The Rolls-Royce Merlin is a British liquid-cooled V-12 piston aero engine of 27-litres capacity. Rolls-Royce designed the engine and first ran it in 1933 as a private venture. Known as the PV-12, it was called Merlin following the company convention of naming its piston aero engines after birds of prey. After several modifications, the first production variants of the PV-12 were completed in 1936; the first operational aircraft to enter service using the Merlin were the Fairey Battle, Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire. The Merlin remains most associated with the Spitfire and Hurricane, although the majority of the production run was for the four-engined Avro Lancaster heavy bomber. A series of applied developments, brought about by wartime needs, markedly improved the engine's performance and durability. Starting at 1,000 hp for the first production models, most late war versions produced just under 1,800 hp, the latest version as used in the de Havilland Hornet over 2,000 hp. One of the most successful aircraft engines of the World War II era, some 50 versions of the Merlin were built by Rolls-Royce in Derby and Glasgow, as well as by Ford of Britain at their Trafford Park factory, near Manchester.
A de-rated version was the basis of the successful Rolls-Royce/Rover Meteor tank engine. Post-war, the Merlin was superseded by the Rolls-Royce Griffon for military use, with most Merlin variants being designed and built for airliners and military transport aircraft. Production ceased in 1956 with the fulfilment of an order for 170 Merlins for the Spanish Air Force's CASA 2.111 and Hispano Aviación HA-1112 aircraft, after 160,000 engines had been delivered. In addition, the Packard V-1650 was a version of the Merlin built in the United States, itself produced in numbers upwards of 55,000 examples, was the principal engine used in the North American P-51 Mustang. Merlin engines remain in Royal Air Force service today with the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, power many restored aircraft in private ownership worldwide. In the early 1930s, Rolls-Royce started planning its future aero-engine development programme and realised there was a need for an engine larger than their 21-litre Kestrel, being used with great success in a number of 1930s aircraft.
Work was started on a new 1,100 hp -class design known as the PV-12, with PV standing for Private Venture, 12-cylinder, as the company received no government funding for work on the project. The PV-12 was first run on 15 October 1933 and first flew in a Hawker Hart biplane on 21 February 1935; the engine was designed to use the evaporative cooling system in vogue. This proved unreliable and when ethylene glycol from the U. S. became available, the engine was adapted to use a conventional liquid-cooling system. The Hart was subsequently delivered to Rolls-Royce where, as a Merlin testbed, it completed over 100 hours of flying with the Merlin C and E engines. In 1935, the Air Ministry issued a specification, F10/35, for new fighter aircraft with a minimum airspeed of 310 mph. Two designs had been developed: the Supermarine Spitfire and the Hawker Hurricane. Both were designed around the PV-12 instead of the Kestrel, were the only contemporary British fighters to have been so developed. Production contracts for both aircraft were placed in 1936, development of the PV-12 was given top priority as well as government funding.
Following the company convention of naming its piston aero engines after birds of prey, Rolls-Royce named the engine the Merlin after a small, Northern Hemisphere falcon. Two more Rolls-Royce engines developed just prior to the war were added to the company's range; the 885 hp Rolls-Royce Peregrine was an updated, supercharged development of their V-12 Kestrel design, while the 1,700 hp 42-litre Rolls-Royce Vulture used four Kestrel-sized cylinder blocks fitted to a single crankcase and driving a common crankshaft, forming an X-24 layout. This was to be used in larger aircraft such as the Avro Manchester. Although the Peregrine appeared to be a satisfactory design, it was never allowed to mature since Rolls-Royce's priority was refining the Merlin; as a result, the Peregrine saw use in only two aircraft: the Westland Whirlwind fighter and one of the Gloster F.9/37 prototypes. The Vulture was fitted to the Avro Manchester bomber, but proved unreliable in service and the planned fighter using it – the Hawker Tornado – was cancelled as a result.
With the Merlin itself soon pushing into the 1,500 hp range, the Peregrine and Vulture were both cancelled in 1943, by mid-1943 the Merlin was supplemented in service by the larger Griffon. The Griffon incorporated several design improvements and superseded the Merlin; the new engine was plagued with problems, such as failure of the accessory gear trains and coolant jackets, several different construction methods were tried before the basic design of the Merlin was set. Early production Merlins were unreliable: Common problems were cylinder head cracking, coolant leaks, excessive wear to the camshafts and crankshaft main bearings; the prototype and early production engine types were the: PV-12The initial design using an evaporative cooling system. Two built, passed bench type testing in July 1934, generating 740 horsepower at 12,000-foot equivalent. First flown 21 February 1935. Merlin BTwo built. "Ramp" cylinder heads. Passed Type Testing February 1935, generating 950 horsepower at
Sarawak Energy Berhad is the Malaysian energy company based in Kuching, Sarawak. The company responsible for the generation and distribution of electricity for the state of Sarawak in Malaysia, it is wholly owned by the State Government of Sarawak. As of May 2016, Sarawak Energy had about 600,000 customers in the state. Sarawak Energy's history began in 1932, with the formation of "Sarawak Electricity Supply Company", by the Brooke Administration, to operate public electricity supply within Sarawak. Prior to that, in 1921 an Electrical Section within the Public Works Department was set up to look after the public electricity supply. In 1962, under the Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation Ordinance 1962, the Sarawak Electricity Company was dissolved, created into a Corporation, known as Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation. In 1996, Sarawak Enterprise Corporation Berhad bought over 45% stake of the Corporation from the Sarawak Government. In 2005, SESCO was privatised and known as Syarikat SESCO Berhad, bought over by Sarawak Energy Berhad.
In January 2016, Sarawak began to export electricity from Sarawak to West Kalimantan, Indonesia through a 275kV interconnection operated by Sarawak Energy. This project is the first successful power trading project for Malaysia. Subsidiaries It has 36 power stations, a total installed capacity of 1,315MW, comprising 5 per cent diesel engine, 25.6 per cent gas turbines, 36.5 per cent coal-fired power plant, 25 per cent Combined Cycle power station and 7.6 per cent hydro turbines throughout the state. The major towns are connected to via a 275/132kV State Transmission Grid. SESCO generates electricity from two major types of plant. Hydroelectric power plants Batang Ai Dam - 4 x 25 MW = 100 MW. Bakun Dam - 2,400MW Murum Dam - 944MWThermal power plants There are 35 thermal power plants and diesel-electric plants with installed generating capacity of 1215 MW in operation. Selected major plants are: Tun Abdul Rahman Power Station, Kuching - 46 MW Gas Turbine and 68 MW Diesel engine. Miri power station, Miri - 99 MW, Open Cycle Gas Turbine Bintulu power station, Bintulu - 330 MW, Combined Cycle Power Plant Tg Kidurong Power Station, Bintulu - 192 MW, Open Cycle Gas Turbine Sejingkat Power Station, Kuching - 210 MW, coal-fired power station Mukah Power Station, Mukah - 2 x 135 MW, Coal Fired Power Station Balingian Coal Fired Power Station, Balingian - 600MWA notable aspect of SESCO operation is the many small diesel-electric power plants in isolated areas, some supplied by air at prohibitive cost.
National Grid, Malaysia Sabah Electricity Tenaga Nasional Sarawak Energy Homepage of Bintulu Development Authority Chimneys of Malaysia Company Overview of Sarawak Energy Berhad, bloomberg.com Sarawak Energy Berhad, bursamalaysia.com
Mask in Blue is a 1943 German musical comedy film directed by Paul Martin and starring Clara Tabody, Wolf Albach-Retty and Hans Moser. It is an operetta film based on the stage work of the same name composed by Fred Raymond; the film was remade in Agfacolor by Georg Jacoby in 1953. The film's sets were designed by the art director Heinrich Alfred Bütow. Clara Tabody as Gitta Stadelmann Wolf Albach-Retty as Georg Harding Hans Moser as Seehauser, Room Service Manager Richard Romanowsky as Prof Sebastian Stadelmann Ernst Waldow as Franz Stanzinger Leo Peukert as Bommerlund, Theatre Director Roma Bahn as Ilona Körössy Josefine Dora as Hermine, Stadelmann's Housekeeper Gertrud Wolle Tibor Halmay as Ballet Master Béla Fáy Walter Lieck Livia Miklós Sándor Pethes Eugen Rex as Hotel Porter Goble, Alan; the Complete Index to Literary Sources in Film. Walter de Gruyter, 1999. Mask in Blue on IMDb