A hermit is a person who lives in seclusion from society for religious reasons. Hermits are a part of several sections of Christianity, the concept is found in other religions as well. In Christianity, the term was applied to a Christian who lives the eremitic life out of a religious conviction, namely the Desert Theology of the Old Testament. In the Christian tradition the eremitic life is an early form of monastic living that preceded the monastic life in the cenobium; the Rule of St Benedict lists hermits among four kinds of monks. In the Roman Catholic Church, in addition to hermits who are members of religious institutes, the Canon law recognizes diocesan hermits under the direction of their bishop as members of the consecrated life; the same is true in many parts of the Anglican Communion, including the Episcopal Church in the US, although in the canon law of the Episcopal Church they are referred to as "solitaries" rather than "hermits". Both in religious and secular literature, the term "hermit" is used loosely for any Christian living a secluded prayer-focused life, sometimes interchangeably with anchorite/anchoress, recluse and "solitary".
Other religions, for example, Hinduism and Taoism have hermits in the sense of individuals living an ascetic form of life. In modern colloquial usage, "hermit" denotes anyone living apart from the rest of society, or participating in fewer social events, for any reason; the word hermit comes from the Latin ĕrēmīta, the latinisation of the Greek ἐρημίτης, "of the desert", which in turn comes from ἔρημος, signifying "desert", "uninhabited", hence "desert-dweller". In the common Christian tradition the first known Christian hermit in Egypt was Paul of Thebes, hence called "St. Paul the first hermit", his disciple Antony of Egypt referred to as "Antony the Great", is the most renowned of all the early Christian hermits owing to the biography by his friend Athanasius of Alexandria. An antecedent for Egyptian eremiticism may have been the Syrian solitary or "son of the covenant" who undertook special disciplines as a Christian. In the Middle Ages some Carmelite hermits claimed to trace their origin to Jewish hermits organized by Elijah.
Christian hermits in the past have lived in isolated cells or hermitages, whether a natural cave or a constructed dwelling, situated in the desert or the forest. People sometimes sought them out for spiritual counsel; some acquired so many disciples that they no longer had physical solitude. The early Christian Desert Fathers wove baskets to exchange for bread. In medieval times hermits were found within or near cities where they might earn a living as a gate keeper or ferryman. From the Middle Ages and down to modern times eremitical monasticism has been practiced within the context of religious institutes in the Christian West. For example, in the Catholic Church the Carthusians and Camaldolese arrange their monasteries as clusters of hermitages where the monks live most of their day and most of their lives in solitary prayer and work, gathering only briefly for communal prayer and only for community meals and recreation; the Cistercian and Carmelite orders, which are communal in nature, allow members who feel a calling to the eremitic life, after years living in the cenobium or community of the monastery, to move to a cell suitable as a hermitage on monastery grounds.
This applies to both their nuns. There have been many hermits who chose that vocation as an alternative to other forms of monastic life. In the 11th century, the life of the hermit gained recognition as a legitimate independent pathway to salvation. Many hermits in that century and the next came to be regarded as saints; the term "anchorite" is used as a synonym for hermit, not only in the earliest written sources but throughout the centuries. Yet the anchoritic life, while similar to the eremitic life, can be distinct from it. Anchorites lived the religious life in the solitude of an "anchorhold" a small hut or "cell" built against a church; the door of an anchorage tended to be bricked up in a special ceremony conducted by the local bishop after the anchorite had moved in. Medieval churches survive that have a tiny window built into the shared wall near the sanctuary to allow the anchorite to participate in the liturgy by listening to the service and to receive Holy Communion. Another window looked out into the street or cemetery, enabling charitable neighbors to deliver food and other necessities.
Clients seeking the anchorite's advice might use this window to consult them. Catholics who wish to live in eremitic monasticism may live that vocation as a hermit: in an eremitical order, but in both cases under obedience to their religious superior, or as an Oblate affiliated with the Camaldolese or as a diocesan hermit under the canonical direction of their bishop. There are lay people who informally follow an eremitic lifestyle and live as solitaries. In the Catholic Church, the institutes of consecrated life have their own regulations concerning those of their members who feel called by God to move from the life in community to the eremitic life, have the permission of their religious superior to do so; the Code of Canon
Luxeuil Abbey, the Abbaye Saint-Pierre et Sain-Paul, was one of the oldest and best-known monasteries in Burgundy, located in what is now the département of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, France. It was founded circa 585–590 by the Irish missionary Saint Columbanus. Columbanus and his companions first settled in cells at Annegray, in the commune of Voivre, Haute-Saône. Looking for a more permanent site for his community, Columbanus decided upon the ruins of a well-fortified Gallo-Roman settlement, about eight miles away; the Roman town had been ravaged by Attila in 451, was now buried in the dense overgrown woodland that had filled the abandoned site over more than a century, but the place still had the advantage of the thermal baths down in the valley, which still give the town its name of Luxeuil-les-Bains. Jonas described it further: "There stone images crowded the nearby woods, which were honoured in the miserable cult and profane former rites in the time of the pagans". With a grant from an officer of the palace at Childebert's court, an abbey church was built with a sense of triumph within the heathen site and its "spectral haunts".
Under the intellectual and spiritual stimulation of the Irish monks, the abbey at Luxeuil, dedicated to Saint Peter, soon became the most important and flourishing monastery in Gaul. The community was so large that choir followed choir in the chanting of the office, at Luxeuil the laus perennis imported from Agaunum went on day and night. Most of the earliest rule, observed at Luxeuil derived from Celtic monastic traditions, whether or not written down by Columbanus, supplemented by the more formalized Benedictine Rule, followed throughout the West, which provided for the abbot's orderly election, his relations with his monks, the appointment of monastic officials and their delegated powers. In 603, a synod accused Columbanus of keeping Easter by the Celtic date, but his severity and the inflexible rule he had established may have been the true cause of friction with the Burgundian court. Columbanus was exiled from Luxeuil by the dowager Queen Brunehaut, he was succeeded as abbot by Saint Eustace of Luxeuil, the head of the monastic school, which under Eustace and his successor Saint Waldebert, established a high reputation.
The school and example of Luxeuil contributed to the conversion of the Burgundians. Luxeuil sent out monks to found houses at Bobbio, between Milan and Genoa, where Columbanus himself became abbot, monasteries at Saint-Valéry and Remiremont. To Luxeuil came such monks as Conon, abbot of Lérins Abbey to prepare for the reform of his monastery, Saints Wandregisel and Philibert, founders of the abbeys of Fontenelle and Jumièges in Normandy, who spent years in studying the rule observed in monasteries which derived their origin from Luxeuil. About 732, a raiding party of Moors under the skillful general Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, penetrating from Arles deep into Burgundy took possession of Luxeuil and massacred most of the community, including Abbot Mellinus; the few survivors rebuilt the abbey, but both the monastery and the small town that clustered around its walls were devastated by the Vikings in about 825. Under the reforming government of the eighteenth abbot, Saint Ansegisus, the Emperor Louis the Pious renewed its charters, restored the church and monastic buildings, reformed discipline.
In 917, it was sacked by the Hungarians. From the 15th century the institution of commendatory abbots encouraged the decline of discipline; the Emperor Charles V curtailed the power of Luxeuil's abbots. In 1634, the commendatory abbots ceased, Luxeuil was joined to the reformed Congregation of St. Vanne. From the report of the "Commission des Réguliers", drawn up in 1768, the community appears to have been numerous and flourishing, discipline well kept. At the French Revolution the monks were dispersed. Most of the abbey's site is built over by the modern town, but the fine Gothic church, built in the 14th century, was not destroyed; the church itself has for many years served as the parish church of Luxeuil-les-Bains. For a list of abbots, see Henri Baumont, Étude historique sur l'abbaye de Luxeuil, appendix I. 590–610: St Columbanus 610–625: Eustace 625–6??: St Waldebert 6??–6??: Vindologus 6??–665: Berthoald 665–682: Ingofrid 682–6??: Cunctan 6??–6??: Rusticus 6??–700: Sayfrocius 700–7??: Ado 7??–7??: Arulf 7??–7??: Rendinus 7??–7??: Regnebert 7??–7??: Gerard I 7??–7??: Ratto 7??–730: Vinlincrannus 730–731: St Mellinus 731–746: vacancy 746–7??: Frudoald 7??–7??: Gaylembus 7??–764: Airibrand 764–7??: Boso 7??–785: Grimoald 785–786: Andrew I 786–7??: Docto 7??–8??: Siliernus 8??–817: Dadinus 817–834: St Ansegisus 834–834: Drogo 834–855: Fulbert 856–888: St Gibart???–???: Eudes I 948–983: Guy I 983–1018: Aalongus 1018–10??: Milo 10??–1049: William I 1049–10??: Gerard II 10??–10??: Roger 10??–10??: Robert 10??–10??: Guy II 1090–1023: Thibaud I 1123–1136: Hugh I 1136–1139: Josserand 1139–1147: Stephen I 1147–1160: Gerard III 1160–1165: Peter I 1165–1178: Sifroi 1178–1186: Bouchard 1186–1189: Gerard IV 1189–1201: Olivier d'Abbans 1201–1204: Frederick 1204–1209: Hervé 1209–1219: Hugh II 1219–1234: Simon 1234–1265: Thibaud II 1265–12??: Régnier 12??–1271: Hugh III 1271–1287: Charles I 1287–1308: Thibaud III de Faucogney 1308–1314: Stephen II 1314–1319: vacancy 1
Benignus of Dijon
Saint Benignus of Dijon was a martyr honored as the patron saint and first herald of Christianity of Dijon, Burgundy. His feast falls, with All Saints, on November 1. No particulars concerning the person and life of Benignus were known at Dijon, he may have been a missionary priest from Lyon, martyred at Epagny near Dijon. Johann Peter Kirsch says, "For some unknown reason his death is placed in the persecution under Aurelian."According to Gregory of Tours the common people reverenced his grave, but Gregory's great-grandfather, Saint Gregory, bishop of Langres, wished to put an end to this veneration, because he believed the grave to belong to a heathen. However, when he learned through a vision one night that the burial spot was in fact the overlooked grave of the holy martyr Benignus, the bishop had the tomb in which the sarcophagus lay restored, he built a basilica over it. Saint Benignus' Abbey joined the Cluniac order. In the early eleventh century a larger church was built by its abbot William of Volpiano.
The abbey church built by Gregory of Langres was superseded by a Romanesque basilica, which collapsed in 1272 and was replaced by the present Dijon cathedral, dedicated to Benignus, where the shrine survived an earthquake in 1280 and the French Revolution. His purported sarcophagus can still be seen in the crypt. According to the sixth-century Passio Sancti Benigni, Benignus was a native of Smyrna. Polycarp of Smyrna had a vision of Saint Irenaeus dead, in response to which he sent Benignus, as well as two priests and a deacon, to preach the Gospel in Gaul, they were managed to make their way to Marseilles. They made their way up the Saône. Reaching Autun, they converted son of the noble Faustus. Benignus, now on his own, proselytized in different parts of Gaul, performed numerous miracles despite the persecution of Christians. Denounced to the Emperor Aurelian, he was put on trial. Benignus refused to sacrifice to pagan deities or to Caesar, refused to deny Christ; the authorities savagely tortured him, to.
Benignus was clubbed to death with a bar of iron and his heart pierced. "He was buried in a tomb, made to look like a pagan monument in order to deceive the persecutors". In the time of Gregory of Tours there was a sudden appearance of acta regarding Benignus, narrating the martyrdom of the saint, said by Gregory to have been brought from Italy to Dijon by a pilgrim, but edited at Dijon in the sixth century. According to these hagiographic accounts, Polycarp of Smyrna had sent Benignus as a missionary to Dijon, where he had labored as a priest and had died a martyr, during the persecution under Aurelian, a possibility chronologically irreconcilable. Louis Duchesne has proved that these acta are at the head of a whole group of legends which arose in the early years of the sixth century and were intended to demonstrate the early the beginnings of Christianity in the cities of that region. "They are unreliable, the existence of some of the martyrs connected with these places is doubtful." Kirsch says, "They are all falsifications by the same hand and possess no historical value."
On the seal of the abbey, Benignus of Dijon is depicted as having a dog by his side. He holds a key; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "St. Benignus of Dijon". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Saint of the Day, November 1: Benignus of Dijon at SaintPatrickDC.org Wooden statue of St. Benignus of Dijon
Doubs is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River. As early as the 13th century, inhabitants of the northern two-thirds of Doubs spoke Franc-Comtois, a dialect of Langue d'Oïl. Residents of the southern third of Doubs spoke a dialect of the Arpitan language. Both languages co-existed with French, the official language of law and commerce, continued to be spoken in rural areas into the 20th century, they are both still spoken today but not on a daily basis. Doubs was important as a portal to Switzerland through the pass at Joux. Many famous people, including Mirabeau, Toussaint Louverture and Heinrich von Kleist, were imprisoned in the Château de Joux. Doubs is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Franche-Comté. The prefecture is Besançon. In 1793, the republic of Mandeure was incorporated into the department; this district was passed between various territories and departments in the ensuing administrative reorganisations and wars, but was restored to Doubs in 1816 when the former principality of Montbéliard was added to the department.
However, the commune of Le Cerneux-Péquignot was annexed by the Canton of Neuchâtel under the terms of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, since remained Swiss territory. Between the defeat of France at the Battle of Waterloo and November 1818, Doubs was included in the area occupied by Austrian troops. Victor Hugo, Gustave Courbet, Auguste and Louis Lumière are among the famous people born in Doubs. Doubs is part of the current region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is surrounded by the French departments of Jura, Haute-Saône, Territoire de Belfort, the Swiss cantons of Vaud, Neuchâtel, Jura; the department is dominated by the Jura mountains. The President of the Departmental Council is Christine Bouquin; the inhabitants of the department are called Doubiens. The Doubs department is at the most industrialized in France, it is the birthplace of the automotive manufacturer Peugeot. The castle of Joux and Besançon are important tourist destinations. Arrondissements of the Doubs department Cantons of the Doubs department Communes of the Doubs department Hoffmann, Die französischen Konservativen in der katholischen Provinz Parteigenese und politische Kultur im Doubs.
Prefecture website General council website
Claude-Adrien Nonnotte was a French Jesuit controversialist, best known for his writings against Voltaire. At nineteen he entered the Society of Jesus and preached at Amiens and Turin; when Voltaire began to issue his Essai sur les moeurs, which the Catholic Church considered an attack on Christianity, Nonnotte published, the Examen critique ou Réfutation du livre des moeurs. He dealt with what he saw as doctrinal errors contained in Voltaire's work. Nonnotte's work reached the sixth edition in 1774. Voltaire retorted in his Eclaircissements historiques, the back and forth attacks continued for twenty years. Nonnotte's publication continued to circulate, was translated into Italian, German and Portuguese. After the suppression of the Jesuits by king Louis XV, Nonnotte withdrew to Besançon. In 1779 he added a third volume to the Erreurs de Voltaire, namely, L'esprit de Voltaire dans ses écrits, for which he could not obtain the approval of the Paris censor. Against the Dictionnaire philosophique, in which Voltaire had recapitulated all his attacks on Christianity, Nonnotte published the Dictionnaire philosophique de la religion, in which he replied to all the objections brought against religion.
The work was translated into German. Towards the end of his life Nonnotte published Les philosophes des trois premiers siècles, in which he contrasted the ancient and the modern philosophers; the work was translated into German. He wrote Lettre à un ami sur les honnêtetés littéraires, Réponse aux Éclaircissements historiques et aux additions de Voltaire; these publications obtained for their author a eulogistic Brief from Pope Clement XIII, the congratulations of St. Alphonsus Liguori; the latter declared that he had always at hand his "golden works" in which the chief truths of the Faith were defended with learning and propriety against the objections of Voltaire and his friends. Nonnotte was the author of L'emploi de l'argent, translated from Maffei. All were published under the title Oeuvres de Nonnotte. 1757: Examen critique ou Réfutation du livre des moeurs 1762: The Errors of Voltaire 1766: Lettre à un ami sur les honnêtetés littéraires 1772: Philosophic Dictionary of Religion 1774: Réponse aux Éclaircissements historiques et aux additions de Voltaire 1779: The Spirit of Voltaire as shown by his writings 1787: L'emploi de l'argent Le gouvernement des paroisses, 1802 édition posthume Les philosophes des trois premiers siècles de l'église, Besançon, 1819 édition posthume Les erreurs de Voltaire, nouvelle édition, corrigée, augmentée, avec la réponse aux éclaircissements historiques et aux additions de Voltaire, Compagnie des libraires, Amsterdam,1766, in-8°,48, 536, 475 et S.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Claude-Adrien Nonnotte". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Cites: Sommervogel, Bib. de la C. de Jesus, V, 1803-7.
The Cathedral of Saint John of Bensançon known as Besançon Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic church located in the town of Besançon, France. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Besançon; the cathedral consists of a large nave between two aisles, dates from the 11th to the 13th century. It has two facing each with an altar; the lack of a transept and the facing apses parallel the designs of contemporary German cathedrals. The Romanesque arches date from the 13th century, it does not have a main doorway. The choir dates to the 18th Century; the cathedral is situated below the citadel. To the east of the cathedral is the 16th century Porte Rivotte, with two round towers, pedestrian walkways dating to the 19th century. To the west is the Porte Noire, a Roman triumphal arch of the 2nd century with extensive sculptural decoration. Between 1127 and 1161C. E; the cathedral was rebuilt on the foundation of a basilica dating to the 9th Century. However, in 1212, a fire destroyed its timber frame. In 1525 Erasmus of Rotterdam visited Besançon at the invitation of Ferry Carondelet.
Local notables tried to entice him to stay, offering him an allowance and a house, but Erasmus declined the offer. On 16 June 1683, King Louis XIV of France visited Besançon, he stayed at the Palais Granvelle, together with the Queen and the Dauphin, visited the Cathedral. In 1724 the Cathedral's bell tower collapsed; the apse of the Holy Shroud was built in its place in 1730. In the 1850s the Cathedral received an astronomical clock; the present clock replaced it and was installed in 1860. In 1875 the Cathedral was declared an historic monument. To the left of the entrance of the Cathedral there is the grave of Ferry Carondelet, he had been abbot of the Saint Columbanus abbey in Montbenoît. The grave was made in Flanders c.1543 and the sculpture reflects influences from the Italian Renaissance. The eastern apse was rebuilt in 1730 on the site of the Cathedral's collapsed bell tower, it was decorated in the style associated with the period of Louis XV of France, using stucco and gilded wood. The altar contained a copy of the Shroud of Turin.
The apse contains paintings representing the passion and resurrection of Christ by Charles-Joseph Natoire, Jean François de Troy, Charles-André van Loo. The floor of the apse is of marble and represents Jerusalem, together with the eight gates and four palaces mentioned in the Old and New Testaments; the paintings by de Troy are The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen, Christ in the Garden of Olives, Christ carrying the Cross. The paintings by Natoire are The removal of Christ's body from the cross and The placement of Christ's body in the tomb; the van Loo painting is The resurrection of Christ. The clock tower contains a notable astronomical clock with thousands of moving parts and several animated functions. There are several chapels off the nave on the north side; the first chapel was rebuilt in 1328 by John of Cicon in honor of St. Peter. In 1914, the chapel was dedicated to Saint Joseph, it holds a marble, circular altar table known as the Rose of Saint John. Pope Leon IX consecrated the altar in 1050, at which time it stood in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Besançon, which used to stand where part of the fortifications of the Citadel of Besançon now stand.
In 1711 it was placed on the Cathedral's great alter. In 1790 it was built into the wall of the apse. On 6 January 1898 it was moved to the baptistry chapel; the Eucharist Chapel contains the painting of Our Lady of the Jacobins, that Domenico Passignano painted in 1630. The next chapel dates to the second half of the 13th Century, but received Gothic embellishments in the 17th Century, it contains the Virgin of Pity, by Conrad Meit. He produced it in 1532 at the request of Margaret of Austria's chaplain, the Abbot Antoine de Montécut; the abbey of Saint Vincent de Besançon received it from the Abbot and displayed it in a small chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows. The pulpit dates to 1459; the western apse has two levels. The first level has seven Romanesque windows; the second has seven Gothic bays. Lastly, near the Cathedral's organ, there is the painting Madonna in Glory with Saints, which Fra Bartolomeo painted in Florence in 1512 as an altarpiece for the Cathedral. Chapter 28, "A Procession," in Stendhal's novel Le Rouge et le Noir takes place in Besançon Cathedral and includes a description of the cathedral decorations for the Feast of Corpus Christi.
Citations References The Seven Marvels of Saint John's Cathedral. St. Stephen's Cathedral, Besançon
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152, he was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years the term sacrum first appeared in a document in connection with his empire, he was formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian. Before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia, he was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from the rival House of Welf. Frederick, descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors. Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors.
He combined qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: his longevity, his ambition, his extraordinary skills at organization, his battlefield acumen and his political perspicacity. His contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy. Frederick died in 1190 in Asia Minor while leading an army in the Third Crusade. Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia, shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade; the expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, succeed him as king.
Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king. He was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days on 9 March 1152. Frederick's father was from the Hohenstaufen family, his mother was from the Welf family, the two most powerful families in Germany; the Hohenstaufens were called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia. The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, its power waning under the weight of the Investiture controversy. For a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was a nominal title with no real power; the king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, he was prevented from exercising any real authority or leadership in the realm. The royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown.
When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king in 1152, royal power had been in effective abeyance for over twenty-five years, to a considerable degree for more than eighty years. The only real claim to wealth lay in the rich cities of northern Italy, which were still within the nominal control of the German king; the Salian line had died out with the death of Henry V in 1125. The German princes refused to give the crown to his nephew, the duke of Swabia, for fear he would try to regain the imperial power held by Henry V. Instead, they chose Lothair III, who found himself embroiled in a long-running dispute with the Hohenstaufens, who married into the Welfs. One of the Hohenstaufens gained the throne as Conrad III of Germany; when Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle in 1152, there seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, since he was a Welf on his mother's side. The Welf duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, would not be appeased, remaining an implacable enemy of the Hohenstaufen monarchy.
Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, little else to construct an empire. The Germany that Frederick tried to unite was a patchwork of more than 1600 individual states, each with its own prince. A few of these, such as Bavaria and Saxony, were large. Many were too small to pinpoint on a map; the titles afforded to the German king were "Caesar", "Augustus", "Emperor of the Romans". By the time Frederick would assume these, they were little more than propaganda slogans with little other meaning. Frederick was a pragmatist. Unlike Henry II of England, Frederick did not attempt to end medieval feudalism, but rather tried to restore it, though this was beyond his ability; the great players in the German civil war had been the Pope, Emperor and the Guelfs, but none of these had emerged as the winner. Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy.
Issuing a general order for peace, he