Werner Thissen is a German prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Hamburg from 2002 until 2014, when his resignation was accepted, born in Kleve, Thissen was ordained to the priesthood in Münster on June 29,1966. On April 16,1999, he was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Münster, Thissen received his episcopal consecration on the following May 24 from Bishop Reinhard Lettmann, with Bishops Alfons Demming and Heinrich Janssen serving as co-consecrators. He was named Archbishop of Hamburg by Pope John Paul II on November 22,2002 and his retirement was accepted by Pope Francis on Friday,21 March 2014. Archdiocese of Hamburg - in German Catholic-Hierarchy
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion. The Treaty of Osnabrück, involving the Holy Roman Empire, the treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination. Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power, a norm was established against interference in another states domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of states, became central to international law. Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs, provided by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Spanish King, were started in Cologne in 1641 and these negotiations were initially blocked by France. Cardinal Richelieu of France desired the inclusion of all its allies, in Hamburg and Lübeck and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg.
This was done with the intervention of Richelieu, the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. This larger agreement was negotiated in Westphalia, in the cities of Münster. Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations, Münster was, since its re-Catholization in 1535, a strictly mono-denominational community. It housed the Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, only Roman Catholic worship was permitted. No places of worship were provided for Calvinists and Lutherans, in the years of 1628–1633 Osnabrück had been subjugated by troops of the Catholic League. The Catholic Prince-Bishop Franz Wilhelm, Count of Wartenberg imposed the Counter-Reformation onto the city with many Lutheran burgher families being exiled, while under Swedish occupation Osnabrückss Catholics were not expelled, but the city severely suffered from Swedish war contributions. Therefore, Osnabrück hoped for a great relief becoming neutralised and demilitarised, since Lutheran Sweden preferred Osnabrück as a conference venue, its peace negotiations with the Empire, including the allies of both sides, took place in Osnabrück.
The Empire and its opponent France, including the allies of each, as well as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, between January 1646 and July 1647 probably the largest number of diplomats were present. The French delegation was headed by Henri II dOrléans, duc de Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude dAvaux, the Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by Baron Johan Adler Salvius. Philip IV of Spain was represented by a double delegation, the Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, and notably included the diplomats and writers Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, and Bernardino de Rebolledo. The Burgundian lawyer Antoine Brun represented Philip as hereditary ruler of the Franche Comté, the papal nuncio in Cologne, Fabio Chigi, and the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. Various Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire sent delegations, Brandenburg sent several representatives, including Vollmar
Hamburg, officially Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union. It is the second smallest German state by area and its population is over 1.7 million people, and the wider Hamburg Metropolitan Region covers more than 5.1 million inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Elbe, the official long name reflects Hamburgs history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign state. Prior to the changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg, the floods and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids, the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. On the river Elbe, Hamburg is a port and a global service, media and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Beiersdorf.
The radio and television broadcaster NDR, Europes largest printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr, Hamburg has been an important financial centre for centuries, and is the seat of Germanys oldest stock exchange and the worlds second oldest bank, Berenberg Bank. The city is a fast expanding tourist destination for domestic and international visitors. It ranked 16th in the world for livability in 2015, the ensemble Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub with several universities and institutes and its creative industries and major cultural venues include the renowned Elbphilharmonie and Laeisz concert halls, various art venues, music producers and artists. It is regarded as a haven for artists, gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule. Hamburg is known for theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Paulis Reeperbahn is among the best known European entertainment districts, Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east.
It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster, the city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The island of Neuwerk and two neighbouring islands Scharhörn and Nigehörn, in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of Hamburg. The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburgs highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg has a climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast
St. Mary's Cathedral, Hamburg
Since this Dom used to be the concathedral besides Bremen Cathedral in Bremen. In 1180 the cathedral turned into the cathedral close, forming an exclave of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen within the city of Hamburg. By the Reformation the concathedral was converted into a Lutheran church, the cathedral immunity district, since 1648 an exclave of the Duchy of Bremen, was seized by Hamburg in 1803. The city prompted the demolition of the proto-cathedral between 1804 and 1807, the cathedral, in common Italo-Nordic tradition simply called Dom, which is the synecdoche, used – pars pro toto – for most existing or former collegiate churches and cathedrals in Germany alike. The cathedral was situated in the section of the earliest settlement of Hamburg on a geest hill between the rivers Alster and Elbe near Speersort street, todays St. Peters Church was erected right north of the Dom, todays Domstraße crosses through the former site of the cathedral. Curienstraße recalls the location of the canons courts, the early history of the Hamburg See and its first cathedral buildings is somewhat obscured.
In different struggles on competences and privileges plenty of documents have been forged or counterfeited or backdated. These forgeries have drawn a veil before the history of the Hamburg-Bremen. Results of archeological excavations could not clarify the succession of early buildings before 1035. A wooden mission church is reported for 831, Pope Gregory IV appointed the Benedictine monk Ansgar as first archbishop as of 834. After the looting of Hamburg and the destruction of the church by Vikings under Horik I in 845 the archdiocese was united with the Diocese of Bremen in 847, the deposed Pope Benedict V was carried off to Hamburg in 964 and placed under the care of Archbishop Adaldag. He became a deacon but died in 965 or 966 and was buried in the cathedral, in 983 Prince Mstivoj of the Obodrites destroyed city and church. In 988 Benedicts remains were transferred to Rome. Archbishop Unwan started reconstructing a fortified cathedral, under Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg Hamburg-Bremen attained its greatest prosperity and had its deepest troubles.
Adalbert was after Hamburg-Bremens upgrade to the rank of a Patriarchate of the North, Hamburg was even dropped as part of the diocesan name. With the investiture of Archbishop Liemar the seat moved to Bremen. However, the chapter of Hamburg persisted with several special rights. Around 1035 Archbishop Adalbrand of Bremen prompted the construction of a first cathedral from brick, in the same century St. Peters Parish Church was established north of the cathedral compound
Hamburg-Mitte is one of the seven boroughs of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, covering most of the citys urban center. The quarters Hamburg-Altstadt and Neustadt are the origin of Hamburg. In 2006 the population was 233,144, in 1937 several settlements and rural areas were passed into Hamburg enforced by the Greater Hamburg Act. On March 1,2008 due to a law of Hamburg, the neighborhood HafenCity was formed from parts of the quarters Klostertor and Rothenburgsort. The other part of Klostertor was transferred to Hammerbrook, from small parts of the borough Hamburg-Mitte the neighborhood Sternschanze was created as a quarter in the borough Altona. The borough severs Hamburg from the east to the west, in 2006, according to the statistical office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg-Mitte has a total area of 107.1 square kilometres. Georg, St. Pauli, Veddel, the historic center of Hamburg lies within the districts Altstadt and HafenCity, defined by being inside the Wallring. These three districts constitute what is considered Hamburgs Innenstadt, planten un Blomen is a park located in the quarter St.
Pauli and Neustadt. Located in the quarter Billstedt is the lake Öjendorfer See, Hamburg-Mitte is the economic center of Hamburg. Altstadt and HafenCity make up Hamburgs Innenstadt, the shopping and central business district. The facilities of the Port of Hamburg are located mostly in Hamburg-Mitte in the quarters of Kleiner Grasbrook, Veddel, the Bezirksamt Hamburg-Mitte is located at Klosterwall 8. Simultaneously with elections to the parliament, the Bezirksversammlung is elected as representatives of the citizens. Elections were held in Hamburg on 24 February 2008, the four parties having more than 5 percent in recent polls are the social-democratic SPD, the conservative CDU, the ecologist Green Party and the left-wing Die Linke. The liberal Free Democratic Party has 2 directly elected representatives, in 2006233,144 people lived in the borough. 14. 9% were children under the age of 18, and 15. 6% were 65 years of age or older,17,550 people were registered as unemployed and 72,608 were employees subject to social insurance contributions.
In 1999 there were 126,753 households, out of which 17. 9% had children under the age of 18 living with them and 52. 4% of all households were made up of single occupants, the average household size was 1.83. Population by year In 2006 there were 71,559 criminal offences in borough, the main local office is located on Klosterwall. It has 4 local offices or Customer Centres and these are Customer Centre Hamburg-Mitte, Customer Centre Billstedt, Customer Centre St. Pauli, and Customer Centre Wilhelmsburg
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Berlin
The Archdiocese of Berlin is a Roman Catholic archdiocese, seated in Berlin and covering the northeast of Germany. As of 2004 the archdiocese has 386,279 Catholics out of the population of Berlin, most of Brandenburg and Hither Pomerania and this means that a little over 6% of the population in this area is Roman Catholic. There are 122 parishes in the archdiocese, the affairs of the Roman Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Prussia had been reorganised by the Bull De salute animarum, issued in 1821. Pomerania had repeatedly been Polish or independent before joining the Holy Roman Empire in 1180, gniezno and Magdeburg archdioceses competed for expanding their influence into Pomerania, which is why the Holy See determined Cammin to remain exempt. Cammin had had a predecessor, the diocese of Kołobrzeg. The native Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania established the Duchy of Pomerania in 1121, Wartislaw I agreed to Christianise Pomerania, and he, along with Bolesław, backed Otto of Bamberg in his successful Conversion of Pomerania.
In 1125 Bolesław Wrymouth established the new Diocese of Lubusz seated in Lubusz, with its territory comprising the Lubusz Land, part of the Polish reign. Lebus diocesan area formed the southeastern part of the Berlin diocese. The Holy See considered the former sees as sedes impeditae, in memory of them Berlins archdiocesan coat-of-arms combines the symbols of the dioceses of Brandenburg, Cammin and Lebus. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire Brandenburg was officially merged in Prussia, many Roman Catholic dioceses and other jurisdictions had borders deviating from the political boundaries often changing with the many wars in Central Europe. This led to the situation where parts of one diocese or jurisdiction lied in different countries, in Brandenburg and Pomerania the pope, by the Bull De salute animarum, established a new jurisdiction on the one hand and extended the ambit of the neighbouring Breslau diocese on the other. In political respect the two Lusatias were divided, lower Lusatia became Brandenburgian, northeastern Upper Lusatia Silesian, southeastern Upper Lusatia remained Saxon.
The jurisdiction was titled the Prince-Episcopal Delegation for Brandenburg and Pomerania, in 1821 the Delegation district comprised altogether six established Catholic parishes. Berlin, St. Hedwig parish, established in 1745, first Roman Catholic mass in 1719, Frankfurt upon Oder, Holy Cross parish, established in 1789, first Roman Catholic mass in 1786, Potsdam, Ss. Peter and Paul parish, established in 1789, first Roman Catholic mass in the year, Spandau. Breslaus Prince-Bishop Heinrich Förster gave generous aid to the founding of churches, monastic institutions, the strife that arose between the Catholic Church and the Prussian State brought his labours in the Prussian part of his diocese to an end. He was deposed by the State and had to leave for the episcopal Austrian Silesian castle of Johannesberg in Jauernig, so Pope Leo XIII appointed as his successor Robert Herzog, till Prince-Episcopal Delegate for Brandenburg and Pomerania and provost of St. Hedwigs Church in Berlin. Prince-Bishop Herzog made every endeavour to bring out of the confusion into which the quarrel with the State during the immediately preceding years had thrown the affairs of the diocese
Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer
The Diocese of Speyer is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany. The diocese is located in the South of the Rhineland-Palatinate and comprises the Saarpfalz district in the east of the Saarland, the bishops see is in the Palatinate city of Speyer. The current bishop is Karl-Heinz Wiesemann, see Bishop of Speyer for a list of previous bishops. As of 31 December 2006,44. 5% of the population of the diocese was Catholic, in a slightly different hierarchic structure it is one of the oldest Dioceses in Germany. A bishop of Speyer was first mentioned in a document in 346, through grants by the Holy Roman Emperor, the prince-bishops of Speyer established themselves as worldly as well as spiritual rulers. The diocese is directed by bishop Karl-Heinz Wiesemann, the diocese is structured in the following deaneries, with borders that are almost the same as the local county borders
St. Georg, Hamburg
St. Georg is a central quarter in the borough Hamburg-Mitte of Hamburg, Germany. In 2006 the population was 10,551, in 1410 the articles 17 and 18 of a contract between the Senate and the citizens were regulating the accommodation of the patients in the hospital St. Georg. This hospital still exists as the Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, in 1868 the suburb St. Georg became official part of Hamburg, including the hospital for epidemic plague. Due to the problems with abuse and the high crime rate. The only other place of Hamburg is the area Reeperbahn, St. Pauli, St. Georg is south-east to the artificial lake Außenalster, which is the border to the borough Eimsbüttel. According to the office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein, the urban quarter has a total area of 1.8 km². Parts of the quarter St. Georg are ranked as an address by the office of city development and environment of Hamburg. The central situation of St. Georg and many places of nightlife, street cafes, the city of Hamburg and the borough Hamburg-Mitte have special programs to change this quarter.
Because of lots of gay owned and gay friendly nightclubs and shops, St. Georg is considered as Hamburgs main scene for gays, in the street Lange Reihe is the starting point of Hamburgs annual Christopher Street Day parade. In 2006 in the quarter St. Georg were living 10,551 people,9. 2% were children under the age of 18, and 13. 2% were 65 years of age or older. 629 people were registered as unemployed, in 1999 there were 6,882 households and 67. 8% of all households were made up of individuals. The Domkirche St. Marien is a Roman Catholic cathedral in St. Georg, the present building dates from the 1890s. The main campus of the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences is at the street Berliner Tor, there were 3 elementary schools and 6 secondary schools in St. Georg in 2006. The Deutsches Schauspielhaus, founded in 1901, is located in St. Georg, in 2011 the Ohnsorg-Theater moved into the new theatre in the Bieberhaus next to the Hauptbahnhof. Among others the Sportverein St. Georg von 1895 is a club in St.
Georg using the facilities in the quarter. The Honorary Consulate General of the Kingdom of Thailand established in Hamburg in 1881 is located in the street An der Alster 45 and in charge of the states Bremen, the Asklepios Klinik St. Georg is a general hospital with 758 beds and 67 day-care places. The hospital has 10 departments, including medicine, neurology, neurosurgery and intensive care. The hospital is specialized among others for heart surgery and oncology and it provides the capacity to dispatch emergency medical services
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel, other cities are Lübeck. Also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark. The term Holstein derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land, originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe, Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii. The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagnes Saxon campaigns in the eighth century. Since 811, the frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider. The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig, around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.
Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the part of Schleswig. This would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, the administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen. The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a popular movement in Holstein. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and this movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig.
The ensuing conflict is called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. e. Not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen and these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed