The Pont Julien is a Roman stone arch bridge over the Calavon river, in the south-east of France, dating from 3 BC. The supporting columns are notable for openings to allow floodwater to pass through, it is located in the territory of the commune of Bonnieux, north of the village of the same name, 8 km west of Apt. It was built on the Via Domitia, an important Roman road which connected Italy to the Roman territories in France, it was used for car traffic until 2005, when a replacement bridge was built to preserve it from wear and tear. This amounts to 2000 years of uninterrupted use. List of Roman bridges Roman architecture Roman engineering Murati, Philippe. Ponts de Provence. Nice. Pp. 19–20. O’Connor, Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press, pp. 96f. ISBN 0-521-39326-4 Media related to Pont Julien at Wikimedia Commons Pont Julien at Structurae Traianus – Technical investigation of Roman public works
Hospital de San Sebastián
San Sebastián Hospital is a 16th-century building on Calle Torrijos in Córdoba, Spain. It is situated in the historic centre, just opposite the west front of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba. Founded in 1363 in Alcayceria, it was moved in the early 16th century. Built to a design by Hernán Ruiz, el Viejo, construction on the current building occurred during the period of 1512-16; the building served as a hospital. Moral, Antonio García del, El Hospital Mayor de San Sebastián de Córdoba: Cinco Siglos de Asistencia Médico-Sanitaria Institucional: 1363-1816 Media related to Hospital of San Sebastián, Córdoba at Wikimedia Commons
Caliphate of Córdoba
The Caliphate of Córdoba was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031; the region was dominated by the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba. The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph of Córdoba, replacing thus his original title of Emir of Córdoba, he was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, which had held the title of Emir of Córdoba since 756. The caliphate disintegrated during the Fitna of al-Andalus, a civil war between the descendants of the last caliph, Hisham II, the successors of his hayib, Al-Mansur. In 1031, after years of infighting, the caliphate fractured into a number of independent Muslim taifa. Abd ar-Rahman I became Emir of Córdoba in 756 after six years in exile after the Umayyads lost the position of Caliph in Damascus to the Abbasids in 750.
Intent on regaining power, he defeated the area's existing Islamic rulers and united various local fiefdoms into an emirate. Raids increased the emirate's size; the emirate's rulers used the title "emir" or "sultan" until the 10th century. In the early 10th century, Abd ar-Rahman III faced a threatened invasion from North Africa by the Fatimids, a Shiite rival Islamic empire based in Cairo. Since the invading Fatimids claimed the caliphate, Abd ar-Rahman III claimed the title of caliph himself. Prior to Abd ar-Rahman's proclamation as the caliph, the Umayyads recognized the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad as being the rightful rulers of the Muslim community. After repulsing the Fatimids, he kept the more prestigious title. Although his position as caliph was not accepted outside of al-Andalus and its North African affiliates, internally the Spanish Umayyads considered themselves as closer to Muhammad, thus more legitimate, than the Abbasids; the caliphate enjoyed increased prosperity during the 10th century.
Abd ar-Rahman III united al-Andalus and brought the Christian kingdoms of the north under control by force and through diplomacy. Abd ar-Rahman III stopped the Fatimid advance into Morocco and al-Andalus in order to prevent a future invasion; the plan for a Fatimid invasion was thwarted when Abd ar-Rahman III secured Melilla in 927, Ceuta in 931, Tangier in 951. This period of prosperity was marked by increasing diplomatic relations with Berber tribes in North Africa, Christian kings from the north, with France and Constantinople; the caliphate became profitable during the reign of Abd ar-Rahman III, by increasing the public revenue to 6,245,000 dinars from Abd ar-Rahman II. The profits made during this time were divided into three parts: the payment of the salaries and maintenance of the army, the preservation of public buildings, the needs of the caliph; the death of Abd ar-Rahman III led to the rise of his 46-year-old son, Al-Hakam II, in 961. Al-Hakam II continued his father's policy, dealing humanely with disruptive Christian kings and North African rebels.
Al-Hakam's reliance on his advisers was greater than his father's because the previous prosperity under Abd ar-Rahman III allowed al-Hakam II to let the caliphate run by itself. This style of rulership suited al-Hakam II since he was more interested in his scholarly and intellectual pursuits than ruling the caliphate; the caliphate was at its intellectual and scholarly peak under al-Hakam II. The death of al-Hakam II in 976 marked the beginning of the end of the caliphate. Before his death, al-Hakam named his only son Hisham II successor. Although the 10-year-old child was ill-equipped to be caliph, Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, who had sworn an oath of obedience to Hisham II, pronounced him caliph. Almanzor had great influence over Subh, the mother and regent of Hisham II. Almanzor, along with Subh, isolated Hisham in Córdoba while systematically eradicating opposition to his own rule, allowing Berbers from Africa to migrate to al-Andalus to increase his base of support. While Hisham II was caliph, he was a figurehead.
He, his son Abd al-Malik and his brother retained the power nominally held by Caliph Hisham. However, during a raid on the Christian north a revolt tore through Córdoba and Abd al-Rahman never returned; the title of caliph became symbolic, without influence. The death of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo in 1009 marked the beginning of the Fitna of al-Andalus, with rivals claiming to be the new caliph, violence sweeping the caliphate, intermittent invasions by the Hammudid dynasty. Beset by factionalism, the caliphate crumbled in 1031 into a number of independent taifas, including the Taifa of Córdoba, Taifa of Seville and Taifa of Zaragoza; the last Córdoban Caliph was Hisham III. Córdoba was the cultural centre of al-Andalus. Mosques, such as the Great Mosque, were the focus of many caliphs' attention; the caliph's palace, Medina Azahara is on the outskirts of the city, where an estimated 10,000 laborers and artisans worked for decades on the palace, constructing the decorated buildings and courtyards filled with fountains and airy domes.
Córdoba was the intellectual centre of al-Andalus, with translations of ancient Greek texts into Arabic and Hebrew. During the reign of al-Hakam II, the royal library possessed an estimated 500,000 volumes. For comparison, the Abbey of Saint Gall in Switzerland contained just over 100 volumes; the university in Córdoba became the most celebrated in the world. It was attended by Christian st
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges had the arch as the basic structure. Most utilized concrete as well; as with the vault and the dome the Romans were the first to realize the potential of arches for bridge construction. A list of Roman bridges compiled by the engineer Colin O'Connor features 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 Roman timber bridges and 54 Roman aqueduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and used to carry vehicles. A more complete survey by the Italian scholar Vittorio Galliazzo found 931 Roman bridges of stone, in as many as 26 different countries. Roman arch bridges were semicircular, although a few were segmental. A segmental arch is an arch, less than a semicircle; the advantages of the segmental arch bridge were that it allowed great amounts of flood water to pass under it, which would prevent the bridge from being swept away during floods and the bridge itself could be more lightweight. Roman bridges featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones of the same in size and shape.
The Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct. Their bridges featured from an early time onwards flood openings in the piers, e.g. in the Pons Fabricius in Rome, one of the world's oldest major bridges still standing. Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called opus caementicium; the outside was covered with brick or ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge. The Romans introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge construction; the 330 m long Limyra Bridge in southwestern Turkey features 26 segmental arches with an average span-to-rise ratio of 5.3:1, giving the bridge an unusually flat profile unsurpassed for more than a millennium. Trajan's bridge over the Danube featured open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood; this was to be the longest arch bridge for a thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length, while the longest extant Roman bridge is the 790 m long Puente Romano at Mérida.
The late Roman Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia may represent the earliest surviving bridge featuring a pointed arch. Early Roman arch bridges, influenced by the ancient notion of the ideal form of the circle describe a full circle, with the stone arch continuing underground. A typical example is the Pons Fabricius in Rome. Roman masonry bridges rested on semi-circular arches, or, to a lesser extent, on segmental arches. For the design, which shows an early, local concentration in north-eastern Italy, but can be found scattered throughout the whole empire, the Limyra Bridge, the Alconétar Bridge and the Ponte San Lorenzo are prime examples. In addition, a number of other arch forms make rare appearances, in some cases of which deformations cannot be ruled out; the late antique Karamagara Bridge represents an early example for the use of pointed arches Many are more than 5 metres wide Most of them slope Many have rustic work The stonework has alternating stretcher and header courses. Their shared costs prove Roman bridges belonged to the region overall, not to any one town.
The Alcántara Bridge in Lusitania, for example, was built at the expense of 12 local municipalities, whose names were added on an inscription. In the Roman Empire, the local lords of the land had to pay tithes to the empire for opus pontis; the Anglo-Saxons continued this practice with bricg-geworc, a literal translation of opus pontis. For outstanding achievements of Roman bridge building, see List of ancient architectural records. Built in 142 BC, the Pons Aemilius named Ponte Rotto, is the oldest Roman stone bridge in Rome, Italy; the largest Roman bridge was Trajan's bridge over the lower Danube, constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus, which remained for over a millennium the longest bridge to have been built both in terms of overall and span length. They were most of the time at least 2 metres above the body of water. An example of temporary military bridge construction are the two Caesar's Rhine bridges. Roman engineers built stone arch or stone pillar bridges over all major rivers of their Imperium, save two: the Euphrates which lay at the frontier to the rival Persian empires, the Nile, the longest river in the world, which was'bridged' as late as 1902 by the British Old Aswan Dam.
The largest rivers to be spanned by solid bridges by the Romans were the Danube and the Rhine, the two largest European rivers west of the Eurasian Steppe. The lower Danube was crossed the middle and lower Rhine by four different bridges. For rivers with strong currents and to allow swift army movements, pontoon bridges were routinely employed. Going from the distinct lack of records of pre-modern solid bridges spanning larger rivers, the Roman feat appears to be unsurpassed anywhere in the world until into the 19th century. Arch bridge Bridges
Historic centre of Córdoba
The historic centre of Córdoba, Spain is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. In 1984, UNESCO registered the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba as a World Heritage Site. A decade it expanded the inscription to include much of the old town; the historic centre has a wealth of monuments preserving large traces of Roman and Christian times. First a Carthaginian township, Córdoba was captured by the Romans in 206 BC, soon becoming the capital of Hispania Citerior with fine buildings and imposing fortifications. In the 6th century, with the crumbling of the Roman Empire, the city fell to the Visigoths until the beginning of the 8th century when it was conquered by the Moors. In 716, Córdoba became a provincial capital and, in 766, capital of the Muslim emirate of al-Andalus. By the 10th century, as the Caliphate of Córdoba it had become one of the most advanced cities in the world, recognized for its culture and religious tolerance, it addition to a huge library, the city enclosed over 300 mosques and a multitude of palaces and administrative buildings.
In 1236, King Ferdinand III took the city, built new defences and converted the Grand Mosque into a cathedral. The Christian city grew up around the cathedral with palaces, a fortress. Although the city lost its political significance under Christian rule, it continued to play an important role in commerce thanks to the nearby Sierra Morena copper mines; the historic centre as defined by UNESCO comprises the buildings and narrow winding streets around the cathedral. It is bordered on the south by the River Guadalquivir so as to include the Roman Bridge and the Calahorra Tower, on the east by the Calle San Fernando, on the north by the commercial centre. To the west, it includes the San Basilio district. Evidence of the Roman period can be seen in the 16-span bridge over the Guadalquivir, the mosaics in the Alcázar, the columns of the Roman temple, the remains of the Roman walls. In addition to the Caliphal Baths, the Moorish influence in the city's design is evident in the Alcázar gardens adjacent to the former Grand Mosque.
Minarets from the period survive in the churches of Santiago, San Lorenzo, San Juan and the Santa Clara Hermitage. The Jewish presence during Muslim rule can be seen in the La Judería district in which the synagogue was used until 1492; the Alcázar a Moorish castle, was adapted to serve as a residence for the Christian kings in the 14th century while the Calahorra Tower, built by the Almohads, was comprehensively reworked by King Henry II in 1369. The little Chapel of San Bartolomé was completed in the Gothic-Mudéjar style in 1410. A church, the former San Sebastián Hospital, now the Congress Centre, was completed in 1516 in a combination of Gothic, Mudéjar and Renaissance styles. Other churches from the period include San Nicolás and San Francisco. There are a number of important 16th-century buildings including the San Pelagio Seminary, the Puerta del Puente, the Palacio del Marqués de la Fuensanta del Valle designed by Hernán Ruiz. Of note is the 18th-century Hospital del Cardenal Salazar with its Baroque facade.
Other historic monuments in the old town include the Episcopal Palace built on the remains of the former Visigoth palace and now the Diocesan Fine Arts Museum, the Royal Stables built by King Philip II in 1570 as part of the Alcázar
Torre de la Malmuerta
The Torre de la Malmuerta is a gate tower in Córdoba, Spain. This albarrana tower was built in 1406–1408, by order of King Henry III of Castile, over a pre-existing Almohad structure, to defend the gates of Rincón and Colodro, it was used as a prison for nobles. Having an octagonal plan, the tower has an annexed arch; the names, meaning "Tower of the Wrongly Dead Woman", refers to a woman who, according to a legend, was killed here by her husband after a false accusation of adultery. Media related to Malmuerta Tower at Wikimedia Commons
Royal Stables of Córdoba
Royal Stables are a set of stables in Córdoba, Spain. The building borders the Guadalquivir; the stables housed the best mares of the royal stud breed Andalusian horse. By royal decree of Felipe II on November 28, 1567, the Spanish Horse breed with formalized standards was created, a royal stable was established in Córdoba; the king commissioned Diego López de Haro y Sotomayor, 1st Marquis of El Carpio to build the stables on part of the site of the Alcázar fortress. The brand contained an "R" for Real inside a C for Córdoba with a corona on top of the C; the building design is characterized by a distinct military style in keeping with its location by the Alcázar fortress. The main area features a cross-vaulted roof, supported on sandstone columns and is divided into small stables; the building features a permanent equestrian display. Media related to Caballerizas Reales at Wikimedia Commons Official website