click links in text for more info

Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables, to the Corpus Juris Civilis ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most used legal system today, the terms are sometimes used synonymously; the historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law. After the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman law remained in effect in the Eastern Roman Empire. From the 7th century onward, the legal language in the East was Greek. Roman law denoted the legal system applied in most of Western Europe until the end of the 18th century. In Germany, Roman law practice remained in place longer under the Holy Roman Empire. Roman law thus served as a basis for legal practice throughout Western continental Europe, as well as in most former colonies of these European nations, including Latin America, in Ethiopia.

English and Anglo-American common law were influenced by Roman law, notably in their Latinate legal glossary. Eastern Europe was influenced by the jurisprudence of the Corpus Juris Civilis in countries such as medieval Romania which created a new system, a mixture of Roman and local law. Eastern European law was influenced by the "Farmer's Law" of the medieval Byzantine legal system. Before the Twelve Tables, private law comprised the Roman civil law that applied only to Roman citizens, was bonded to religion; the jurist Sextus Pomponius said, "At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without any fixed law, without any fixed rights: all things were ruled despotically, by kings". It is believed that Roman Law is rooted in the Etruscan religion; the first legal text is the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the mid-5th century BC. The plebeian tribune, C. Terentilius Arsa, proposed that the law should be written in order to prevent magistrates from applying the law arbitrarily.

After eight years of political struggle, the plebeian social class convinced the patricians to send a delegation to Athens to copy the Laws of Solon. In 451 BC, according to the traditional story, ten Roman citizens were chosen to record the laws. While they were performing this task, they were given supreme political power, whereas the power of the magistrates was restricted. In 450 BC, the decemviri produced the laws on ten tablets, but these laws were regarded as unsatisfactory by the plebeians. A second decemvirate is said to have added two further tablets in 449 BC; the new Law of the Twelve Tables was approved by the people's assembly. Modern scholars tend to challenge the accuracy of Roman historians, they do not believe that a second decemvirate took place. The decemvirate of 451 is believed to have included the most controversial points of customary law, to have assumed the leading functions in Rome. Furthermore, questions concerning Greek influence on early Roman Law are still much discussed.

Many scholars consider it unlikely that the patricians sent an official delegation to Greece, as the Roman historians believed. Instead, those scholars suggest, the Romans acquired Greek legislations from the Greek cities of Magna Graecia, the main portal between the Roman and Greek worlds; the original text of the Twelve Tables has not been preserved. The tablets were destroyed when Rome was conquered and burned by the Gauls in 387 BC; the fragments which did survive show. It did not provide a complete and coherent system of all applicable rules or give legal solutions for all possible cases. Rather, the tables contained specific provisions designed to change the then-existing customary law. Although the provisions pertain to all areas of law, the largest part is dedicated to private law and civil procedure. Many laws include Lex Canuleia, Leges Licinae Sextiae, Lex Ogulnia, Lex Hortensia. Another important statute from the Republican era is the Lex Aquilia of 286 BC, which may be regarded as the root of modern tort law.

However, Rome's most important contribution to European legal culture was not the enactment of well-drafted statutes, but the emergence of a class of professional jurists and of a legal science. This was achieved in a gradual process of applying the scientific methods of Greek philosophy to the subject of law, a subject which the Greeks themselves never treated as a science. Traditionally, the origins of Roman legal science are connected to Gnaeus Flavius. Flavius is said to have published around the year 300 BC the formularies containing the words which had to be spoken in court to begin a legal action. Before the time of Flavius, these formularies are said to have been secret and known only to the priests, their publication made it possible for non-priests to explore the meaning of th

Courtenay Ilbert

Sir Courtenay Peregrine Ilbert was a distinguished British lawyer and civil servant who served as legal adviser to the Viceroy of India's Council for many years until his eventual return from India to England. His career included appointments as the Parliamentary Counsel to the British Treasury and as Clerk of the House of Commons from 1902 to 1921. Ilbert was born at Kingsbridge to Reverend Peregrine Arthur Ilbert and Rose Anne on 12 June 1841, he was educated at Marlborough College and at Balliol College, where he was Hertford, Ireland and Eldon law scholar. He graduated with first class honours in Literae Humaniores and was elected a fellow of Balliol in 1864. Ilbert married Jessie, daughter of Reverend Charles Bradley and niece of George Bradley, former headmaster of Marlborough College in 1874, they had five daughters, the oldest, Lettice Fisher became the first to head the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and her Child. His fourth daughter Margaret Peregrina Ilbert married Sir Arthur Cochrane of the College of Arms.

Ilbert was an outdoorsman in his youth and he climbed in Chamonix the Hekla in Iceland and the Vignemale in the Pyrenees in 1872–73 with James Bryce. When Ilbert lived in Simla, at Chapslee house, he founded a Simla Natural History Society around 1885 but the organization dissolved when he left Simla in 1886. Ilbert died a few months after the death of his wife at his home in Troutwells, Buckinghamshire on 14 May 1924. Ilbert was called to bar in 1869, he joined the Office of the department for drafting parliamentary bills. His expertise in drafting bills attracted the attention of Sir Henry Thring who invited him to help prepare bills; the Marquess of Ripon sought a Liberal and an imaginative lawyer who could succeed the likes of Lord Macaulay, Sir Henry Maine, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen. Ilbert was identified in this role and made a legal member of the Council of Governor-General of India from 1882–6. During this period he introduced a draft which came to be called the Ilbert Bill in 1883 for British India that proposed an amendment for existing laws in the country at the time to allow Indian judges and magistrates the jurisdiction to try British offenders in criminal cases at the District level, something, disallowed at the time.

This faced much opposition from Europeans in India as well as influential figures in England like Sir Fitzjames Stephen. The extent of Ilbert's personal beliefs in preparing this document are unknown but this draft led to a major discussions on the purpose of colonialism, the welfare of subjects, racial equality resulting in the draft bill being modified greatly, he was appointed assistant parliamentary counsel to Treasury in 1886 and parliamentary counsel in 1899. In February 1902, Ilbert was appointed Clerk of the House of Commons, he served as such until 1921. Ilbert was invested as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India in 1895, as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1908, as a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1911, he was a founding fellow of the British Academy. Ilbert reflected on laws and law-making and wrote several books on parliamentary and legislative procedure and history that were regarded. Jurists like Sir Carleton Kemp Allen praised his knowledge of parliamentary procedure but felt he was outdated.

He pointed out to how government initiatives were modified into actionable forms but manyconsidered Ilbert to be outdated and old-fashioned in putting faith in public opinion to exert corrective action on legislative abuses. The Government of India The New Constitution of India Legislative Methods and Forms. 1901. Scanned version Montesquieu, the Romanes Lecture for 1904. Oxford. Scanned version Parliament: Its History and Practice. 1st ed, 1911. 2nd ed, 1920. 3rd ed, Oxford, 1948. The Mechanics of Law Making. Columbia University Press. 1914. Methods of legislation Portraits of Courtenay Ilbert at the National Portrait Gallery, London Works by or about Courtenay Ilbert at Internet Archive To the Manor Reborn - Article in the Hindu Businessline, India


Viswajith is an award-winning Indian composer and musician. He works in Malayalam films. Viswajith started his career by singing tracks for famous music composers Ramesh Narayan, M. G. Radhakrishnan and Thankaraj, he composed music for several TV serials which include Pradakshinam, Nadakame Ulakam and Chanakyatantram. His debut as a film music composer was in the 2005 film Oraal in which he composed the song'Eni Entethu Mathram', he was asked to work for a Malayalam ghazal album featuring Hariharan. He composed music for a film Veeralipattu starring Prithviraj Sukumaran Kerala State Award for the Best Music Director 2009 Vayalar Award for the Best Music Director 2011 Kerala State Award for the Best Music Director 2014 and 2015 "New cadence"; the Hindu. 1 September 2007. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 26 January 2019. Viswajith on IMDb

John Breedon Everard

John Breedon Everard was an English civil engineer and architect associated with works in Leicestershire, co-founder of the firm Pick Everard. Everard was born in Groby, the son of a mine and quarry owner, Breedon Everard. In 1862, Everard was articled to John Brown, a partner in Messrs Brown and Jeffcock, a firm of civil and mining engineers in Barnsley and Sheffield, South Yorkshire. In 1866, he was appointed assistant resident engineer on construction of the Kentish Town to St Pancras section of the Midland Railway. In 1868, he set up in practice as a civil engineer in Leicester. Everard became a partner in the firm of Ellis and Everard in 1874, helping in the development of the Bardon Hill quarry and associated worker facilities including a school and two churches, at Hugglescote and Bardon. Bardon mill house constructed to his design between 1874 and 1878 to house stone-breaking equipment, was doubled in size in 1902. Everard was elected a fellow of the Geological Society in 1870, a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1886, a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1887.

He was a member of the Surveyors' Institute and the Mining Institute. Everard specialised in water supply projects, he helped initiate the Derwent Valley scheme supplying water to Leicester, Nottingham and Derby, taking responsibility for the Leicester section of the scheme from Sawley to Hallgates, which included an aqueduct across the River Trent and two covered service reservoirs each holding two million gallons of water. His work included buildings at Swithland Reservoir, completed in 1896. Other designs by Everard include: A Turkish bath building in Leicester, opened in Friar Lane in 1872, A new tower brewery in 1875 for his uncle, the brewer William Everard's Everards Brewery at Southgate St, Leicester; the Leicestershire South African War Memorial. He built himself a large red brick house, Woodville, in Leicester’s Knighton Park Road in 1883, by the end of the century he was in partnership with Samuel Perkins Pick; the firm survives to this day as Pick Everard. Everard served as High Sheriff of Leicestershire in 1913

Life - Fear Not

Life - Fear Not ran for 120 episode series produced by Mediacorp Channel 8. It stars Chen Shucheng, Aileen Tan, Rayson Tan, Felicia Chin, Aloysius Pang, Chen Liping, Carrie Wong & Zhang Yaodong as the casts of this series; the series is repeated at 1.30pm on Channel 8 from Tuesday to Friday. The show replaced the second half of the 7.00 pm drama timeslot, airing weekdays from October 19, 2015, 7.30 pm to 8.00 pm on weekdays and had a repeat telecast at 9.30am the following day airing together with news-current affairs programme Hello Singapore at 6.30pm. The story is set against the backdrop of a traditional inn called “Rest House”. Through trials and tribulations, the characters learn that life is a bittersweet journey of happiness and pain, that as long as they lead a fulfilling life, their fears are insignificant; the sequence begins at the reception desk. Jiajia shows them the way. In Shuiqing's room, Shuiqing is resting on his rocking chair when Shenlong enter, he treats them to green bean soup, with Jinhua and Daoren.

Daoren sets off for Daoqiang's principal office, where he brings him and Jiajia close together. Jiajia goes up to check, she helps Chu Er tidy up her desk, in a mess. They hear beautiful music playing from Daohan's recording studio; the compliments she receive from her phone, in the form of hearts, come in, forming a heart-shaped balloon. It flies to the hallway of the inn. Yishou fails to catch the balloon, it flies to Daoren and Meigui, who are sitting on top of a room. In the midst of trying to catch it, Daoren falls down from the room. At the song's bridge, the scene is cut to a man who sees a lion, he decides to stay there forever, rides the lion, climbing mountains with it. Life - Fear Not is nominated for 2 categories at Star Awards 2017; the other drama serials that are nominated for Best Theme Song are You Can Be an Angel 2, The Dream Job, Eat Already? & If Only I Could. It did not won a single nomination; the Star Awards are presented by Mediacorp. Malaysia's satellite channel Astro AEC had began to air the show the same day as Singapore, which mirrors that of Astro Shuang Xing's First Global Premiere plan.

This is controversial, since Mind Game, the first drama under the plan, did not perform well in Singapore and is nominated for only one technical award in Star Awards 2016. In addition, only Super Senior and The Dream Makers II were the only dramas in the plan to win performance categories. List of MediaCorp Channel 8 Chinese drama series List of Life - Fear Not episodes

Liechtenstein Olympic Committee

Liechtenstein Olympic Committee is the National Olympic Committee representing Liechtenstein. Before the organisation was renamed in 2013 it was called "Liechtensteinischer Olympischer Sportverband"; the motive to establish a National Olympic Committee for Liechtenstein was the wish to participate in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games in Germany in the year 1936. Through the engagement of Baron Eduard von Falz-Fein the first NOC of Liechtenstein was founded to meet the formal requirements given by the IOC for the participation in the Olympic Games; this step was successful and for the first time a delegation of two athletes, three shooters and one cyclist was sent to Berlin in the summer to participate in their first Olympic Games for Liechtenstein. In the following Winter Games another delegation with two alpine skiers and one two-man bobsleigh team was sent to represent Liechtenstein. Since Liechtenstein participated in all Winter and Summer Olympic Games. Liechtenstein at the Olympics Julia Frick und Wolfgang Vogt.

75 Jahre Sport in Liechtenstein. Liechtensteinischer Olympischer Sportverband. ISBN 978-3-033-03162-3 Official website