Rome (Latin and Italian Roma, is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,879,728 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the third most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the second or third most populous metropolitan city in Italy depending on definition. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied cities in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by many as the first Imperial City and metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Empire in the west, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all popes since Nicholas V pursued a coherent architectural and urban programme over four hundred years, aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. As of 2020, Rome is ranked as an Alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In 2019, Rome was the 11th most visited city in the world, third most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist destination in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL. Rome's EUR business district is the home of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services.
The presence of renowned international brands in the city have made Rome an important centre of fashion and design, the Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". While there have been discoveries of archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them yet had an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological evidence took place during
Dr Sze Peng Flett is a Principal Scientist and the interim Director for the Horticulture Centre of Excellence in the Victoria Department of Environment and Primary Industries. Flett was born in Malaysia, she completed the Victorian Higher School Certificate at Kuala Lumpur. In 1976, she commenced undergraduate studies at La Trobe University and received a B Agri Sci. In 1992, she completed her PhD in "The Control of Root Rot in Processing Tomatoes" with La Trobe University, she was awarded the Executive Masters in Public Administration with University of Melbourne in 2007. The Howard Memorial Trust Travel Award Victorian Government Continuous Improvement Network Award Flett started her career at DEPI in 1980 at the Plant Research Institute, Burnley as a technical assistant in the General Pathology Laboratory in 1980, she moved to the Department of Environment and Primary Industries at Tatura in 1981 and commenced as a plant pathologist working on a mysterious root rot in subterranean clover, an important annual pasture feedbase for sheep and dairy cows.
She was part of the research team that discovered a new species of Phytopthora – Phytophthora clandestina. She led the screening of subterranean clover varieties from the wool industry's breeding program for Phytophthora clandestina germplasm and discovered that there were different strains of P clandestina which resulted variability in varietal tolerances. Flett has led multi-disciplinary teams and conducted research in plant diseases: Phytophthora root rot in processing tomatoes and chestnuts, trunk cankers and root rot in stone and pome fruits and powdery scab in processing potatoes. In 2002, she took a turn in her career and contributed to the development of the Victorian Biotechnology and commenced a role as Partnership Manager for the Catchment Management Authorities. In 2003, she was responsible for a portfolio of land and water services programs in the former Farm Services Division of DEPI. In 2008, Flett was appointed as the Director of the Arthur Rylah Institute, leading the delivery and management of environmental research at DEPI's Heidelberg site.
In this role, she focused on science excellence and quality and led the modernisation of the ARI facilities, housing state of the art research aquariums and laboratories. In 2012, Flett was appointed as the Director for Horticulture Services in DEPI and most the interim Director of the Horticulture Centre of Excellence at Tatura. Developing safe foliar spraying of phosphonic acid to control peach and apple phytophthora. With Tom Lim. 1996. Control of stem rot and tree dieback caused by silverleaf and trametes in apples. With Peter H Jerie. 1998. Phytophthora root rot of tomatoes. With Bill Ashcroft. 1997. Identifying the IPM needs of the fresh market tomato industry in Northern Victoria. 2003 Control of Phytophthora with phosphorus acid. 1998
Lama Tasi is a Samoa international rugby league footballer who plays as a prop. He played for the Sydney Roosters and the Brisbane Broncos in the NRL, the Salford Red Devils in two separate spells, St Helens and the Warrington Wolves in the Super League. Tasi was born in New Zealand, his family moved to Australia when he was 3 years old, settling in the Ipswich suburb of Riverview, Queensland. The oldest of his seven siblings, Tasi moved to the nearby suburb of Goodna, Queensland, he began playing rugby league for the Goodna Eagles. Tasi would represent the Queensland Under 12s state side before taking up a scholarship at Ipswich Grammar School. After finishing his education, Tasi moved to Sydney to play in the National Youth Competition for the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles in 2009 and 2010, making the team of the year in 2010 and representing the Junior Kiwis, he signed with the Sydney Roosters for the 2011 season. Tasi made his début in 2011 in the Roosters round 8 match against the Gold Coast Titans.
Coming off the bench, Tasi made his presence felt by putting a big hit on the Titans, NSW and Australian representative forward Greg Bird. Tasi played 9 more games for the Roosters in his début season. In December 2011, Tasi pledged his allegiance to the Queensland State of Origin and Australian national sides and was named in Queensland's 14 man emerging squad for 2012. In June 2013, Tasi was granted a release from the Roosters and signed with the Brisbane Broncos for the remainder of the 2013 season. On 24 September 2013, it was confirmed Lama Tasi was to join the Salford Red Devils in 2014. On 29 May 2015, it was confirmed Lama Tasi was to join the 2014 Super League Champions St. Helens on a two-year deal starting in 2016. Salford Red Devils have re-signed Samoa international forward Lama Tasi on an initial one-year contract; the 26-year-old left to join St Helens at the end of 2015 on a two-year deal after 57 appearances for the club. Warrington Wolves announced the signing of Lama Tasi in October 2018.
He made his competitive debut vs Hull Kingston Rovers in round 2 of the season. Gaining heritage number 1150. On 20 April 2013, Lama made his international debut, playing for Samoa in their 2013 Pacific Rugby League International match against fierce Pacific rivals Tonga. Lama is the older brother of former South Sydney Rabbitohs player Tautalatasi Tasi, the Cousin of Canterbury Bulldogs player Raymond Faitala-Mariner. Warrington Wolves profile Salford Red Devils profile St Helens profile Sydney Roosters profile SL profile