SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rolls-Royce R

The Rolls-Royce R was a British aero engine designed and built for air racing purposes by Rolls-Royce Limited. Nineteen R engines were assembled in a limited production run between 1929 and 1931. Developed from the Rolls-Royce Buzzard, it was a 37-litre capacity, supercharged V-12 capable of producing just under 2,800 horsepower, weighed 1,640 pounds. Intensive factory testing revealed mechanical failures which were remedied by redesigning the components improving reliability; the R was used with great success in the Schneider Trophy seaplane competitions held in England in 1929 and 1931. Shortly after the 1931 competition, an R engine using a special fuel blend powered the winning Supermarine S.6B aircraft to a new airspeed record of over 400 miles per hour. Continuing through the 1930s, both new and used R engines were used to achieve various land and water speed records by such racing personalities as Sir Henry Segrave, Sir Malcolm Campbell and his son Donald, the last record being set in 1939.

A final R-powered water speed record attempt by Donald Campbell in 1951 was unsuccessful. The experience gained by Rolls-Royce and Supermarine designers from the R engine was invaluable in the subsequent development of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine and the Spitfire. A de-rated R engine, known as the Griffon, was tested in 1933, but it was not directly related to the production Rolls-Royce Griffon of 1939, of the same exact bore/stroke and resultant displacement figures as the "R" design. Three examples of the R engine are on public display in British museums as of 2014. Rolls-Royce realised that the Napier Lion engine used in the 1927 Supermarine S.5 Schneider Trophy winner had reached the peak of its development, that for Britain's entrant in the next race to be competitive a new, more powerful engine design was required. The first configuration drawing of the "Racing H" engine, based on the Buzzard, was sent to R. J. Mitchell of Supermarine on 3 July 1928, allowing Mitchell to start design of the new S.6 Schneider Trophy seaplane.

Shortly after this the engine's name was changed to R for "Racing". An official British Government contract to proceed with the project was not awarded until February 1929, leaving Rolls-Royce six months to develop the engine before the planned Schneider Trophy competition of that year; the R was a physically imposing engine designed by a team led by Ernest Hives and including Cyril Lovesey, Arthur Rowledge and Henry Royce. The R shared the Buzzard's bore and capacity, used the same 60-degree V-12 layout. A new single-stage, double-sided supercharger impeller was designed along with revised cylinders and strengthened connecting rods; the wet-liner cylinder blocks and propeller reduction gear castings were produced from "R. R 50" aluminium alloy. To make the R as compact as possible, several design modifications were made in comparison to the Buzzard: the propeller reduction gear housing was reshaped, the camshaft and rocker covers were modified to fair into the shape of the aircraft's nose, the air intake was positioned in the vee of the engine, beneath the engine the auxiliaries were raised a little to reduce the depth of the fuselage.

The engine's length was minimised by not staggering its cylinder banks fore and aft, which meant that the connecting rods from opposing cylinders had to share a short crankshaft bearing journal known as the "big end". This was achieved by fitting one connecting rod inside the other at the lower end in a blade and fork arrangement; the introduction of articulated connecting rods was regarded as a "nuisance" by Arthur Rubbra, a Rolls-Royce engine designer, as there were inherent problems with the arrangement. The complicated geometry meant that a pair of rods had different effective lengths, giving a longer stroke on the articulated side. Articulated rods were used in the Goshawk engine, but were not embodied in the Rolls-Royce Merlin, for which Arthur Rowledge had designed a revised blade and fork system. Production R engines featured sodium-filled exhaust valve stems for improved cooling, while additional modifications included a redesigned lower crankcase casting and the introduction of an oil scraper ring below the piston gudgeon pin.

A balanced crankshaft was introduced in May 1931, the compression ratio on the "sprint" engines prepared for that year was raised from 6:1 to 7:1. The ignition system consisted of two rear-mounted, crankshaft-driven magnetos, each supplying one of a pair of spark plugs fitted to each cylinder; this is common practise for aero engines, as it ensures continued operation in the case of a single magneto failure, has the advantage of more efficient combustion over a single spark plug application. Cooling this large engine whilst minimising aerodynamic drag posed new challenges for both the Rolls-Royce and Supermarine design teams. Traditional cooling methods using honeycomb-type radiators were known to cause high drag in flight. Engine oil was cooled in a similar manner using channels in the empennage skins; the S.6 was described at the time as a "flying radiator", it had been estimated

Padichira

Padichira is a village near Pulpally in Wayanad district in the state of Kerala, India. As of 2001 India census, Padichira had a population of 29697 with 14470 females. Padichira can be accessed from Sultan Battery; the Periya ghat road connects Mananthavady to Thalassery. The Thamarassery mountain road connects Calicut with Kalpetta; the Kuttiady mountain road connects Vatakara with Mananthavady. The Palchuram mountain road connects Iritty with Mananthavady; the road from Nilambur to Ooty is connected to Wayanad through the village of Meppadi. The nearest railway station is at Mysore and the nearest airports are Kozhikode International Airport-120 km, Bengaluru International Airport-290 km, Kannur International Airport, 58 km

James Thomson (cell biologist)

James Alexander Thomson is an American developmental biologist best known for deriving the first human embryonic stem cell line in 1998 and for deriving human induced pluripotent stem cells in 2007. Human embryonic stem cells can divide without limit, yet maintain the potential to make all the cells of the body; this remarkable potential makes them useful for basic research on the function of the human body, for drug discovery and testing, as a source of cells and tissues for transplantation medicine. In 1998, Thomson's Lab was the first to report the successful isolation of human embryonic stem cells. On November 6, 1998, Science published this research in an article titled "Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Blastocysts", results which Science featured in its “Scientific Breakthrough of the Year” article, 1999. In spite of their great medical potential, human embryonic stem cells generated enormous controversy because their derivation involved the destruction of a human embryo. In 2007, Thomson's group reported a method for converting human skin cells into cells that closely resemble human embryonic stem cells.

Published in Science in late 2007 in an article titled "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells", the results garnered international attention for ending the ethical controversy surrounding human embryonic stem cell research. Science featured induced pluripotent stem cells in its “Scientific Breakthrough of the Year” article, 2008. Thomson graduated with a B. S. in biophysics from the University of Illinois in 1981. He entered the Veterinary Medical Scientist Training Program at the University of Pennsylvania, receiving his doctorate in veterinary medicine in 1985, his doctorate in molecular biology in 1988, his doctoral thesis involved understanding genetic imprinting in early mammalian development under the mentorship of Davor Solter at the Wistar Institute. Thomson spent two years as a postdoctoral research fellow in the Primate In Vitro Fertilization and Experimental Embryology Laboratory at the Oregon National Primate Research Center, completed a residency in veterinary pathology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

He joined the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center on campus as its chief pathologist in 1995. There, he became the first in the world to isolate and culture nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells; this led to his human embryonic stem cell discovery in 1998. He serves as Director of Regenerative Biology at the Morgridge Institute for Research in Madison, Wisconsin, is a professor in the Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and a professor in the Molecular and Developmental Biology Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara, he is a founder of Cellular Dynamics International, a Madison-based company producing derivatives of human induced pluripotent stem cells for drug discovery and toxicity testing. Thomson is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the recipient of numerous awards and prizes, he was on the cover of TIME magazine's "America's Best in Science & Medicine" feature in 2001 for his work with human embryonic stem cells, again in 2008 when the magazine named him one of the world's 100 most influential people for his derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

In 2011, Thomson was co-recipient, with Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, of the King Faisal International Prize and the Albany Medical Center Prize. In 2013, Thomson received an honorary doctor of science degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "Stem cell pioneer does a reality check". MSNBC interview with James Thomson Nature Reports Stem Cells Q&A with James Thomson