Fra Dolcino was the second leader of the Dulcinian reformist movement, burned at the stake in Northern Italy in 1307. He had taken over the movement after its founder, Gerard Segarelli, had been executed in 1300 on the orders of the Roman Catholic Church. Although the beliefs and spirituality of the Dulcinian sect were inspired by the teachings of Francis of Assisi, who had founded the Franciscan Order in 1210, their beliefs were condemned as heresy by the Catholic Church; the Papacy condemned their practices of poverty and opposition to the feudal system. The origins of Fra Dolcino and his real name are a subject of constant debate among historians. One view is that he belonged to the wealthy Tornielli family of Novara, while another view is that he was the illegitimate son of a priest who fled from Vercelli to escape punishment for some small burglaries. Recent researches of Raniero Orioli presents a plausible theory: the paper of the Anonymous Synchronous written shortly after the facts, identifies him as nomine Dulcinus, filius presbyteri Iulii de Tarecontano Vallis Ossole diocesis Novariensis.
The research of Orioli shows that De Julio Presbitero was the name of a wealthy family of Vercelli belonging to the Ghibellines married with members of the Tornielli family of nearby Novara Ghibellines, so he proposes that Dolcino could be the son of a couple that united members of both families. Benvenuto da Imola in his commentaries written less than a century after the facts tells us that Dolcino was born in Romagnano Sesia, went in his childhood to Vercelli and there lived in the church of St. Agnes where he studied grammar, he was intelligent and proficient in the studies, of short stature, always smiling and of gentle temperament. One day a priest lamented that some money had been stolen and accused one of his familiars, Patras, of the theft; the priests refused and did not accuse him of anything but Dolcino was terrorized and fled far away to the city of Trento where he met and joined the sect of the Apostolics. Dolcino left Vercelli between 1280 and 1290 and the researches of Orioli show that in the same period the fights between Guelphs and Ghibellines caused many victims on both sides in the city.
The inquisitor Bernardo Gui cites the same episode, concluding that he fled to Trento to escape the just punishment for his burglaries. Fra Dolcino, a former member, became in 1300 the leader of the movement of Apostolics, influenced by the millenarist theories of Gioacchino da Fiore gave birth to the Dulcinian movement, which existed between the years 1300 and 1307, it ended in the mountains in Sesia Valley and in the Biella area, in Piedmont, Italy, on 23 March 1307 when many crusaders conquered the fortification built on the mount Rubello by the Dulcinians. According to the Roman Catholic Church and most historians of the period and his followers, in reaction to attacks by Catholic troops, became criminals, who would not hesitate, for their own survival, to plunder and devastate villages, killing any who opposed them, burning their houses, he justified the actions committed by his followers in this period citing Saint Paul: "To the pure all things are pure, but to the corrupt and unbelieving nothing is pure.
Despite this, he was considered by some to be one of the reformers of the Church and one of the founders of the ideals of the French revolution and socialism. In particular he was positively reevaluated toward the end of the 19th century and was dubbed the Apostle of the Socialist Jesus and thus in 1907 left wing workers of Biella and the Sesia Valley erected a monument on mount Rubello, the place of its last resistance; the monument was symbolically gunned down by the Fascists and rebuilt in a smaller size and different shape in 1974. Fra Dolcino and Margaret were never tried by the Church. Manly Hall claims that Dolcino was castrated and torn to pieces, limb by limb, the pieces afterward burned by the public executioner; this is not based on any contemporary or near contemporary account of Fra Dolcino's execution. Fifteen years approximately thirty of Dolcino's disciples were burned alive in the marketplace at Padua. After his capture the Bishop of Vercelli consulted with the Inquisition and other eminent people to decide an immediate execution so the paper of the Anonymous Synchronous written by a follower or a local sympathizer of the Dulcinian, the one of Bernardo Gui and another anonymous paper are the only documents we have that were written in the same period the events took place.
He was considered
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite became the predominant rite used by the Western Church. Many local variants, not amounting to distinctive Rites, existed in the medieval manuscripts, but have been progressively reduced since the invention of printing, most notably since the reform of liturgical law in the 16th century at the behest of the Council of Trent and more following the Second Vatican Council; the Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The Mass of Paul VI is the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church, first promulgated in the 1969 edition of the Roman Missal, it is considered the ordinary form of the mass, intended for most contexts.
The Tridentine Mass, as promulgated in the 1962 Roman Missal, may be used as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, according to norms set in the 2007 papal document Summorum Pontificum. The Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression. In its Tridentine form, it was noted for its formality: the Tridentine Missal minutely prescribed every movement, to the extent of laying down that the priest should put his right arm into the right sleeve of the alb before putting his left arm into the left sleeve. Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people after the Words of Institution. If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem, ad orientem if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head; as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed.
Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, keeping both hands joined together. In his 1912 book on the Roman Mass, Adrian Fortescue wrote: "Essentially the Missal of Pius V is the Gregorian Sacramentary. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the 4th century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all, it is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God. The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours." In a footnote he added: "The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake.
Eastern rites have been modified too. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass."In the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. His ideas are summarized in the article on the "Liturgy of the Mass" that he wrote for the Catholic Encyclopedia in which he pointed out that the earliest form of the Roman Mass, as witnessed in Justin Martyr's 2nd-century account, is of Eastern type, while the Leonine and Gelasian Sacramentaries, of about the 6th century, "show us what is our present Roman Mass". In the interval, there was what Fortescue called "a radical change", he quoted the theory of A. Baumstark that the Hanc Igitur, Quam oblationem, Supra quæ and Supplices, the list of saints in the Nobis quoque were added to the Roman Canon of the Mass under "a mixed influence of Antioch and Alexandria", that "St. Leo I began to make these changes. During the same time the prayers of the faithful before the Offertory disappeared, the kiss of peace was transferred to after the Consecration, the Epiklesis was omitted or mutilated into our "Supplices" prayer.
Of the various theories suggested to account for this it seems reasonable to say with Rauschen: "Although the question is by no means decided there is so much in favour of Drews's theory that for the present it must be considered the right one. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon". In the same article Fortescue went on to speak of the many alterations that the Roman Rite of Mass underwent from the 7th century on, in particular through the infusion of Gallican elements, noticeable chiefly in the variations for the course of the year; this infusion Fortescue called the "last change since Gregory the Great". The Eucharistic Prayer used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, who died in 404 two centuries before Pope Gregory the Great; the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Ad
Pope Francis is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, the first to visit and hold papal mass in the Arabian Peninsula, the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century. Born in Buenos Aires, Bergoglio was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus, he became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina; the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March, he chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as Pope, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue.
He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by previous popes. He maintains that the Church should be more welcoming, he does not support Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, ordination of women, clerical celibacy, he opposes consumerism and overdevelopment, supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and supported the cause of refugees during the European migrant crisis. Since 2016, Francis has faced open criticism from theological conservatives, on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion with the publication of Amoris laetitia, on the question of the alleged cover-up of clergy sexual abuse.
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest of five children of Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italy's Piedmont region. Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario José's family left Italy in 1929 to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini. According to María Elena Bergoglio, the Pope's only living sibling, they did not emigrate for economic reasons, his other siblings were Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina. Two great-nephews and Joseph, died in a traffic collision. In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires, he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, graduated with a chemical technician's diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino.
Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, he ran tests in a chemical laboratory. In the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts, he had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards. Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is a fan of the films of Tita Merello and tango dancing, with a fondness for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga. Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood, he passed by a church to go to confession, was inspired by the priest. Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio has said that, as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl he met and doubted about continuing the religious career; as a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Chile.
At the conclusion of his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious profession of the initial, perpetual vows of poverty and obedience of a member of the order. In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province, he taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965. In 1966, he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires. In 1967, Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano, he attended a seminary in San Miguel. He became a professor of theology. Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual training as a Jesuit, tertianship, at Alcalá de Henares, Spain, he took the final fourth vow
A lectionary is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings appointed for Christian or Judaic worship on a given day or occasion. There are sub-types such as a "gospel lectionary" or evangeliary, an epistolary with the readings from the New Testament Epistles; the Talmud claims that the practice of reading appointed Scriptures on given days or occasions dates back to the time of Moses and began with the annual religious festivals of Passover and the Feast of Tabernacles. The Mishnah portion of the Talmud finished in the early 3rd century AD/CE contains a list of Torah readings for various occasions and assumes that these special readings interrupt a regular schedule of Torah readings. In addition to these Torah readings, the Gemara portion of the Talmud knows of assigned annual readings from the prophets. By the Medieval era the Jewish community had a standardized schedule of scripture readings both from the Torah and the prophets to be read in the synagogue. A sequential selection was read from the Torah, followed by the "haftarah" – a selection from the prophetic books or historical narratives linked to the selection from the Torah.
Jesus may have read a providentially "random" reading when he read from Isaiah 61:1-2, as recorded in Luke 4:16-21, when he inaugurated his public ministry. The early Christians adopted the Jewish custom of reading extracts from the Old Testament on the Sabbath, they soon added extracts from the writings of the Evangelists. Both Hebrew and Christian lectionaries developed over the centuries. A lectionary will go through the scriptures in a logical pattern, include selections which were chosen by the religious community for their appropriateness to particular occasions; the one-year Jewish lectionary reads the entirety of the Torah within the space of a year and may have begun in the Babylonian Jewish community. The existence of both one-year and three-year cycles occurs in both Judaism. Within Christianity, the use of pre-assigned, scheduled readings from the scriptures can be traced back to the early church, seems to have been inherited from Judaism; the earliest documentary record of a special book of readings is a reference by Gennadius of Massilia to a work produced at the request of Bishop Venerius of Marseilles, who died in 452, though there are 3rd-century references to liturgical readers as a special role in the clergy.
Not all of the Christian Church used the same lectionary, throughout history, many varying lectionaries have been used in different parts of the Christian world. Until the Second Vatican Council, most Western Christians used a lectionary that repeated on a one-year basis; this annual lectionary provided readings for Sundays and, in those Churches that celebrated the festivals of saints, feast-day readings. The Eastern Orthodox Church and many of the Oriental Churches continue to use an annual lectionary. Within Lutheranism there remains an active minority of pastors and congregations who use the old one-year lectionary referred to as the Historic Lectionary; the Reformed churches divided the Heidelberg Catechism into 52 weekly sections, many churches preach or teach from a corresponding source scripture weekly. Lectionaries from before the invention of the printing press contribute to understanding the textual history of the Bible. See List of New Testament lectionaries. After the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, the Holy See before producing an actual lectionary, promulgated the Ordo Lectionum Missae, giving indications of the revised structure and the references to the passages chosen for inclusion in the new official lectionary of the Roman Rite of Mass.
It introduced an arrangement by which the readings on Sundays and on some principal feasts recur in a three-year cycle, with four passages from Scripture being used in each celebration, while on weekdays only three passages are used, with the first reading and the psalm recurring in a two-year cycle, while the Gospel reading recurs after a single year. This revised Mass Lectionary, covering much more of the Bible than the readings in the Tridentine Roman Missal, which recurred after a single year, has been translated into the many languages in which the Roman Rite Mass is now celebrated, incorporating existing or specially prepared translations of the Bible and with readings for national celebrations added either as an appendix or, in some cases, incorporated into the main part of the lectionary; the Roman Catholic Mass Lectionary is the basis for many Protestant lectionaries, most notably the Revised Common Lectionary and its derivatives, as organized by the Consultation on Common Texts organization located in Nashville, Tennessee.
Like the Mass lectionary, they organize the readings for worship services on Sundays in a three-year cycle, with four elements on each Sunday, three elements during daily Mass: first reading from the Old Testament or, in Eastertide from certain books of the New Testament. The lectionaries are organized into three-year cycles of readings; the years are designated A, B, or C. Each y
Papal travel outside Rome has been rare, voluntary travel was non-existent for the first 500 years. Pope John Paul II undertook more pastoral trips. Pope Francis, Pope Paul VI and Pope Benedict XVI travelled globally, the latter to a lesser extent due to his advanced age. Popes resided outside Rome—primarily in Viterbo and Perugia—during the 13th century, absconded to France during the Avignon Papacy. Pope Vigilius in 547, Pope Agatho in 680, Pope Constantine in 710 visited Constantinople, whereas Pope Martin I was abducted there for trial in 653. Pope Stephen II became the first pope to cross the Alps in 752 to crown Pepin the Short. Pope Clement I was exiled to Chersonesos Taurica by Roman emperor Trajan and martyred into the Black Sea, according to apocryphal accounts circa 99. Pope Pontian resigned his pontificate before leaving the city. Pope Cornelius died after a year of exile in 80 km from Rome. Pope Liberius was the first pope to get far from the city as pope when he was exiled to Beroea in Thrace by Roman Emperor Constantius II.
Pope John I became the first pope to willfully travel outside Rome when he sailed for Constantinople in 523. Pope Clement II was the first pope consecrated outside Rome. Pope Urban II became the first pope to travel extensively outside Rome. Elected in Terracina, Urban II held synods in Amalfi and Troia, he preached the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont in Clermont-Ferrand. Prior to this, Pope Leo IX had been the last pope to cross the Alps for 50 years. Although the cardinals have gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only six elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace, Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina, Velletri, Ferrara, Perugia, Naples, Arezzo, Carpentras/Lyon, Avignon and Venice. Pope Paul VI became the first pope to leave Europe. Pope John I in 523, Pope Vigilius in 547, Pope Agatho in 680, Pope Constantine in 710 visited Constantinople, whereas Pope Martin I was abducted there for trial in 653 following the Lateran Council of 649.
Constantine was the last pope to visit Constantinople until Pope Paul VI did again in 1967. Pope Stephen II became the first pope to cross the Alps in 752 to crown Pepin the Short; this made him the first pope to visit the Frankish empire. Pope John VIII visited France in 878, Pope Leo IX travelled to France on September 29, 1049; the next pope to enter France was Pope Urban II, who stopped at Valence and Le Puy on his way to the Council of Clermont. Pope Pius VII was in Paris in 1804 for the Coronation of Napoleon I. Pope Benedict VIII visited Bamberg on 14 April 1020. Pope Leo IX travelled through the modern borders of Germany; the last pope visit of the Holy Roman Empire was in 1782, when the pope Pius VI visited Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, in Vienna, Munich in Bavaria. Pope Paul VI was the first to travel by airplane as pope, the first to leave Italy since 1809, the first to visit the Western Hemisphere, Africa and Asia as pope. Pope John Paul II travelled more miles as pope than all his predecessors combined, as a result he was seen—in person—by more people than anyone else in history.
He travelled 721,052 miles, the equivalent of 31 trips around the circumference of the Earth. Eugenio Pacelli's 1936 visit to the United States
A minor basilica is a Catholic church building, granted the title of basilica by the Holy See or immemorial custom. Presently, the authorising decree is granted by the Pope through the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. In relation to churches, writers on architecture use the term "basilica" to describe a church built in a particular style; the early Christian purpose-built cathedral basilica of the bishop was in this style, constructed on the model of the semi-public secular basilicas, its growth in size and importance signalled the gradual transfer of civic power into episcopal hands, under way in the 5th century. In the 18th century, the term took on a canonical sense, unrelated to this architectural style. Basilicas in this canonical sense are divided into minor basilicas. Today all in Rome, are classified as major basilicas. Privileges attached to the status of basilica included a certain precedence before other churches, the right of the conopaeum and the bell, which were carried side by side in procession at the head of the clergy on state occasions, the wearing of a cappa magna by the canons or secular members of the collegiate chapter when assisting at the Divine Office.
In the case of major basilicas these umbraculae were made of cloth of gold and red velvet, while those of minor basilicas were of yellow and red silk—the colours traditionally associated with both the Papal See and the city of Rome. These external signs, except that of the cappa magna, are sometimes still seen in basilicas, but the latest regulations of the Holy See on the matter, issued in 1989, make no mention of them; the status of being a basilica now confers only two material privileges: the right to include the papal symbol of the crossed keys on a basilica's banners and seal, the right of the rector of the basilica to wear a distinctive mozzetta over his surplice. The other privileges now granted concern the liturgy of the celebration of the concession of the title of basilica, the granting of a plenary indulgence on certain days to those who pray in the basilica; the document imposes on basilicas the obligation to celebrate the liturgy with special care, requires that a church for which a grant of the title is requested should have been liturgically dedicated to God and be outstanding as a center of active and pastoral liturgy, setting an example for others.
It should be sufficiently large and with an ample sanctuary. It should be renowned for history, relics or sacred images, should be served by a sufficient number of priests and other ministers and by an adequate choir. Many basilicas are notable churches, receive significant pilgrimages. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico set a record with 6.1 million pilgrims in two days for the feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe. As of November 15, 2017, there were 1,757 minor basilicas in the world. Of these 1,757 minor basilicas, three have the title of papal minor basilica and four the title of pontifical minor basilica; the three papal minor basilicas are Saint Lawrence outside the Walls and the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi and the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli, both in Assisi. The four pontifical minor basilicas are the Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, the Basilica of the Holy House in Loreto, the Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua, the Shrine of the Virgin of the Rosary of Pompei.
All but the Paduan basilica were for some years jointly under the care of a Cardinalatial Commission for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompei and Bari, suppressed in 1996 to establish the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii and the Pontifical Delegation for the Shrine of the Holy House of Loreto. All four pontifical minor basilicas now have individual pontifical delegates. For the Bari basilica, a dependency of the Secretariat of State, the pontifical delegate is the local metropolitan archbishop. For the basilicas of Loreto and Pompei, which are within their own territorial prelatures, the pontifical delegate is the local territorial prelate. Only for the Paduan basilica is the pontifical delegate distinct from the local bishop; the remaining 1,750 minor basilicas are all classified as such. In Torre del Greco is the Pontifical Basilica of the Holy Cross, called by that name not only on its own site, which recalls the visits to it of Pope Pius IX in 1849 and Pope John Paul II in 1990, but in the list of the world's minor basilicas, however, calls it a minor basilica.
Another such Italian church, recognized as a minor basilica, but not as a pontifical minor basilica, is the Pontificia Reale Basilica di S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli in Naples; this name, qualifying it as both royal, is confirmed by several other sources. One pontifical basilica in Spain listed not as a pontifical minor basilica, but as a minor basilica, is the Pontifical Basilica of St. Michael, the ownership of, since 1892 vested in the Apostolic Nunciature to the Kingdom of Spain; the description "pontifical basilica" is sometimes given without canonical justification to some churches that, whether pontifical or not, are not in the list of those with a right to the title of basilica. One in the town of Grumo Nevano in the province of Naples is called on the Italian Wikipedia the Pontifical Basilica of Saint Tammaro the Bishop, a designation confirmed by the inscription "Basilica Pontifica" o
Roman Catholic Diocese of Novara
The Diocese of Novara is a Roman Catholic diocese in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vercelli. In 972, the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I granted the dominium of the town of Novara and twenty-four miles surrounding the town to Bishop Aupaldo and his successors, the Bishops of Novara; the bishops therefore enjoyed the title of Count as well as the same rights as a Count of the Empire. Cardinal Giuseppe Morozzo Della Rocca Giacomo Filippo Gentile Stanislao Eula Davide Riccardi Edoardo Pulciano Mattia Vicario Giuseppe Gamba Giuseppe Castelli Leone Giacomo Ossola, O. F. M. Cap. Gilla Vincenzo Gremigni, M. S. C. Placido Maria Cambiaghi, B. Aldo Del Monte Renato Corti Franco Giulio Brambilla Of the 345 parishes, one is in the Lombard province of Pavia, while rest are divided between the Piedmontese provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and Vercelli. Timeline of Novara T. Deutscher. "Seminaries and the Education of Novarese Parish Priests, 1593–1627". The Journal of Ecclesiastical History.
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Diocese of Novara". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. GCatholic.org