The Latin Church, commonly called Roman Catholic Church, sometimes Western Church, is the largest autonomous particular church sui iuris within the Catholic Church, applying Latin liturgical rites. There are 24 such sui iuris particular churches within the Catholic Church, all the other particular churches sui iuris, of which there are 23, originated farther east and are, collectively known as the Eastern Catholic Churches. Because of the migrations, members of all of these particular churches sui iuris are no longer confined to their areas of origin. A person is a member of or belongs to a particular church, a person inherits or is of, a particular patrimony or rite. Since the rite has liturgical, theological and disciplinary elements, Particular churches that inherit and perpetuate a particular patrimony are identified by metonymy with that patrimony. Accordingly, rite has been defined as a division of the Christian church using a distinctive liturgy, is considered equal to the Latin rite within the Church.
It thus used the rite as a technical designation of what may now be called a particular church. Church or rite is used as a single heading in the United States Library of Congress classification of works. The last known use was Pope Pius XII in Humani generis who taught that the Mystical Body of Christ and the Roman Catholic Church are one. Most ecclesiologists - experts in the theology of the Church itself - instead use Roman Catholic to refer exclusively to the Latin Church. The reasons for this are that each of the 24 Catholic Churches sui iuris have a modifier - Maronite, Roman, etc. - and that Latin and Roman are virtually interchangeable. Further, as Adrian Fortescue noted in his article in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, the most common Latin liturgical rites are the Roman Rite, the Ambrosian Rite, the Mozarabic Rite, and variations of the Roman Rite. The 23 Eastern Catholic Churches share five families of liturgical rites, the Latin liturgical rites, like the Armenian, are used only in a single sui iuris particular church.
In the Eastern Churches these sacraments are usually administered immediately after baptism, celibacy, as a consequence of the duty to observe perfect continence, is obligatory for priests in the Latin Church. Rare exceptions are permitted for men who, after ministering as clergy in other churches and this contrasts with the discipline in most Eastern Catholic Churches. In the Latin Church, a man may not be admitted even to the diaconate unless he is legitimately destined to remain a deacon. Marriage after ordination is not possible, and attempting it can result in canonical penalties, Latin Mass Church of Rome Particular church General Roman Calendar Eastern Catholic Churches Catholic Encyclopedia, Latin Church
Renaud de Beaune
Renaud de Beaune was a French Catholic ecclesiastic. He held secular positions such as Councillor of Parliament and Chancellor of Francis of Valois, the royal court greatly favoured him and appointed him to numerous ecclesiastical offices. In 1568, he became Bishop of Mende and in 1581, king Henry IV of France named him his grand almoner in 1591 and appointed him to the Archbishopric of Sens in 1595, but the pope did not confirm the appointment until 1602. He was a member of the commission instituted by Henry IV in 1600 to reform the University of Paris, by his contemporaries, Renaud de Beaune was considered one of the greatest orators of the time. Posterity rated his work for the pacification of France higher than his oratorical talent and it was his influence that led to the successful issue of the conference of Suresnes, near Paris, in 1593. He promised the conversion of Henry IV and brought peace between the latter and the League. Herbermann, Charles, ed. Renaud de Beaune and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Indre is a department in the centre of France named after the river Indre. The inhabitants of the department are called Indriens, Indre is part of the current region of Centre-Val de Loire and is surrounded by the departments of Indre-et-Loire, Loir-et-Cher, Creuse and Haute-Vienne. The préfecture is Châteauroux and there are three subpréfectures at Le Blanc, La Châtre and Issoudun, Indre is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, by order of the National Constituent Assembly. The new departments were to be administered and approximately equal in size. The department was created from part of the province of Berry. Before the Roman conquest, the Celtic Bituriges tribe occupied an area that included Indre and their capital was Avaricum, and another important settlement was at Argenton-sur-Creuse. The area part of Roman Gaul after its conquest by Julius Caesar around 58 BC. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, the Frankish tribes living in Gaul were united under the Merovingians, from this time, the Franks controlled most of Gaul and the Carolingian Empire was the last stage of their rule.
The Carolingian dynasty reached its peak with the crowning of Charlemagne and after his death in 814, the Carolingian territories were divided into three sections in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun, and the area that is now the department of Indre, became part of West Francia. In 869, the king of Middle Francia died without leaving a legitimate heir, a castle was built at Châteauroux in the late tenth century. In the eleventh century, the lords of Châteauroux were powerful in the region, Indre is a department in central France and is part of the region of Centre-Val de Loire. The capital and largest town in the department is Châteauroux, to the north of Indre lies Loir-et-Cher, to the east Cher, to the south lies Creuse and Haute-Vienne, to the southwest lies Vienne, and to the northwest lies Indre-et-Loire. Most of the department is relatively level plains in the broad Loire Valley, the area of the department is 2,269 square miles and it is some 60 miles from north to south and some 54 miles wide.
The land is undulating and slopes gently towards the northwest, the main rivers are the Creuse, the Claise and the Indre. The Creuse, a tributary of the Vienne, is 264 kilometres long and has been impounded in places, at the time it was built in 1926. The Claise is 88 kilometres long and is a tributary of the Creuse, the Indre is a longer waterway and flows centrally through the department from south to north, through the major towns of La Châtre, Châteauroux and Loches. It is a tributary of the Loire, joining it at Chinon in the department of Loir-et-Cher. The highest point of the department is near the town of Pouligny-Notre-Dame where the land rises to 459 m above sea level, the remaining land is heathland, urban land and waterways
Pierre de Murat de Cros
Historian Daniel Williman calls Murat de Cross actions a counter-coup. Pierre was born in La Chaul in the ancient Province of Limousin and he was the son of Aymar de Murat de Cros, a nobleman of Auvergnat extraction, and of Marie de Montclar. He entered the Order of Saint Benedict in his youth, on 9 June 1370 he was transferred to the Metropolitan See of Bourges. Jean was named a cardinal-nephew and one of the first cardinals of Gregory XI upon his ascension to the papacy, already the Bishop of Bourges and a staff member of the Camera, was named Papal Chamberlain that same year, succeeding the deceased Arnaud Aubert. In 1374, he was given the wealthy Archbishopric of Arles, pierre de Cros was the most important and powerful courtier of the pope, and their bedchambers were joined by a secret staircase. He accompanied Gregory XI in the last year of his reign to Anagni from May 16 to November 7,1377, de Cros grew suspicious of the intrigues of Bartolommeo Prignano, the acting-head of the Chancellery, hearing that he was attending the meetings of the bandaresi.
Senator Gui de Prohins, named as governor of Rome by Gregory XI, was not a party to their intrigues. This court was not burdened by the ordo iudiciarius, the slow and formalistic rules of the papal courts, while Gregory XI was forced to borrow from the Duke of Anjou, Murat excelled at diplomacy, convincing Bologna to relent in exchange for a lifting of the interdict. Murat de Cros drafted and persuaded his cousin Gregory XI to adopt Futuris peculis on March 19, fearing for his own life, he moved into the fortress and prepared it for a long siege. Rather than guarding the conclave personally, Murat de Cros deputized the Bishop of Valence, Murat de Cros did not accept the election of Prignano as Urban VI, and sheltered in Castel SantAngelo a group of like-minded cardinals, which included his brother. He met the bardaresi, carrying a battleaxe and followed by an armed entourage. Later in the day Murat de Cros and the other went to pay homage to Urban VI although he feigned illness to avoid the coronation.
He carried on his duties as chamberlain as if Gregory XI were still in power and Urban VI did not exist, refusing to date his letters according to the latters election. As Chamberlain of the Camera, de Cros held an office which was one of the few that did not expire during a sede vacante. He persuaded the entire College of Cardinals to convene in Anagni and he issued a formal summons to Prignano to appear before a cameral tribunal in Anagni, and sometime before July 20 declared him excommunicated and deprived of his Archbishopric of Bari. This meeting was neither a consistory or a conclave but a tribunal with Murat de Cros presiding as an ordinary judge, Murat de Cros enabled a meeting of the College of Cardinals at Fondi on September 20,1378 which elected Robert of Geneva as Clement VII. According to Williman, de Cros used his huge discretionary powers to make himself virtually a regent or protector and it was at this point that Murat de Cros appointed a new procurator and registrar for the Camera, and assisted Clement VII in turning out copious amounts of official-looking documents.
From that time he was known as Cardinalis Arelatensis, the Cardinal of Arles, in April 1385 he was legate of Clement VII to Queen Maria of Naples in Villeneuve-lès-Avignon
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Albi
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Albi, usually referred to simply as the Archdiocese of Albi, is a non-metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in southern France. The archdiocese comprises the whole of the department of Tarn, and is currently suffragan to the Archdiocese of Toulouse. The current Archbishop of Albi is Jean Legrez, O. P. appointed archbishop by Pope Benedict XVI on Wednesday and he formerly served as Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint-Claude, France. In 2012, in the diocese of Albi there was one priest for every 1,656 Catholics, originally erected in the 3rd century as the Diocese of Albi, the diocese at the time was the suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bourges. In 1678, the diocese was promoted to an Archdiocese. Following the Concordat of 11 June 1817, the archdiocese was restored in 1822 to its former borders, in February 1922, the name was changed to its current designation, the Archdiocese of Albi-Castres-Lavour. Catholic Church in France Duchesne, fastes épiscopaux de lancienne Gaule, II.
Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Le diocèse dAlbi, ses évêques et archevêques, hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii, Messagero di S. Antonio. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI, centre national des Archives de lÉglise de France, L’Épiscopat francais depuis 1919, retrieved, 2016-12-24
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France and 5 overseas departments, each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, they were called general councils, the departments were created in 1791 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity, the title department is used to mean a part of a larger whole. Almost all of them were named after geographical features rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of dArgenson and they have inspired similar divisions in many countries, some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a number, the Official Geographical Code. Some overseas departments have a three-digit number, the number is used, for example, in the postal code, and was until recently used for all vehicle registration plates.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as the 45 and this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René dArgenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration, before the French Revolution, France gained territory gradually through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces, during the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved, partly in order to weaken old loyalties. Their boundaries served two purposes, Boundaries were chosen to break up Frances historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences, Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a days ride of the capital of the department. This was a security measure, intended to keep the national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of rural areas far from any centre of government.
The old nomenclature was carefully avoided in naming the new departments, most were named after an areas principal river or other physical features. Even Paris was in the department of Seine, the number of departments, initially 83, was increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleons defeats in 1814-1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size, in 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice, the 89 departments were given numbers based on their alphabetical order. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following Frances defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
In that context, it has remained connected to the Papacy. It is decorated with six crosses, one on each tail and four on the loop, is doubled on the left shoulder. The two latter characteristics seem to survive from the time when the Roman pallium was a simple scarf doubled and pinned on the left shoulder, in origin, the pallium and the omophor are the same vestment. The omophor is a band of cloth, much larger than the modern pallium, worn by all Eastern Orthodox. A theory connects its origin with the figure of the Good Shepherd carrying the lamb on his shoulders, so common in early Christian art, the ceremonial connected with the preparation of the pallium and its bestowal upon the pope at his coronation, suggests some such symbolism. The lambs whose wool is destined for the making of the pallia are solemnly presented at the altar by the nuns of the convent of Saint Agnes, the Benedictine nuns of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere weave the lambs wool into pallia. At present, only the pope, metropolitan archbishops, and the Latin Rite Patriarch of Jerusalem wear the pallium, no other bishops, even non-metropolitan archbishops or retired metropolitans, are allowed to wear the pallium unless they have special permission.
When a pope or metropolitan dies, he is buried wearing the last pallium he was granted, and it is unknown exactly when the pallium was first introduced. Cæsarius of Arles in 513, and in other references of the sixth century. It seems that earlier, the pope alone had the right of wearing the pallium. We hear of the pallium being conferred on others, as a mark of distinction, the honour was usually conferred on metropolitans, especially those nominated vicars by the pope, but it was sometimes conferred on simple bishops. The oath of allegiance which the recipient of the pallium takes today apparently originated in the century, during the reign of Paschal II. It is certain that a tribute was paid for the reception of the pallium as early as the sixth century and this was abrogated by Pope Gregory I in the Roman Synod of 595, but was reintroduced as partial maintenance of the Holy See. This process was condemned by the Council of Basel in 1432, the fee was abandoned amid charges of simony. There are many different opinions concerning the origin of the pallium, some trace it to an investiture by Constantine I, others consider it an imitation of the Hebrew ephod, the humeral garment of the High Priest.
Others declare that its origin is traceable to a mantle of St. Peter, there is no solid evidence tracing the pallium to an investiture of the emperor, the ephod of the Jewish High Priest, or a fabled mantle of St. Peter. It may well be that it was introduced as a badge of the pope, or that it was adopted in imitation of its counterpart. It was bestowed on papal vicars and other bishops with exclusive links to the Apostolic See, in this rank were missionaries sent with papal approval to organise the church among newly converted peoples
Latin liturgical rites
Latin liturgical rites are the Catholic liturgical rites used within the Latin Church. The Latin rites were for centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. Their number is now much reduced, in the aftermath of the Council of Trent, in 1568 and 1570 Pope Pius V suppressed the Breviaries and Missals that could not be shown to have an antiquity of at least two centuries. Many local rites that remained even after this decree were abandoned voluntarily, especially in the 19th century. The Roman Rite is by far the most widely used, like other liturgical rites, it developed over time, with newer forms replacing the older. It underwent many changes in the first millennium and a half of its existence, the forms that Pope Pius V, as requested by the Council of Trent, established in the 1560s and 1570s underwent repeated minor variations in the centuries immediately following. Each new typical edition of the Roman Missal and of the liturgical books superseded the previous one.
The 20th century saw profound changes. Pope Pius X radically rearranged the Psalter of the Breviary and altered the rubrics of the Mass, Popes continued to make such changes, beginning with Pope Pius XII, who significantly revised the Holy Week ceremonies and certain other aspects of the Roman Missal in 1955. The Second Vatican Council was followed by a revision of the rites of all the Roman Rite sacraments. As before, each new edition of an official liturgical book supersedes the previous one. Thus, the 1970 Roman Missal, which superseded the 1962 edition, was superseded by the edition of 1975, the 2002 edition in turn supersedes the 1975 edition both in Latin and, as official translations into each language appear, in the vernacular languages. Under the terms of Summorum Pontificum by Pope Benedict XVI, the Mass of Paul VI is known as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite. The Tridentine Mass, as in the 1962 Roman Missal, is authorized for use as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite under the conditions indicated in the document Summorum Pontificum.
The Anglican Use is a use of the Roman Rite, during the Liturgy of the Eucharist, especially the Eucharistic Prayer, it is closest to the Roman Rite, while it differs more during the Liturgy of the Word and the Penitential Rite. The language used, which differs from that of the ICEL translation of the Roman Rite of Mass, is based upon the Book of Common Prayer, most Anglican Use parishes use the Book of Divine Worship, an adaptation of the Book of Common Prayer. The Anglican Use is permitted under the United States Pastoral Provision of 1980 in several parishes of that country that have left the Episcopal Church. The same Pastoral Provision permits, as an exception and on a case by case basis, on 9 November 2009, Pope Benedict XVI established provisions for the setting up of personal ordinariates for Anglicans who join the church
Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne/Guienne was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016. It is now part of the new region Nouvelle-Aquitaine and it is situated in the south-western part of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes, in the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a kingdom and a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably. This has been demonstrated by various Aquitanian names and words that were recorded by the Romans, whether this Aquitanian language was a remnant of a Vasconic language group that once extended much farther, or whether it was generally limited to the Aquitaine/Basque region is not known. The original Aquitania at the time of Caesars conquest of Gaul included the area bounded by the Garonne River, the Pyrenees, the name may stem from Latin aqua, maybe derived from the town Aquae Augustae, Aquae Tarbellicae or just Aquis or as a more general geographical feature.
In 392, the Roman imperial provinces were restructured and Aquitania Prima, Aquitania Secunda, accounts of Aquitania during the Early Middle Ages are a blur, lacking precision, but there was much unrest. The Visigoths were called into Gaul as foederati, legalizing their status within the Empire, eventually they established themselves as the de facto rulers in south-west Gaul as central Roman rule collapsed. Visigoths established their capital in Toulouse, but their tenure on Aquitaine was feeble, in 507, they were expelled south to Hispania after their defeat in the Battle of Vouillé by the Franks, who became the new rulers in the area to the south of the Loire. The Roman Aquitania Tertia remained in place as Novempopulania, where a duke was appointed to hold a grip over the Basques and these dukes were quite detached from central Frankish overlordship, sometimes governing as independent rulers with strong ties to their kinsmen south of the Pyrenees. As of 660, the foundations for an independent Aquitaine/Vasconia polity were established by the duke Felix of Aquitaine, a united Basque-Aquitanian realm reached its heyday under Odo the Greats rule.
Odo was required to pledge allegiance to the Frankish Charles Martel in exchange for help against the advancing Arabic forces, Basque-Aquitanian self-rule temporarily came to a halt, definitely in 768 after the assassination of Waifer. Seguin, count of Bordeaux and Duke of Vasconia, seemed to have attempted a detachment from the Frankish central authority on Charlemagnes death, the new emperor Louis the Pious reacted by removing him from his capacity, which stirred the Basques into rebellion. Before Pepins death, emperor Louis had appointed a new king in 832, his son Charles the Bald, however scarce, some Frankish population and nobles settled down in regions like Albigeois, Carcassone and Provence and Lower Rhone. After the death of the king Dagobert I, the Merovingian tenure south of the Loire became largely nominal, with the power being in the hands of autonomous regional leaders. The Franks may have largely assimilated to the preponderant Gallo-Roman culture by the 8th century. Still, in the Battle of Toulouse, the Aquitanian duke Odo is said to be leading an army of Aquitanians, on the other hand, the Franks didnt mix with the Basques, keeping separate paths.
Recorded evidence points to their deployment across Aquitaine in a capacity as a mainstay of the Dukes forces. Romans are cited as living in the cities of Aquitaine, as opposed to the Franks, in 1058, the Duchy of Vasconia and Aquitaine merged under the rule of William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine
Sulpitius I of Bourges
Sulpitius I was Bishop of Bourges. Often called Sulpitius Severus, the Severe, he is identified with Sulpicius Severus. He was raised to the see in 584 and he was, says Gregory of Tours, a man of high birth, one of the first senators of Gaul, of great oratorical talent, and expert in the art of poetical rhythms. The See of Bourges having become vacant with the death of Remedius, but the latter rejected all these simoniacal gifts to favour the election of Sulpitius. He was elected, given orders, and consecrated bishop. The council decided that the Bishop of Cahors should retain the contested parishes, Sulpitius assisted at a Council of Mâcon in 585. He is a Catholic saint, his feast occurring in the Roman Martyrology on 29 January and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793.
External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity.
Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, nationalism, socialism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France.
In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIV