recounted in the 11th century The Song of Roland, the oldest surviving work of French literature. Modern adaptations of the battle include books and works of fiction, with the rise of the Carolingians and Pepin the Shorts war on Aquitaine, the Duchy of Aquitaine led by Waifer was defeated and further ensued Frankish penetration into the duchy. Their masters had been cornered in the Iberian peninsula by Abd ar-Rahman I, the three rulers conveyed that the caliph of Baghdad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, was preparing an invasion force against Abd ar-Rahman. Seeing an opportunity to extend Christendom and his own power, Charlemagne agreed to go to Spain, al-Arabi induced him to invade al Andalus by promising him an easy surrender of its Upper March, of which Zaragoza was the capital.
Following the sealing of this alliance at Paderborn, Charlemagne marched across the Pyrenees in 778 at the head of all the forces he could muster. Charlemagne led the Neustrian army over Vasconia into the Western Pyrenees, while the Austrasians and his troops were welcomed in Barcelona and Girona by Sulayman al-Arabi. As he moved towards Zaragoza, the troops of Charlemagne were joined by troops led by al-Arabi, Abd ar-Rahman of Córdoba sent his most trusted general, Thalaba Ibn Obeid, to take control of the possibly rebellious city and to prevent the Frankish invasion. Husayn and Ibn Obeid clashed repeatedly, eventually Husayn managed to defeat and he seems to have tried to appease Charlemagne by giving him the prisoner General Ibn Obeid and a large tribute of gold, but Charlemagne was not easily satisfied, putting Sulayman al-Arabi in chains. Meanwhile, the force sent by the Baghdad caliphate seems to have been stopped near Barcelona, though initially having the upper hand, the siege of Zaragoza dragged for over a month.
Eventually a deal was struck between Charlemagne and Husayn, the latter would pay gold and the release of several prisoners, while the Franks in return would withdraw their siege. After the negotiation at Zaragoza, Charlemagne heard news of a Saxon revolt in the North, but before leaving Spain he decided to further secure his hold on the Vascone territory. Charlemagne first eliminated any opposition from the natives of the region. He gave orders to tear down the walls of the Basque capital Pamplona, some primary sources suggest that he destroyed the city altogether, and many towns in the region were razed. Garrisons and military outposts were placed throughout the territory, and there were accounts of the Franks harsh treatment of the Basques during their occupation, after securing the region, Charlemagne marched for the Pyrenees mountain pass in hopes of returning to France. In the evening of August 15,778, Charlemagnes rearguard was attacked by the Basques as they crossed the mountain pass
Orlando Innamorato is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo. The poem is a romance concerning the heroic knight Orlando and it was published between 1483 and 1495. To material largely quarried from the Carolingian and Arthurian cycles, Boiardo added a superstructure of his own making, the poem, written in the ottava rima stanza rhythm, consists of 68 cantos and a half. Boiardo began the poem when he was about 38 years old and he is believed to have continued till 1486, but left the poem unfinished. The last verses say, Mentre chio canto, Iddio Redentore vedo lItalia tutta a fiamma e foco, meaning that during his work at the poem Boiardo could see all Italy in war. The first two books were published sometime between 1482 and 1483, most likely by Pietro Giovanni di San Lorenzo in Reggio, and it most likely bore the title Linnamoramento de Orlando. The third book first appeared in 1495 under the title El fin del inamoramento de Orlando, the first complete edition was published in 1495.
Like the editio princeps, the first complete edition of 1495 has been completely lost, the oldest copy which came down to us is the 1487 reedition of the first two books, only one copy exists, kept at the Biblioteca Marciana. There is only one extant copy of the 1495 Venetian edition of the third book, the oldest complete edition we have is dated 1506, there remains only one copy, kept at the Marciana. The beautiful Angelica, daughter of the king of Cataio, comes to Charlemagne’s court for a tournament in which both Christians and pagans can participate. She offers herself as a prize to whoever will defeat her brother, but the second knight to fight, kills Argalia and Angelica flees, chased by leading paladins, especially Orlando and Rinaldo. Stopping in the Ardenne forest, she drinks at the Stream of Love, while Rinaldo drinks at the fount of hate, Orlando comes to kill Agricane and to free her, and he succeeds. Afterwards, who has escaped from the island, tries to convince him to return to France to fight alongside Charlemagne, consequently.
In the meantime the Saracen king Agramante has invaded France with a army, to avenge his father Troiano. Rinaldo rushes back to France, chased by Angelica in love with him, back in the Ardenne forest, this time Rinaldo and Angelica drink at the opposite founts, second reversal. Orlando and Rinaldo duel again for Angelica, and Charlemagne decides to entrust her to the old and wise duke Namo, in the meantime, the Saracen paladin Ruggiero and Rinaldo’s sister, fall in love. The poem stops there abruptly, with Boiardo’s narrator explaining that he can no more because Italy has been invaded by French troops headed by king Charles VIII. The story of Angelicas struggles and Orlandos pursuit were continued in the Orlando Furioso by Ludovico Ariosto in 1516, the immediate success of the new poem easily surpassed the fame of Orlando Innamorato
Ludovico Ariosto was an Italian poet. He is best known as the author of the romance epic Orlando Furioso, Ariosto composed the poem in the ottava rima rhyme scheme and introduced narrative commentary throughout the work. Ariosto coined the term humanism for choosing to focus upon the strengths and potential of humanity, Ariosto was born in Reggio nell’Emilia, where his father Niccolò Ariosto was commander of the citadel. He was the oldest of 10 children and was seen as the successor to the position of his family. From his earliest years, Ludovico was very interested in poetry, after five years of law, Ariosto was allowed to read classics under Gregorio da Spoleto. Ariostos studies of Greek and Latin literature were cut short by Spoletos move to France to tutor Francesco Sforza, shortly after this, Ariostos father died. After the death of his father, Ludovico Ariosto was compelled to forgo his literary occupations and take care of his family, despite his family obligations, Ariosto managed to write some comedies in prose as well as lyrical pieces.
Some of these attracted the notice of Cardinal Ippolito dEste, who took the poet under his patronage. Este compensated Ariosto poorly for his efforts, the reward he gave the poet for Orlando Furioso, dedicated to him, was the question, Where did you find so many stories. Ludovico Ariosto and Leonardo da Vinci shared a patron in Cardinal Ippolito dEstes older sister the Marchioness Isabella d’Este, Isabella d’Este appears in Ludovico’s masterpiece, Orlando Furioso. She appears in Leonardo’s, “Sketch for a Portrait of Isabella d’Este, “A statue no less jocund, no less bright, / Succeeds, and on the writing is impressed, / Lo. ”The cardinal went to Hungary in 1518, and wished Ariosto to accompany him. The poet excused himself, pleading ill health, his love of study, and his excuses were not well-received, and he was denied even an interview. Ariosto and dEste got into an argument, and Ariosto was promptly dismissed from service. The cardinals brother, duke of Ferrara, now took Ariosto under his patronage, by then, Ariosto had already distinguished himself as a diplomat, chiefly on the occasion of two visits to Rome as ambassador to Pope Julius II.
On account of the war, his salary of 84 crowns a year was suspended, because of this, Ariosto asked the duke either to provide for him, or to allow him to seek employment elsewhere. He was appointed to the province of Garfagnana, without a governor, situated on the Apennines, the province was distracted by factions and bandits, the governor had not the requisite means to enforce his authority and the duke did little to support his minister. In 1508 Ariostos play Cassaria appeared, and the next year I suppositi was first acted in Ferrara, a prose edition was published in Rome in 1524, and the first verse edition was published at Venice in 1551. The play was translated by George Gascoigne and acted at Grays Inn in London in 1566 and published in 1573, in 1516, the first version of the Orlando Furioso in 40 cantos, was published at Ferrara
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
Metz is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers. Metz is the prefecture of the Moselle department and the seat of the parliament of the Great East region, located near the tripoint along the junction of France and Luxembourg, the city forms a central place of the European Greater Region and the SaarLorLux euroregion. The city has been steeped in Romance culture, but has strongly influenced by Germanic culture due to its location. Because of its historical and architectural background, Metz has been submitted on Frances UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List, Metz is home to some world-class venues including the Arsenal Concert Hall and the Centre Pompidou-Metz museum. A basin of urban ecology, Metz gained its nickname of The Green City, as it has extensive open grounds, the historic city centre is one of the largest commercial pedestrian areas in France. A historic garrison town, Metz is the heart of the Lorraine region, specialising in information technology.
In ancient times, the town was known as city of Mediomatrici, after its integration into the Roman Empire, the city was called Divodurum Mediomatricum, meaning Holy Village or Holy Fortress of the Mediomatrici, it was known as Mediomatrix. During the 5th century AD, the name evolved to Mettis, Metz has a recorded history dating back over 3,000 years. Before the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, between the 6th and 8th centuries, the city was the residence of the Merovingian kings of Austrasia. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia and was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. During the 12th century, Metz rose to the status of Republic, with the signature of the Treaty of Chambord in 1552, Metz passed to the hands of the Kings of France. Under French rule, Metz was selected as capital of the Three Bishoprics, with creation of the departments by the Estates-General of 1789, Metz was chosen as capital of the Department of Moselle. Metz remained German until the end of World War I, when it reverted to France, after the Battle of France during the Second World War, the city was annexed once more by the German Third Reich.
In 1944, the attack on the city by the U. S, Third Army freed the city from German rule and Metz reverted one more time to France after World War II. During the 1950s, Metz was chosen to be the capital of the newly created Lorraine region, with the creation of the European Community and the European Union, the city has become central to the Greater Region and the SaarLorLux Euroregion. Metz is located on the banks of the Moselle and the Seille rivers,43 km from the Schengen tripoint where the borders of France and Luxembourg meet. The city was built in a place where branches of the Moselle river creates several islands. The terrain of Metz forms part of the Paris Basin and presents a plateau relief cut by river valleys presenting cuestas in the north-south direction
In all, eighteen battles were fought in what is now northwestern Germany. They resulted in the incorporation of Saxony into the Frankish realm, despite repeated setbacks, the Saxons resisted steadfastly, returning to raid Charlemagnes domains as soon as he turned his attention elsewhere. This agreement saved the Saxons leaders exceptional rights in their homeland, Widukind was baptized in 785 and buried in the only Germanic church without a spire. The Saxons were divided into four subgroups in four regions, nearest to the ancient Frankish kingdom of Austrasia was Westphalia, and farthest away was Eastphalia. In between these two kingdoms was that of Engria and north of three, at the base of the Jutland peninsula, was Nordalbingia. In mid-January 772, the sacking and burning of the church of Deventer by a Saxon expedition was the Casus belli for the first war waged by Charlemagne to the Saxons. It began with a Frankish invasion of Saxon territory and the subjugation of the Engrians, Irminsul may have been a hollow tree trunk, presumably representing the pillar supporting the skies—similar to the Nordic tree Yggdrasil and apparently a common belief among the Germanic peoples.
Charlemagnes campaign led all the way to the Weser River and destroyed several major Saxon strongholds, armed confrontations continued unabated for years. Charlemagnes second campaign came in the year 775, he marched through Westphalia, conquering the fort of Sigiburg, and crossed Engria, where he defeated the Saxons again. Finally, in Eastphalia, he defeated them, and their leader Hessi converted to Christianity and he returned through Westphalia, leaving encampments at Sigiburg and Eresburg. All of Saxony, except for Nordalbingia was under his control, after warring in Italy, he returned very rapidly to Saxony for the third time in 776, when a rebellion destroyed his fortress at Eresburg. The Saxons were once brought to heel, though Widukind fled to the Danes. Charlemagne built a new camp at Karlstadt, in 777, he called a national diet at Paderborn to integrate Saxony fully into the Frankish kingdom. The chief purpose of the diet was to bring Saxony closer to Christianity, mainly Anglo-Saxons from England, were recruited to carry out this task.
Charlemagne issued a number of decrees designed to break Saxon resistance, in summer 779, Charlemagne again went into Saxony and conquered Eastphalia and Westphalia. At a diet near Lippspringe, he divided the land into missionary districts and he himself assisted in several mass baptisms. He returned to Italy, and there was no Saxon revolt, from 780 to 782, the land had peace. Charlemagne returned in 782 to Saxony and instituted a code of law and appointed counts, the laws were severe on religious issues, namely the native paganism of the Saxons
Luigi Pulci was an Italian poet best known for his Morgante, an epic and parodistic poem about a giant who is converted to Christianity by Orlando and follows the knight in many adventures. His patrons were the Medicis, especially Lorenzo Medici, who sent Pulci on diplomatic missions, even so, sometime around 1470 Pulci needed more money and went into the service of Robert Sanseverino, a northern condottiere. His brother Luca was a writer and his brother Lucas works, all in the Italian language, include Pistole, Driadeo damore, and Ciriffo Calvaneo. The poem Morgante is composed of 28 cantari written in ottava rima, the work was commissioned by Lucrezia Tornabuoni, Lorenzo Medicis mother. The poem in progress was read at the Medicis court, where the public appreciated the characters, partly new. This language is far from the early Renaissance classicistic model. Torre dei Pulci Tomas, Natalie R, the Medici Women and Power in Renaissance Florence
The Song of Roland
The Song of Roland is an epic poem based on the Battle of Roncevaux in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne. It is the oldest surviving work of French literature and exists in various manuscript versions. The date of composition is put in the period between 1040 and 1115, a version beginning around 1040 with additions and alterations made up until about 1115. The final text has about 4,000 lines of poetry, set in the Carolingian era, it was written much later. There are nine extant manuscripts of the Song of Roland in Old French, the oldest of these manuscripts is held at the Bodleian Library at Oxford. This copy dates between 1129 and 1165 and was written in Anglo-Norman, scholars estimate that the poem was written, possibly by a poet named Turold, between approximately 1040 and 1115, and most of the alterations were performed by about 1098. Some favor an earlier dating, because it allows one to say that the poem was inspired by the Castilian campaigns of the 1030s, and that the poem went on to be a major influence in the First Crusade.
Those who prefer a dating do so on grounds of what they interpret as brief references made in the poem to events of the First Crusade. In the poem, the term doltre mer or loltremarin comes up three times in reference to named Muslims who came from oltre mer to fight in Spain and France. Oltre mer, modern French Outremer, literally oversea, beyond sea, other side of the sea, is a native French term from the classical Latin roots ultra = beyond, the name was commonly used by the Crusaders for Palestine. The bulk of the poem is adjudged to date from before the Crusades, early editors of the Song of Roland, informed in part by patriotic desires to produce a distinctly French epic, could thus overstate the textual cohesiveness of the Roland tradition. This point is clearly expressed by Andrew Taylor, who notes, he Roland song was, if not invented, Charlemagnes army is fighting the Muslims in Spain. They have been there for seven years, and the last city standing is Saragossa, threatened by the might of Charlemagnes army of Franks, Marsile seeks advice and his wise man, councils him to conciliate the Emperor, offering to surrender and giving hostages.
Accordingly, Marsile sends out messengers to Charlemagne, promising treasure and his men, tired of fighting, accept his peace offer and select a messenger to Marsiles court. Protagonist Roland, Charlemagnes nephew, nominates his stepfather Ganelon as messenger, as Ganelon predicted, Roland leads the rear guard, with the wise and moderate Oliver and the fierce Archbishop Turpin. The Muslims ambush them at Roncesvalles and the Christians are overwhelmed, Oliver pleads with Roland to blow his horn to call for help, but Roland tells him that blowing his horn in the middle of the battle would be an act of cowardice. If Roland continues to refuse, Oliver wont let Roland see his sister again whom Roland loves the most. However, Archbishop Turpin intervenes and tells them that the battle will be fatal for all of them, the emperor hears the call on their way to France
Vita Karoli Magni
Vita Karoli Magni is a biography of Charlemagne, King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor, written by Einhard. Historians have traditionally described the work as the first example of a biography of a European king, the author tried to imitate the style of that of the ancient Roman biographer Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, who is most famous for his Lives of the Caesars. Einhards biography used especially the model of the biography of Emperor Augustus, the date of the work is uncertain, and a number of theories have been put forward. The inclusion of Charlemagnes will at the end of the work makes it clear that it was written after his death in 814. The first reference to the work, comes in a letter to Einhard from Lupus of Ferrieres, no theory has yet emerged as an obvious frontrunner, and it is likely that debate will continue. Einhards book is about intimate glimpses of Charlemagnes personal habits and tastes and he occupied a favoured position at Charlemagnes court so he had inside information.
Einhard received advanced schooling at the monastery of Fulda sometime after 779 and he was an exceptional student and was quite knowledgeable. The word was sent to Charlemagne of Einhards expertise and he was sent to Charlemagne’s Palace School at Aachen in 791. Einhard received employment at Charlemagnes Frankish court about 796 and he remained at this position for twenty some years. Einhards book was intended to convey his appreciation for advanced education. He wrote his biography after he had left Aachen and was living in Seligenstadt, Einhards position while with Charlemagne was that of a modern minister of public works so he had intimate knowledge of his court. Einhard was given the responsibility of many of Charlemagnes abbeys and it used to be suggested that Einhards wife, was a daughter of Charlemagne, that can generally be disregarded as a twelfth-century fabrication, since there is no proof. Most biographies of the Middle Ages related only good deeds of their subject, Einhards biography, however, is considered, for the most part, to be a trustworthy account of Charlemagnes life.
It is considered an excellent account of earlier Medieval life, dutton, P. Charlemagnes Courtier, the Complete Einhard. Two lives of Charlemagne / Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, early lives of Charlemagne / by Eginhard and the Monk of St Gall. Two lives of Charlemagne / by Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Evelyn S. Edwin H. Zeydel. Vita Karoli Magni / The Life of Charlemagne, Vita Karoli, a cura di P. Chiesa, Firenze, SISMEL - Ed. del Galluzzo,2014 Ganz, D. The Preface to Einhards Vita Karoli, Studien zu leben und Werk