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Roman Forum

The Roman Forum known by its Latin name Forum Romanum, is a rectangular forum surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or the Forum. For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men; the teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 million or more sightseers yearly. Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum; the Roman Kingdom's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia, the Temple of Vesta, as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.

Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal, developed into the Republic's formal Comitium. This is; the Senate House, government offices, temples and statues cluttered the area. Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia; some 130 years Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political and religious pursuits in greater numbers. Much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures to the north; the reign of Constantine the Great saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius. This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire two centuries later.

Unlike the imperial fora in Rome—which were self-consciously modelled on the ancient Greek plateia public plaza or town square—the Roman Forum developed organically, piecemeal over many centuries. This is the case despite attempts, with some success, to impose some order there, by Sulla, Julius Caesar and others. By the Imperial period, the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about 130 by 50 meters, its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to that of the Velian Hill. The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form; the Forum proper included this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus. The site of the Forum had been a marshy lake where waters from the surrounding hills drained.

This was drained by the Tarquins with the Cloaca Maxima. Because of its location, sediments from both the flooding of the Tiber and the erosion of the surrounding hills have been raising the level of the Forum floor for centuries. Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was raising the level in early Republican times; as the ground around buildings rose, residents paved over the debris, too much to remove. Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus. Excavations in the 19th century revealed one layer on top of another; the deepest level excavated was 3.60 meters above sea level. Archaeological finds show human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonized wood. An important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Sacra and into the Forum.

From here they would mount the Capitoline Rise up to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the summit of the Capitol. Lavish public banquets ensued back down on the Forum; the original, low-lying, grassy wetland of the Forum was drained in the 7th century BC with the building of the Cloaca Maxima, a large covered sewer system that emptied into the Tiber, as more people began to settle between the two hills. According to tradition, the Forum's beginnings are connected with the alliance between Romulus, the first king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hill, his rival, Titus Tatius, who occupied the Capitoline Hill. An alliance formed after combat had been halted by the cries of the Sabine women; because the valley lay between the two settlements, it was the designated place for th

Tatsunoko Fight

Tatsunoko Fight is a fighting video game developed by Electronics Application and published by Takara for the PlayStation game console released in Japan in October 2000. It features characters from various Tatsunoko superhero properties in addition to original creations developed for the game; each series is represented by characters, backgrounds and voice actors from the original television programs, along with new art and animated sequences produced by Tatsunoko Production. In the future, a young scientist named Battering creates the "Salvasion System", a dimensional mobile device which allows for travel between parallel worlds. However, this device is stolen by the Demon King Dokucyber and his Jaleizer Empire to enact "Operation Dark Inferno", which sees Dokucyber, the Jaleizer Empire and all of the Tatsunoko villains from various worlds uniting to conquer the multiverse. To stop this, Battering created a combat strengthening suit to become Volter the Lightning and threw himself into the parallel worlds to unite with the Tatsunoko heroes and defeat Dokucyber and the Jaleizer Empire.

Tatsunoko Fight is a two-dimensional, one-on-one fighting game where players must defeat their opponent in two of three rounds in order to advance. The game relies on using both normal and special attacks in order to damage the opponent, with a round ending once all of a character's remaining vitality has been lost. A special gauge at the bottom of the screen fills when a character deals or receives damage, reaching a maximum of three levels. Player's can expend one level at a time to unleash a more powerful super attack on their opponent to deal more damage; the game uses a combo system where light and heavy attacks can be chained together to launch a succession of attacks that cannot be interrupted or stopped until the sequence ends. In addition to normal versus mode, players may choose a round-robin-style team battle mode involving multiple characters, as well as a single-player story mode that resembles an arcade fighting game. Tatsunoko Fight features playable characters from four established Tatsunoko franchises: Science Ninja Team Gatchaman, Neo-Human Casshern, Tekkaman: The Space Knight, Hurricane Polymar, as well an original series created for the game, Denkou Senka Volter.

Each series is represented by three members, consisting of a "Hero", "Supporter", "Arch Rival" character from their respective titles. Original characters created for the game include the superhero Volter, his companion Neon, their nemesis Karochi Taiki, as well as the game's primary antagonist, the demonic Rosraisen. Many of the game's characters are voiced by the actors who portrayed them in their original animated appearances, with additional supporting characters making cameo appearances throughout gameplay. Tatsunoko vs. Capcom: Ultimate All-Stars Tatsunoko Fight at UK GameSpot

Leo Galland

Leo Galland is an internist and author of medical books including Superimmunity for Kids, The Four Pillars of Healing, Power Healing and The Fat Resistance Diet. Based in New York City, Galland is a regular columnist for Huffington Post, writing about various issues in integrated medicine, about the limitations of allopathic medicine, he has been listed by Castle Connolly among America's Top Doctors. Galland earned a bachelor's degree at Harvard University graduated in 1968 from New York University School of Medicine as a physician, his first residency was at Bellevue Hospital in Manhattan where he worked in internal medicine from 1969 to 1972. Galland left New York to practice medicine in a small town in Connecticut, he incorporated his practice in October 1979. In 1980–1981, Galland served a fellowship at the University of Connecticut Health Center. To treat Lyme disease, Galland tailors his recommended regimen to meet each patient's needs. Among his options are injections of magnesium and vitamin B12.

He may recommend four inhalations of glutathione per day. Galland appeared on screen in the documentary film The Punk Singer to explain how feminist punk icon Kathleen Hanna was affected by late-stage Lyme disease; the documentary filmmaker Sini Anderson consulted Galland for the treatment of her own Lyme disease. Foundation for Integrated Medicine, Galland's non-profit educational organization