Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire. Roman art includes architecture, painting and mosaic work. Luxury objects in metal-work, gem engraving, ivory carvings, glass are sometimes considered in modern terms to be minor forms of Roman art, although this would not have been the case for contemporaries. Sculpture was considered as the highest form of art by Romans, but figure painting was very regarded; the two forms have had contrasting rates of survival, with a large body of sculpture surviving from about the 1st century BC onward, though little from before, but little painting at all remains, nothing that a contemporary would have considered to be of the highest quality. Ancient Roman pottery was not a luxury product, but a vast production of "fine wares" in terra sigillata were decorated with reliefs that reflected the latest taste, provided a large group in society with stylish objects at what was evidently an affordable price. Roman coins were an important means of propaganda, have survived in enormous numbers.
While the traditional view of the ancient Roman artists is that they borrowed from, copied Greek precedents, more recent analysis has indicated that Roman art is a creative pastiche relying on Greek models but encompassing Etruscan, native Italic, Egyptian visual culture. Stylistic eclecticism and practical application are the hallmarks of much Roman art. Pliny, Ancient Rome's most important historian concerning the arts, recorded that nearly all the forms of art – sculpture, portrait painting genre painting – were advanced in Greek times, in some cases, more advanced than in Rome. Though little remains of Greek wall art and portraiture Greek sculpture and vase painting bears this out; these forms were not surpassed by Roman artists in fineness of design or execution. As another example of the lost "Golden Age", he singled out Peiraikos, "whose artistry is surpassed by only a few... He painted barbershops and shoemakers’ stalls, donkeys and such, for that reason came to be called the'painter of vulgar subjects'.
The adjective "vulgar" is used here in its original meaning, which means "common". The Greek antecedents of Roman art were legendary. In the mid-5th century BC, the most famous Greek artists were Polygnotos, noted for his wall murals, Apollodoros, the originator of chiaroscuro; the development of realistic technique is credited to Zeuxis and Parrhasius, who according to ancient Greek legend, are said to have once competed in a bravura display of their talents, history's earliest descriptions of trompe l’oeil painting. In sculpture, Praxiteles and Lysippos were the foremost sculptors, it appears that Roman artists had much Ancient Greek art to copy from, as trade in art was brisk throughout the empire, much of the Greek artistic heritage found its way into Roman art through books and teaching. Ancient Greek treatises on the arts are known to have existed in Roman times. Many Roman artists came from Greek provinces; the high number of Roman copies of Greek art speaks of the esteem Roman artists had for Greek art, of its rarer and higher quality.
Many of the art forms and methods used by the Romans – such as high and low relief, free-standing sculpture, bronze casting, vase art, cameo, coin art, fine jewelry and metalwork, funerary sculpture, perspective drawing, caricature and portrait painting, landscape painting, architectural sculpture, trompe l’oeil painting – all were developed or refined by Ancient Greek artists. One exception is the Roman bust; the traditional head-and-shoulders bust may have been early Roman form. Every artistic technique and method used by Renaissance artists 1,900 years had been demonstrated by Ancient Greek artists, with the notable exceptions of oil colors and mathematically accurate perspective. Where Greek artists were revered in their society, most Roman artists were anonymous and considered tradesmen. There is no recording, as in Ancient Greece, of the great masters of Roman art, no signed works. Where Greeks worshiped the aesthetic qualities of great art, wrote extensively on artistic theory, Roman art was more decorative and indicative of status and wealth, not the subject of scholars or philosophers.
Owing in part to the fact that the Roman cities were far larger than the Greek city-states in power and population, less provincial, art in Ancient Rome took on a wider, sometimes more utilitarian, purpose. Roman culture assimilated many cultures and was for the most part tolerant of the ways of conquered peoples. Roman art was commissioned and owned in far greater quantities, adapted to more uses than in Greek times. Wealthy Romans were more materialistic. In the Christian era of the late Empire, from 350 to 500 CE, wall painting, mosaic ceiling and floor work, funerary sculpture thrived, while full-sized sculpture in the round and panel painting died out, most for religious reasons; when Constantine moved the capital of the empire to Byzantium, Roman art incorporated Eastern influences to produce the Byzantine style of the late empire. When Rome was sacked in the 5th century, artisans moved to an
Alarm Clock Theatre Company is a theatre company based in Boston, Massachusetts. Their productions are performed at The Boston Center for the Arts Black Box Theater. Alarm Clock Theatre's critically acclaimed play P. S. Page Me Later won the 2006 Elliot Norton Award for "Best Local Fringe Production." The play consisted of a series of short scenes and songs, each based on items contained in Found Magazine. It was written by thirteen separate contributors. Moon Man 2007 The Boston Theater Marathon By Jami Brandli Directed by John J. King Bombs and Manifestos January 5-20, 2007 By Brian Polak Directed by Daniel Bourque Normal 2006 The Boston Theater Marathon By Jami Brandli Directed by Luke Dennis ROSA April 7-22, 2006 By Peter Snoad Directed by Will Luera P. S. Page Me Later December 2-17, 2005 Contributors: Bill DonnellySteve AlmondJami Brandli Marty Johnson Steve Gilbane Patrick Healy Peter Fernandez Karen Black August Miller Kristine Lambert Mike WatsonBrian Polak Directed by Sally Dennis DUPLEX May 26 - June 11, 2005 Book and lyrics by Peter Fernandez Directed by Luke Dennis It's Called the Sugar Plum/The Indian Wants the Bronx December 3-18, 2004 By Israel Horovitz Directed by Luke Dennis With Friends Like These 2002 By Sara Adelman & Daniel Stroeh Directed by Luke Dennis East Lynne 2002 Adapted by, based on the novel by Ellen Wood Directed by Luke Dennis Luke Dennis, Founder Sally Dennis, Founder Brian Polak, Artistic Director Peter Fernandez, Musical Director Eliza Grinnell, Graphic Artist/Photographer Jami Brandli, Literary Manager Daniel Stroeh, Resident Playwright Anika Bachhuber, Production Manager Black box theater Alarm Clock Theatre Company homepage
Elisabetta Sanna was an Italian Roman Catholic from Codrongianos Province of Sassari, an active member of both the Secular Franciscan Order and the Union of the Catholic Apostolate. In the latter she was a compatriot of Vincent Pallotti; as a result of smallpox, Sanna was for the most part disabled and further ailments prevented her from returning to her hometown after departing on a pilgrimage. Sanna married and bore seven children but was widowed after two decades of marriage. Pope Francis proclaimed her to be Venerable in 2014 after determining that she lived a model Christian life of heroic virtue; the pope approved the miracle attributed to her in 2016 which allowed for her beatification to occur. Cardinal Angelo Amato – on the behalf of the pope – presided over the beatification on 17 September 2016. Elisabetta Sanna Porcu was born on 23 April 1788 as the second of five children to poor farmers of harsh economic conditions. At three months old she contracted as a result was never able to again raise her arms.
She was able to move her fingers and wrists but could not bring food to the mouth nor make the sign of the Cross amongst other things. She received her Confirmation on 27 April 1794 from the Archbishop of Sassari Giacinto della Torre, she was entrusted to the care of Lucia Pinna, a member of the Secular Franciscan Order. Pinna taught Sanna the importance of frequent rosaries as well as Eucharistic Adoration and both proper treatment and love of the poor. Despite being in a strong household of fundamental Christian values she learned the importance of loving Jesus Christ while at school despite the fact that she remained illiterate during her entire life. Not long after she received her First Communion and her first Reconciliation; each week Sanna attended sessions that her father's cousin Father Luigi Sanna held in which she learnt the basics of catechism. On one particular occasion Sanna dazed into a Crucifix and heard a voice: "Take courage and love me". On 13 September 1807 she married the two went on to have seven children.
The oldest was born in 1808 and the last was born in 1822 and two died soon after their births. Her husband died on 25 January 1825 when her oldest was seventeen and her last child was three; this meant. In 1829 Sanna met the priest Giuseppe Valle; the two decided to go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and as a result Sanna had to entrust her children to her mother and her brother Father Antonio Luigi. Sanna and Valle departed from Porto Torres to Genoa at the end of June 1830 where the pair waited for over a week for a ship to Cyprus; however the two could not continue further to their destination due to the fact that Valle had no visa and was forbidden to keep going. The pair decided to go to Rome and arrived there on 23 July 1830. Valle remained at her side as an assistant until 1839. Sanna became a professed member of the Secular Franciscan Order and she devoted herself to the example of Francis of Assisi. On a visit to Saint Peter's Basilica she met Father Camillo Loria, she soon came into contact with Vincenzo Pallotti who took her in his care and contacted her brother to tell him that she was unfit to return home.
Sanna entrusted herself to God and His providence for sustenance. Around this time she worked in the house of the future cardinal Giovanni Saglia. Pallotti continued to serve as her spiritual director for two decades and he held her in considerable esteem realizing her to be a true agent of God. In Rome she educated other children in catechism and she prepared them for the sacraments, her house was open of catechism in general. Sanna visited the ill and comforted them in private homes and in the Hospital for Incurables, she knitted and the end result as well as gifts given to her were used to help the poor and the orphans in the two houses that Pallotti founded. She attended several Masses on a frequent basis and took time for Eucharistic Adoration. People visited her for advice and Pallotti and his Pallottines visited her for advice too, she soon witnessed the foundation of the Union of the Catholic Apostolate and she became an active member of that organization. With Pallotti's death in 1850 she felt alone more than before but she continued to place her complete trust in God despite this great personal loss.
Elisabetta Sanna garnered the strong recognition of being a great saint. She was buried in the church of San Salvatore in Onda in Rome; the process for beatification was held in Sassari. The first process opened on 15 June 1857 and concluded its work prior to the formal introduction of the cause decades on 22 April 1880 under Pope Leo XIII; the second process was conducted and was closed before the Congregation of the Causes of Saints revitalized the cause and declared "nihil obstat" to the continuation of the cause on 4 March 1994. The postulation submitted the Positio to officials for further investigation in 1997