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Roland TR-808

The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer known as the 808, is a drum machine manufactured by the Roland Corporation between 1980 and 1983. It was one of the first drum machines to allow users to program rhythms instead of using preset patterns. Unlike its nearest competitor at the time, the more expensive Linn LM-1, the 808 generates sounds using analog synthesis rather than playing samples. Launched when electronic music had yet to become mainstream, the 808 received mixed reviews for its unrealistic drum sounds and was a commercial failure. After building 12,000 units, Roland discontinued the 808 after its semiconductors became impossible to restock, it was succeeded by the TR-909 in 1983. Over the course of the 1980s, the 808 attracted a cult following among underground musicians for its affordability on the used market, ease of use, idiosyncratic sounds its deep, "booming" bass drum, it became a cornerstone of the emerging electronic and hip hop genres, popularized by early hits such as "Sexual Healing" by Marvin Gaye and "Planet Rock" by Afrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Force.

The 808 was used on more hit records than any other drum machine. Its particular popularity in hip hop has made it one of the most influential inventions in popular music, comparable to the Fender Stratocaster's impact on rock, its sounds are included with music software and modern drum machines, it has inspired numerous clones. In the late 1960s, the Hammond Organ Company hired American musician and engineer Don Lewis to demonstrate its products, including an electronic organ with a built-in drum machine designed by the Japanese company Ace Tone. At the time, drum machines were most used to accompany home organs, they had preset patterns such as bossa nova. Lewis was known for performances using electronic instruments he had modified himself, decades before the popularization of instrument "hacking" via circuit bending, he made extensive modifications to the Ace Tone drum machine, creating his own rhythms and wiring the device through his organ's expression pedal to accent the percussion. Lewis was approached by Ace Tone president and founder Ikutaro Kakehashi, who wanted to know how he had achieved the sounds using the machine Kakehashi had designed.

In 1972, Kakehashi formed the Roland Corporation, hired Lewis to help design drum machines. By the late 1970s, microprocessors were appearing in instruments such as the Roland MC-8 Microcomposer, Kakehashi realized they could be used to program drum machines. In 1978, Roland released the CompuRhythm CR-78, the first drum machine with which users could write and replay their own patterns. With its next machine, the TR-808, Roland aimed to develop a drum machine for the professional market, expecting that it would be used to create demos; the concept was to build a "drum synthesizer" with which users could edit parameters such as tuning and level and build the sounds into sequences. Though the engineers aimed to emulate real percussion, the prohibitive cost of memory drove them to design sound-generating hardware instead of using samples. Kakehashi deliberately purchased faulty transistors that created the machine's distinctive "sizzling" sound. Chief engineer Makoto Muroi credited the design of the analog voice circuits to "Mr. Nakamura" and the software to "Mr. Matsuoka".

The 808 produces sounds in imitation of acoustic percussion: the bass drum, toms, rimshot, handclap, cowbell, hi-hat. Rather than playing samples, the machine generates sounds using analog synthesis. Users can program up to 32 patterns using the step sequencer, chain up to 768 measures, place accents on individual beats, a feature introduced with the CR-78. Users can set the tempo and time signature, including unusual signatures such as 54 and 78; the 808 was the first drum machine with which users could program a percussion track from beginning to end, complete with breaks and rolls. It includes volume knobs for each voice, numerous audio outputs, a DIN sync port to synchronize with other devices through the Digital Control Bus interface, considered groundbreaking, its three trigger outputs can synchronize with other equipment. The 808's sounds do not resemble real percussion, have been described as "clicky and hypnotic", "robotic", "spacey", "toy-like" and "futuristic". Fact described them as a combination of "synth tones and white noise... more akin to bursts coming from the BBC Radiophonic Workshop a proper rhythm section".

The machine is noted for its powerful bass drum sound, built from a sine oscillator, low-pass filter, voltage-controlled amplifier. The bass drum decay control allows users to lengthen the sound, creating uniquely low frequencies that flatten over time not by design. According to the New Yorker, "Less a product of engineering than a force of nature, this bass-rolling subsonic boom has come to be what people mean when they refer to'an 808'." The 808 launched in 1980 with a list price of US$1,195. Roland marketed it as an affordable alternative to the Linn LM-1, manufactured by Linn Electronics, which used samples of real drum kits; the 808 sounded synthetic by comparison. Many reports state that one review dismissed the machine as sounding like "marching anteaters", though this was referring to machines that predated it. Contemporary Keyboard wrote a positive review, predicting that it would become "the standard for rhythm machines of the futu

List of Power Rangers Ninja Storm characters

Power Rangers Ninja Storm is the 2003 Power Rangers season that tells the story of the fight between the Wind Ninja Rangers and the evil Space Ninjas led by Lothor. This generation of Power Rangers is unique in which they were two separate teams. After initial hostilities, they banded together and were joined by the Green Samurai Ranger. During the events of "Shattered Grid," when summoned by Zordon, the entire Ninja Storm team appears, including the Thunder Rangers and Cameron; this would indicate. The Wind Rangers are the last students of the Wind Ninja Academy, given their morphers by Sensei Kanoi Watanabe and his son Cam when the other students were kidnapped by Lothor. Shane Clarke is the Red Wind Ranger, he is the leader of the Ninja Storm team. He has a serious attitude. Shane is an excellent skateboarder, his love of flight is evident in his fighting style. Shane is scared of spiders; when he was young, Shane saved an alien woman named Skyla from a bounty hunter named Vexacus, that alien returned and gave Shane the power of the Battlizer armor.

After Lothor's defeat, Shane became an instructor at the Wind Ninja Academy. Shane commands the Hawk Ninja Zord. Shane watches out for his friends and tries to make sure Tori and Cam stay out of trouble; when the Bradley brothers and Blake, show up in town, Shane stresses the importance of knowing whom to trust to Dustin as Shane is the only one to suspect that the brothers aren't who they say they are. Shane doesn't come to trust Blake until the incident with Toxipod. During that time, Shane is aggravated with the fact that Hunter and Blake always seem to have ill intentions when their groups meet in battle; when the fact that both Blake and Hunter have been brainwashed by Choobo is revealed to him and his friends, Shane comes to trust Blake and Hunter when they are brought back to their senses. Hunter and Shane's differences cause them to develop a rivalry, but they overcome their differences and become friends. Thanks to his ninja training, Shane possesses several superpowers independent of and prior to the acquisition of his Ranger skills.

Like his fellow ninjas, Shane possesses superhuman speed and can move faster than the eye can see, leap higher than an average person, evade detection by normal persons, focus his inner energies to resist mental attacks and manipulation. Shane's ninja powers give him the ability to control the element of air for effects including projecting gusts of wind as an offensive weapon, "walking" on air as if on solid ground. Shane's older brother, a successful businessman, was concerned about Shane's seeming lack of a sense of responsibility, paid him a visit, lecturing his younger brother on the matter. After accidentally discovering that Shane was the Red Ranger, Porter gained significant respect for Shane, realizing the measure of responsibility that his younger brother had taken upon himself; when Lothor comes back in Power Rangers Dino Thunder, Shane temporarily becomes evil alongside his teammates. They are set free by their comrades; the Ninja and Dino Rangers team up to do battle with Lothor and Mesogog's combined forces, with him teaming up with Red Dino Ranger Conner.

Afterwards, the Wind Rangers lose their Ranger powers again, though they would regain them by Sentinel Knight through some means in order to join the Ranger army in Power Rangers Super Megaforce. Tori Hanson is the main female protagonist, the Blue Wind Ranger. Tori is a feisty tomboy with a kind heart, she is loyal to her friends, but sticks up for Cam when her fellow Rangers pick on him, has an innate skill for ending conflicts with words instead of fists. Tori has a fear of her hair being cut off. Tori Hanson has an affinity for water, surfing in her spare time and mastering water based fighting techniques while training at the Wind Ninja Academy, she has a crush on Blake Bradley, the Navy Thunder Ranger, while mutual, was never acted upon as she is Blake Bradley's love interest. Tori's ninja training has endowed her with skills independent of her Ranger powers. Like her fellow ninjas, Tori possesses superhuman speed and can move faster than the eye can see, leap higher than an average person, evade detection by normal persons, focus her inner energies to resist mental attacks and manipulation.

Her training based on her affinity for water allows her to move across water as if it were solid ground, create high-powered bursts of water as an offensive weapon, manipulate and control water for a number of effects, such as creating objects. As the Blue Ranger, Tori relies on the power of water to thwart evil, pilots the Dolphin Zord. In the finale, Tori becomes an instructor at the Wind Ninja Academy; when Lothor comes back in Power Rangers Dino Thunder, Tori temporarily becomes evil alongside her teammates. They battle the Dino Rangers, but are set free by their comrades, Cam and Hunter; the Ninja and Dino Rangers team up to do battle with Lothor and Mesogog's combined forces, with her teaming up with Yellow Dino Ranger Kira. Afterwards, the Wind Rangers lose their powers. In the Power Rangers Operation Overdrive team up episode "Once a Ranger", Tori is called upon by the Sentinel Knight along with Adam Park, Kira Ford, Bridge Carson, Xander Bly to relieve the Operation Overdrive Rangers when they lost their powers

George H. Taylor (physician)

George Herbert Taylor was an American physician and inventor associated with the natural hygiene and physical culture movements. He was introducing Swedish massage to the United States. Taylor was born in Vermont. In 1852, he practiced hydropathy, he worked at Russell Trall's New York Hydropathic and Physiological School as a consulting physician until 1863. From 1854 to 1855, Taylor worked with hydrotherapist Joel Shew. Taylor became a convert to homeopathy and travelled to study Swedish massage at the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute under Lars Branting. Taylor's brother was physician Charles Fayette Taylor, they opened a hydropathic facility. During 1858–1859, Taylor travelled to Herman Sätherberg's Institute of Kinesipathy in Stockholm to continue his studies; when he returned home he founded the Institute of the Swedish Movement Cure in New York City and his brother joined his practice. In 1862, Olivia Langdon was treated at the institute, he established the Improved Movement Cure Institute in New York City.

In 1860, Taylor authored the book An Exposition of the Swedish Movement-Cure. His book Diseases of Women was the first book to recommend massage for gynaecological problems. Taylor designed exercise and mechanical massage equipment, he invented mechanical massage apparatus to lift the contents of the pelvis. Taylor was an advocate of natural hygiene, he believed that correct breathing and diet and mechanical massage could replace medical intervention and restore health. Taylor died in New York City on December 9, 1896. An Exposition of the Swedish Movement-Cure Diseases of Women Paralysis and Diseases of the Nerves, the Remedial Use of Transmitted Motor Energy Health by Exercise Health for Women Massage Pelvic and Hernial Therapeutics Massage Mechanical Processes Mechanical Aids in the Treatment of Chronic Forms of Disease Pehr Henrik Ling Russell Thacher Trall