Roman consul

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum. Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term; the consuls alternated in holding imperium each month when both were in Rome and a consul's imperium extended over Rome and all its provinces. After the establishment of the Empire, the consuls became mere symbolic representatives of Rome's republican heritage and held little power and authority, with the Emperor acting as the supreme authority. After the legendary expulsion of the last Etruscan King, Tarquin the Proud, a harsh ruler at the end of the Roman Kingdom, most of the powers and authority of the king were ostensibly given to the newly instituted consulship; this change in leadership came about when the king's son, Sextus Tarquinius, raped the wives and daughters of powerful Roman nobles. A group of nobles led by Lucius Junius Brutus, with the support of the Roman Army, expelled Tarquinius and his family from Rome in 509 BC.

Consuls were called praetors, referring to their duties as the chief military commanders. By at least 300 BC the title of Consul became used. Ancient writers derive the title consul from the Latin verb consulere, "to take counsel", but this is most a gloss of the term, which derives—in view of the joint nature of the office—from con- and sal-, "get together" or from con- and sell-/sedl-, "sit down together with" or "next to". In Greek, the title was rendered as στρατηγὸς ὕπατος, strategos hypatos, simply as ὕπατος; the consul was believed by the Romans to date back to the traditional establishment of the Republic in 509 BC, but the succession of consuls was not continuous in the 5th century BC. During the 440s, the office was quite replaced with the establishment of the Consular Tribunes, who were elected whenever the military needs of the state were significant enough to warrant the election of more than the two usual consuls; these remained in place until the office was abolished in 367/366 BC and the consulship was reintroduced.

Consuls had extensive powers in peacetime, in wartime held the highest military command. Additional religious duties included certain rites which, as a sign of their formal importance, could only be carried out by the highest state officials. Consuls read auguries, an essential step before leading armies into the field. Two consuls were elected each year, serving together, each with veto power over the other's actions, a normal principle for magistracies, it is thought that only patricians were eligible for the consulship. Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which had an aristocratic bias in its voting structure which only increased over the years from its foundation. However, they formally assumed powers only after the ratification of their election in the older Comitia Curiata, which granted the consuls their imperium by enacting a law, the "lex curiata de imperio". If a consul died during his term or was removed from office, another would be elected by the Comitia Centuriata to serve the remainder of the term as consul suffectus.

A consul elected to start the year - called a consul ordinarius - held more prestige than a suffect consul because the year would be named for ordinary consuls. According to tradition, the consulship was reserved for patricians and only in 367 BC did plebeians win the right to stand for this supreme office, when the Lex Licinia Sextia provided that at least one consul each year should be plebeian; the first plebeian consul, Lucius Sextius, was elected the following year. The office remained in the hands of a few families as, according to Gelzer, only fifteen novi homines - "new men" with no consular background - were elected to the consulship until the election of Cicero in 63 BC. Modern historians have questioned the traditional account of plebeian emancipation during the early Republic, noting for instance that about thirty percent of the consuls prior to Sextius had plebeian, not patrician, names, it is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family.

Another possible explanation is that during the 5th century social struggles, the office of consul was monopolized by a patrician elite. During times of war, the primary qualification for consul was military skill and reputation, but at all times the selection was politically charged. With the passage of time, the consulship became the normal endpoint of the cursus honorum, the sequence of offices pursued by the ambitious Roman who chose to pursue political power and influence; when Lucius Cornelius Sulla regulated the cursus by law, the minimum age of election to consul became, in effect, 41 years of age. Beginning in the late Republic, after finishing a consular year, a former consul would serve a lucrative term as a proconsul, the Roman Governor of one of the provinces; the most chosen province for the proconsulship was Cisalpine Gaul. It would not be uncommon for the patrician consulars of the early republic to intersperse public office with agricultural labour. In Cicero’s words: in agris erant tum senatores, id est senes: ‘In those days senators—that is, seniors—would live on their farms’.

This practice was obsolete by the 2nd century. Although throughout the early years of the Principate, the

Iredalea thalycra

Iredalea thalycra is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Drilliidae. The length of the shell attains its diameter 1.75 mm. A small brightly banded shell, its colour is white, banded with ochre. The shell contains 7 gradate whorls, longitudinally stoutly ribbed; the aperture is oblong. The outer lip is thickened; the columella is ochre-tinged plain. This marine species occurs off the Loyalty Islands Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295 "Iredalea thalycra". Retrieved 16 January 2019

Love Commandos

Love Commandos is a voluntary non-profit organization in India which helps and protects couples in love from harassment and honor killing. They provide housing, legal aid, protection to couples seeking their aid who are being persecuted by family and society for wanting to marry based on mutual attraction and love. In India, most marriages are arranged by parents, with potential marriage partners vetted on the basis of caste, horoscope, etc.—the matter of love is considered. Falling in love carries a strong social stigma in India. Love across the barriers of caste and economic class can be problematic, resulting in violence and honor killing; the police have been known to refuse protection to such couples, sometimes siding with parents and arresting the male lovers on false charges of rape. The Love Commandos consists of journalists, businessmen and human rights activists, they provide protection to lovers from religious hardliners. They run secret shelters for eloped couples, where they may stay until they gain financial independence.

They help willing couples to get married and register their marriage with the civil authorities. The group was called the Peace Commandos, who worked to protect lovers from religious extremist groups during occasions like Valentine's Day, they decided to rename the group, concentrate on protecting lovers and on the issue of honor killing. In 2010, Love Commando was formed. Though the woman went on record that she was an adult and the relationship was consensual, the police decided to attest the father's statement that she was a minor. Harsh Malhotra, a travel agent, founded the group, he was assaulted himself when he went to his future wife's family and they had to elope. He is now the chief coordinator of the group. Sanjay Sachdeva now runs the organization as its chairman; the organization completed its 500 days of formation in November 2011. It has more than 20,00000 members across India, it receives an average of 300 calls everyday on its 24-hours helpline 09313784375 and 09313550006 Whatsapp 09311050004.

They have 450 plus shelters across India. Their cost of operations in the Delhi unit alone is about US$5,000). Sachdeva was interviewed on the 5th episode of Aamir Khan's television show Satyamev Jayate. After his appearance on the show, the organization began getting more calls than before. However, Hakim Abdul, who appeared in the same episode with his wife, was murdered five months in November 2012 in Bulandshahr village in western Uttar Pradesh; the Love Commandos continued to protect his infant daughter. In April 2014, Björn Borg launched the website to collect funds for the organisation. In the same year, photographer Max Pinckers featured Love Commandos and eloped couples in his photobook, Will They Sing Like Raindrops or Leave Me Thirsty; the book won the Photographic Museum of Humanity grant. In 2014, a girl, whose father was a liquor baron in Agra, eloped with a man and sought shelter with the Love Commandos in nearby New Delhi; the girl's father used his influence to ask Agra police to search for the girl.

Agra police managed to find the girl's location in a suburban area in New Delhi by using her cellphone signal. They began combing area while being armed. Delhi police had to stop the search. UK based film maker Miriam Lyons directed film "The Love Commandos" on their work is on Google Plus, I Tunes and other social platforms. Special Screening of Miriam Lyons directed film'The Love Commandos' was held at the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad on March 24, 2017 for Indian Police Service probationers, a landmark for the Non Profit Organisation. In January 2019, Sanjoy Sachdev was arrested for extorting money from them; the organization was featured in Tarquin Hall's fourth book starring the fictional private investigator Vish Puri, The Case of the Love Commandos. Caste system in India Eve teasing Honor killing Love marriage Official website India's Love Commandos. Al Jazeera English, May 2017