Roman Catholic Diocese of Salina
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Salina is a Roman Catholic diocese covering thirty-one counties in Kansas. The episcopal see is in Kansas, it was founded as the Diocese of Concordia on August 2, 1887, on December 23, 1944, was renamed Diocese of Salina. Pope Benedict XVI named Monsignor Edward Joseph Weisenburger as the 11th Bishop of the Diocese of Salina on February 6, 2012. Bishop-elect Weisenberger was installed on May 1, 2012.. Bishop Weisenberger left office as Salina's Bishop on November 29, 2017, after being appointed by Pope Francis to head the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tucson, replacing the retiring Catholic Bishop of Tucson, Gerald F. Kicanas. On Wednesday, June 13, 2018, Pope Francis named the Reverend Monsignor Gerald Lee Vincke, a priest of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lansing, who until had been the parish priest of the Holy Family Parish, in Grand Blanc, Michigan, as Bishop-elect of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Salina, to succeed Bishop Weisenberger, he was installed as Bishop on August 22, 2018.
On September 28, 2018, the Archdiocese of Washington announced that disgraced former cardinal Theodore McCarrick would reside at St. Fidelis Church in Victoria, Kansas. Vincke agreed to the arrangement despite acknowledging it would be "offensive and hurtful to many people." Richard Scannell, appointed Bishop of Omaha Thaddeus J. Butler John F. Cunningham Francis Joseph Tief Francis Augustine Thill Frederick William Freking, appointed Bishop of La Crosse Cyril John Vogel Daniel Kucera, appointed Archbishop of Dubuque George Kinzie Fitzsimons Paul Stagg Coakley, appointed Archbishop of Oklahoma City Edward Joseph Weisenburger, appointed Bishop of Tucson Gerald Lee Vincke Sacred Heart High School, Salina St. John's Catholic High School, Beloit St. Xavier High School, Junction City Thomas More Prep-Marian, Hays Tipton Catholic High School, Tipton See: List of the Catholic bishops of the United States#Province of Kansas City Catholic Church by country Catholic Church hierarchy List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States Roman Catholic Diocese of Salina Official Site Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"Diocese of Concordia". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Lenawee County, Michigan
Lenawee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 99,892; the county seat is Adrian. The county was created from territory partitioned out of Monroe County, its governing structure was organized in 1826. Lenawee County comprises the Adrian, MI Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area, it is served by the Toledo Media market. The county organization was created in 1826, after being authorized and described by the Michigan legislature in 1822, it was taken from Michigan. The county's name is a Henry Schoolcraft neologism, thought to be derived from a Native American word meaning "male"—from the Delaware "leno or lenno" or the Shawnee "lenawai." According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 761 square miles, of which 750 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water. Lenawee County is considered to be part of Southeastern Michigan. Within Lenawee County's townships, north-south roads are referred to as "highways", while east-west roads are referred to as "roads".
Lenawee County has been reliably Republican in national elections. Since 1884, its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 85% of the national elections through 2016; the county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions—police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc.—are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Adrian College and Siena Heights University are located within the county. Lenawee County has supported candidates from both political parties in statewide elections making it a swing county. Tecumseh and Adrian have tended to lean Democrat, while Dover and Riga Townships have tended to lean Republican; the rural areas of the county are bastions of populism and libertarianism which helped the Tea Party Movement gain considerable support.
During the 2010 midterm elections, the county favored Republican Gubernatorial candidate Rick Snyder, Congressional candidate Tim Walberg, State Senate candidate Bruce Caswell, State Representative candidates Nancy Jenkins and Mike Shirkey. Lenawee County is located in Michigan's 7th congressional district, represented by Tea-Party backed Tim Walberg, a resident of the County. Walberg served as Lenawee's state representative. Walberg won the district, which includes all of Lenawee County, Jackson County, Hillsdale County, Branch County, Eaton County, as well as parts of Calhoun County and Washtenaw County, after defeating then-incumbent Democrat Mark Schauer. Schauer had defeated Walberg in the 2008 congressional election, after Walberg's first stint in Congress. Walberg defeated incumbent Republican Joe Schwarz, a former State Representative and gubernatorial candidate, during the 2006 primary election. During the 2006 midterm elections, Lenawee County voted for businessman Dick DeVos, the Republican nominee.
Most of Lenawee County is represented by Republican Nancy Jenkins in the Michigan House of Representatives. Jenkins represents the 57th District held by brothers Doug and Dudley Spade, both Democrats; each of the Spade brothers served for the maximum three terms. In 2008, Dudley Spade defeated Republican Emma Jenkins. Cambridge Township, which includes Onsted, is part of the 65th District, which covers much of the Irish Hills and is represented by Republican Mike Shirkey. Adrian is part of the 17th Senate District, represented by Dale Zorn of Michigan; until the 2014 state senate election, Lenawee County was part of the 16th State Senate District, represented by Republican Bruce Caswell of Hillsdale. Caswell was preceded by Republican Cameron Brown; the district contained all of Lenawee and Branch Counties. Current as of March 2019 Lenawee County Sheriff's Office Adrian City Police Blissfield Police Clinton Police Hudson Police Morenci Police Tecumseh Police Adrian Township Police Cambridge Township Police Columbia Township Police Madison Township Police Raisin Township Police Adrian & Blissfield Railroad Police As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 98,890 people, 35,930 households, 26,049 families in the county.
The population density was 132 people per square mile. There were 39,769 housing units at an average density of 53 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.51% White, 2.12% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.01% from other races, 1.49% from two or more races. 6.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.4% were of German, 11.6% English, 10.2% American and 9.9% Irish ancestry according to the 2000 United States Census. 94.7% spoke English and 4.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 35,930 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families. 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.07. The county population contained 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 10
Roman Catholic Diocese of Kalamazoo
The Diocese of Kalamazoo is a Roman Catholic diocese in the southwestern portion of the State of Michigan. The Diocese of Kalamazoo encompasses Allegan, Van Buren, Cass, Saint Joseph, Branch and Barry Counties; the Diocese consists of 46 parishes, 13 missions, 75 priests, 36 deacons. The Diocese operates 3 high schools, 2 middle schools and 17 grade schools, serving more than 3,000 students throughout the same. There are two parish run preschools, it has 13 seminarians in formation to be priests from the local area and from Colombia and Nigeria. The territory comprising the Diocese was part of the Archdiocese of Detroit, it was became part of the Diocese of Grand Rapids from which it was created. On December 19, 1970, the Diocese of Kalamazoo was erected by Pope Paul VI and the parish of St. Augustine designated as the cathedral church of the new diocese; the Diocese was inaugurated on July 21, 1971, when Paul Vincent Donovan was consecrated and installed as the first bishop. From the erection of the diocese until its closure in 1992 the Diocese of Kalamazoo hosted Nazareth College.
"After Kalamazoo was organized and chartered in 1829, it took three years before the first Catholic mass was said in the home of Dennis Talbot, the first Catholic to settle in this region. He hardly settled in an area. Early accounts of the first churches in Kalamazoo that chronicled the growth of the city didn't mention Catholics; this is understandable, given the area's first settlers. Hailing from New England and New York, they brought with them all the Puritan ethic of the east coast. Add to the mix the Hollanders, a group of Dutch agriculturists who had fled the motherland's liberal parent church, one can see why "Papists" weren't welcomed with open arms. Kalamazoo was considered a "mission" in 1843, jurisdiction for serving the area was given to the founder of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana; as early as 1844, the framework for a new church was built. However, there was some question about the title to the land on which it rested, so the project did not have the approval of the bishop of the area.
A windstorm blew down the framework, so that building was never completed. By 1852, however, a church had been erected, it was a 30 by 60 foot structure. In 1856, the Rev. Anthony Isidoro Label was assigned to the "mission" at Kalamazoo, which now contained 47 Catholic families, he built a pastoral residence began work on a new church in the same area. Fr. Label had more members of the congregation than money, he turned to a rich farmer in Patrick Bunbury, for help. Bunbury mortgaged his farm with a promise from the good father that the money would be repaid. After the church was built, Bunbury, of course, expected. A less than unbiased report in Harper's Weekly describes the mayhem. Bunbury was not aware. Bishop Borgess refused to repay him. In desperation, Bunbury sued the bishop for his money; the bishop, in turn, threatened Bunbury with excommunication for his action, the poor and faith-filled farmer was torn between financial ruin and the real threat, to him, of damnation and separation from his faith.
He withdrew the suit. The second church was completed in 1869, its twin spires stood as a landmark on the city's skyline for nearly a century. In 1883, the first of two pastors was appointed who would change the opinion of Catholics and the face of Kalamazoo as a city, his name was Fr. Frank A. O'Brien. Under his leadership, the Walter home on Portage Street was purchased for use as a hospital, it was named Borgess Hospital after the current bishop. He built the LeFevre Institute west of the church as a new parochial school. Three years he welcomed 11 Sisters of St. Joseph from Watertown, New York to establish that congregation in the city, they would locate their headquarters at Nazareth on Gull Road. There they founded two private Catholic prep schools, Nazareth Academy for girls and Barbour Hall for boys; the nuns staffed the hospital, which had outgrown its space on Portage Street and added a new building on Gull Road in 1917. In spite of opposition to these "catholic" hospitals, they were instrumental in providing health care for Catholics as well as others during the flu epidemic of 1918.
Fr. O'Brien was a prime mover in developing other institutions within the area to meet the demands of the growing Catholic population. Under his aegis, St. Joseph's and St. Michael's Polish Parish were established, as well as the St. Agnes Foundling Home and the St. Anthony's Home for the Feeble Minded. Murder raised its ugly head at St. Augustine's in 1923. A Fr. Charles Dillon, assistant rector at St. Augustine's, killed the rector, Fr. Henry O'Neill at their supper table. Fr. Dillon claimed that Fr. O'Neill had never had told him to pack his bags and leave on several occasions. On the evening of April 12, during dinner, the same ultimatum was given, Fr. Dillon went to his room, got a gun and the articles of extreme unction, returned to the dining room and shot Fr. O'Neill four times...once in the stomach, just above the heart, in his temple and through a lung. He threw the articles of extreme unction to the other priest seated at the table, called the police and confessed. Fr. O'Neill's only defense during the attack was to hurl a saltcellar at Fr.
Dillon. In June 1923, the second of St. Augustine's dynamic pastors was appointed to r
Father Gabriel Richard High School (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
Fr. Gabriel Richard High School is a private, Roman Catholic high school in Ann Arbor Township near Ann Arbor, Michigan, it is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lansing, was established in 1868 by Father Patrick O'Kelly. It was named St. Thomas the Apostle School and included an elementary school. By 1880, the original facilities had been outgrown and the school moved for the first time. In 1900, a vast new church was begun for the overgrown parish and was completed in 1905; the parish and church were a vibrant part of Ann Arbor's early history and in the early 1920's the old school building was torn down and a new enlarged building was constructed that remains to this day. The school survived World War I and grew throughout the Great Depression and in the post-World War II era. By 1980, St. Thomas split into an elementary school, St. Thomas, a high school was named Father Gabriel Richard Catholic High School after Gabriel Richard, a French Roman Catholic priest and founder of the University of Michigan.
At the start of the 21st century, the original 1920s building became too small and obsolete, prompting construction of a new modern building outside of town, the first move of the school in over 120 years. Father Gabriel Richard High School moved to this new location; the original St. Thomas elementary school building was renovated, remains on its original spot, continues to operate independently of Father Gabriel Richard High School. In 2008, Father Gabriel Richard High School was put on the Top 50 List of best Catholic high schools in the nation; as of October 2012, it had been placed on this list for four consecutive years. It is affiliated with Saint Thomas Catholic parish in Ann Arbor and Christ the King Catholic Parish, near by. Father Gabriel Richard High School remains a doctrinal and traditional school, saying Mass in both the Ordinary and Extraordinary forms and hosting a Gregorian Chant scola; the school strives to uphold a classical system of education by offering a class in Latin.
FGR promotes the new evangelization and the use of the charismatic gifts. School website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929, he took as his papal motto, "Pax Christi in Regno Christi," translated "The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ." Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, social justice issues, Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism. The encyclical Studiorum ducem, promulgated 29 June 1923, was written on the occasion of the 6th centenary of the canonization of Thomas Aquinas, whose thought is acclaimed as central to Catholic philosophy and theology; the encyclical singles out the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum as the preeminent institution for the teaching of Aquinas: "ante omnia Pontificium Collegium Angelicum, ubi Thomam tamquam domi suae habitare dixeris".
To establish or maintain the position of the Catholic Church, Pius XI concluded a record number of concordats, including the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany, whose betrayals of which he condemned four years in the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge. During his pontificate, the longstanding hostility with the Italian government over the status of the papacy and the Church in Italy was resolved in the Lateran Treaty of 1929, he was unable to stop the persecution of the Church and the killing of clergy in Mexico and the Soviet Union. He canonized important saints, including Thomas More, Peter Canisius, Bernadette of Lourdes and Don Bosco, he beatified and canonized Thérèse de Lisieux, for whom he held special reverence, gave equivalent canonization to Albertus Magnus, naming him a Doctor of the Church due to the spiritual power of his writings. He took a strong interest in fostering the participation of lay people throughout the Catholic Church in the Catholic Action movement; the end of his pontificate was dominated by speaking out against Hitler and Mussolini and defending the Catholic Church from intrusions into Catholic life and education.
Pius XI died on 10 February 1939 in the Apostolic Palace and is buried in the Papal Grotto of Saint Peter's Basilica. In the course of excavating space for his tomb, two levels of burial grounds were uncovered which revealed bones now venerated as the bones of St. Peter. Achille Ratti was born in Desio, in the province of Milan, in 1857, the son of an owner of a silk factory, his parents were Teresa. He was embarked on an academic career within the Church, he obtained three doctorates at the Gregorian University in Rome, from 1882 to 1888 was a professor at the seminary in Padua. His scholarly specialty was as an expert paleographer, a student of ancient and medieval Church manuscripts, he left seminary teaching to work full-time at the Ambrosian Library in Milan, from 1888 to 1911. During this time, Ratti edited and published an edition of the Ambrosian Missal, researched and wrote much on the life and works of St. Charles Borromeo, he became chief of the Library in 1907 and undertook a thorough programme of restoration and re-classification of the Ambrosian's collection.
He was an avid mountaineer in his spare time, reaching the summits of Monte Rosa, the Matterhorn, Mont Blanc and Presolana. The combination of a scholar-athlete pope would not be seen again until the pontificate of John Paul II. In 1911, at Pope Pius X's invitation, he moved to the Vatican to become Vice-Prefect of the Vatican Library, in 1914 was promoted to Prefect. In 1918, Pope Benedict XV asked Ratti to change careers and take a diplomatic post: apostolic visitor in Poland, a state newly restored to existence, but still under effective German and Austro-Hungarian control. In October 1918, Benedict was the first head of state to congratulate the Polish people on the occasion of the restoration of their independence. In March 1919, he nominated ten new bishops and, soon after, upgraded Ratti's position in Warsaw to the official position of papal nuncio. Ratti was consecrated as a titular archbishop in October 1919. Benedict XV and Ratti cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting the Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy.
During the Bolshevik advance against Warsaw, the Pope asked for worldwide public prayers for Poland, while Ratti was the only foreign diplomat who refused to flee Warsaw when the Red Army was approaching the city in August 1920. On 11 June 1921, Benedict XV asked Ratti to deliver his message to the Polish episcopate, warning against political misuses of spiritual power, urging again peaceful coexistence with neighbouring people, stating that "love of country has its limits in justice and obligations". Ratti intended to work for Poland by building bridges to men of goodwill in the Soviet Union to shedding his blood for Russia. Benedict, needed Ratti as a diplomat, not as a martyr, forbade his traveling into the USSR despite his being the official papal delegate for Russia; the nuncio's continued contacts with Russians did not generate much sympathy for him within Poland at the time. After Pope Benedic
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite became the predominant rite used by the Western Church. Many local variants, not amounting to distinctive Rites, existed in the medieval manuscripts, but have been progressively reduced since the invention of printing, most notably since the reform of liturgical law in the 16th century at the behest of the Council of Trent and more following the Second Vatican Council; the Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and the history of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The Mass of Paul VI is the current form of the Mass in the Catholic Church, first promulgated in the 1969 edition of the Roman Missal, it is considered the ordinary form of the mass, intended for most contexts.
The Tridentine Mass, as promulgated in the 1962 Roman Missal, may be used as an extraordinary form of the Roman Rite, according to norms set in the 2007 papal document Summorum Pontificum. The Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression. In its Tridentine form, it was noted for its formality: the Tridentine Missal minutely prescribed every movement, to the extent of laying down that the priest should put his right arm into the right sleeve of the alb before putting his left arm into the left sleeve. Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people after the Words of Institution. If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem, ad orientem if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head; as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed.
Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, keeping both hands joined together. In his 1912 book on the Roman Mass, Adrian Fortescue wrote: "Essentially the Missal of Pius V is the Gregorian Sacramentary. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the 4th century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all, it is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God. The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours." In a footnote he added: "The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake.
Eastern rites have been modified too. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass."In the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. His ideas are summarized in the article on the "Liturgy of the Mass" that he wrote for the Catholic Encyclopedia in which he pointed out that the earliest form of the Roman Mass, as witnessed in Justin Martyr's 2nd-century account, is of Eastern type, while the Leonine and Gelasian Sacramentaries, of about the 6th century, "show us what is our present Roman Mass". In the interval, there was what Fortescue called "a radical change", he quoted the theory of A. Baumstark that the Hanc Igitur, Quam oblationem, Supra quæ and Supplices, the list of saints in the Nobis quoque were added to the Roman Canon of the Mass under "a mixed influence of Antioch and Alexandria", that "St. Leo I began to make these changes. During the same time the prayers of the faithful before the Offertory disappeared, the kiss of peace was transferred to after the Consecration, the Epiklesis was omitted or mutilated into our "Supplices" prayer.
Of the various theories suggested to account for this it seems reasonable to say with Rauschen: "Although the question is by no means decided there is so much in favour of Drews's theory that for the present it must be considered the right one. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon". In the same article Fortescue went on to speak of the many alterations that the Roman Rite of Mass underwent from the 7th century on, in particular through the infusion of Gallican elements, noticeable chiefly in the variations for the course of the year; this infusion Fortescue called the "last change since Gregory the Great". The Eucharistic Prayer used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, who died in 404 two centuries before Pope Gregory the Great; the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Ad