Roman temple

Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state. Today they remain "the most obvious symbol of Roman architecture", their construction and maintenance was a major part of ancient Roman religion, all towns of any importance had at least one main temple, as well as smaller shrines. The main room housed the cult image of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated, a small altar for incense or libations. Behind the cella was a room or rooms used by temple attendants for storage of equipment and offerings; the ordinary worshiper entered the cella, most public ceremonies were performed outside, on the portico, with a crowd gathered in the temple precinct. The most common architectural plan had a rectangular temple raised on a high podium, with a clear front with a portico at the top of steps, a triangular pediment above columns; the sides and rear of the building had much less architectural emphasis, no entrances.

There were circular plans with columns all round, outside Italy there were many compromises with traditional local styles. The Roman form of temple developed from Etruscan temples, themselves influenced by the Greeks, with subsequent heavy direct influence from Greece. Public religious ceremonies of the official Roman religion took place outdoors, not within the temple building; some ceremonies were processions that started at, visited, or ended with a temple or shrine, where a ritual object might be stored and brought out for use, or where an offering would be deposited. Sacrifices, chiefly of animals, would take place at an open-air altar within the templum. Under the Empire, exotic foreign cults gained followers in Rome, were the local religions in large parts of the expanded Empire; these had different practices, some preferring underground places of worship, while others, like Early Christians, worshiped in houses. Some remains of many Roman temples survive, above all in Rome itself, but the few near-complete examples were nearly all converted to Christian churches a considerable time after the initial triumph of Christianity under Constantine.

The decline of Roman religion was slow, the temples themselves were not appropriated by the government until a decree of the Emperor Honorius in 415. Santi Cosma e Damiano, in the Roman Forum the Temple of Romulus, was not dedicated as a church until 527; the best known is Rome. However untypical, being a large circular temple with a magnificent concrete roof, behind a conventional portico front; the English word "temple" derives from the Latin templum, not the building itself, but a sacred space surveyed and plotted ritually. The Roman architect Vitruvius always uses the word templum to refer to the sacred precinct, not to the building; the more common Latin words for a temple or shrine were sacellum, aedes and fanum. The form of the Roman temple was derived from the Etruscan model, but in the late Republic there was a switch to using Greek classical and Hellenistic styles, without much change in the key features of the form; the Etruscans were a people of northern Italy, whose civilization was at its peak in the seventh century BC.

The Etruscans were influenced by early Greek architecture, so Roman temples were distinctive but with both Etruscan and Greek features. Surviving temples lack the extensive painted statuary that decorated the rooflines, the elaborate revetments and antefixes, in colourful terracotta in earlier examples, that enlivened the entablature. Etruscan and Roman temples emphasised the front of the building, which followed Greek temple models and consisted of wide steps leading to a portico with columns, a pronaos, a triangular pediment above, filled with statuary in the most grand examples. In the earlier periods, further statuary might be placed on the roof, the entablature decorated with antefixes and other elements, all of this being brightly painted. However, unlike the Greek models, which gave equal treatment to all sides of the temple, which could be viewed and approached from all directions, the side and rear walls of Roman temples might be undecorated, inaccessible by steps, back on to other buildings.

As in the Maison Carrée, columns at the side might be engaged columns. The platform on which the temple sat was raised higher in Etruscan and Roman examples than Greek, with up to ten, twelve or more steps rather than the three typical in Greek temples; these steps were only at the front, not the whole width of that. It might or might not be possible to walk around the temple exterior inside or outside the colonnade, or at least down the sides; the description of the Greek models used here is a generalization of classical Greek ideals, Hellenistic buildings do not reflect them. For example, the "Temple of Dionysus" on the terrace by the theatre at Pergamon, had many steps in front, and

Henry II, Count of Reuss-Gera

Henry II of Reuss, nicknamed the Posthumous was Lord of Gera, Lord of Lobenstein and Lord of Oberkranichfeld. Henry II was born posthumously, as the only son of Henry XVI of Reuss-Gera, the founder of the Younger Line, his wife, Countess Dorothea of Solms-Sonnewalde. Henry promoted education and the economy of his country. In 1608, he founded the Rutheneum Gymnasium in Gera. Against the advice of his theological councillor, he granted asylum to Calvinist refugees from Flanders and housed them in his capital city Gera; this led to an upsurge in an economic boom. During his reign, Gera developed into the cultural centre of the Reuss areas, he had a particular fondness for "ring riding", was a frequent guest at the courts in Vienna and Dresden. Henry II was buried in the Salvator Church in Gera; the composer Heinrich Schütz wrote his Musikalische Exequien for this occasion. His elaborately decorated copper outer coffin, with biblical proverbs and evangelical chorals, was transferred from the Salvator Church to the St. John church in 1995.

In 2011, it was displayed in an exhibition about funeral practices in the early modern age in the city museum of Gera. It has been on display in the Museum for Sepulchral Culture in Kassel. In Weikersheim on 7 February 1594, Henry II married firstly Magdalena, daughter of Wolfgang, Count of Hohenlohe-Weikersheim-Langenburg, they had one daughter: Dorothea Magdalena, married in 1620 to Burgrave George of Kirchberg. In Rudolstadt on 22 May 1597, Henry II married secondly Magdalena, daughter of Count Albert VII of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, they had seventeen children: Juliane Marie, married in 1614 to Count David of Mansfeld-Schraplau. Henry I Agnes, married in 1627 to Count Ernest Louis of Mansfeld-Heldrungen. Elisabeth Magdalene. Henry II, Lord of Gera and Saalburg. Henry III, Lord of Schleiz. Henry IV. Henry V, twin with Henry VI. Henry VI, twin with Henry V. Sophie Hedwig. Dorothea Sibylle, married in 1627 to Baron Christian Schenk of Tautenburg. Henry VII. Henry VIII. Anna Katharina. Henry IX, Lord of Schleiz.

Ernestine, married in 1639 to Otto Albert of Schönburg-Hartenstein. Henry X, Lord of Lobenstein and Ebersdorf. Since 2008, the motor car of one of the trams in Gera bears his name. Literature by and about Henry II, Count of Reuss-Gera in the German National Library catalogue Ferdinand Hahn, "Heinrich der Jüngere Postumus", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 11, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 579–583 Thomas Gehrlein: Das Haus Reuss. Älterer und Jüngerer Linie, brochure, 2006 Heinrich P. Reuss and Heike Karg: Die Sterbenserinnerung des Heinrich Posthumus Reuss. Konzeption seines Leichenprozesses, 1997 Hagen Enke: Dissertationis de Henrici Posthumi Rutheni vita et regno historicae commentatio. Vorbereitende Überlegungen zu einer Monographie über das Leben und die Regierungszeit des Heinrich Posthumus Reuß, in: Jahrbuch des Museums Reichenfels-Hohenleuben, issue 44, 159th annual report of the Vogtländischen Altertumsfor-schenden Vereins zu Hohenleuben e. V. Hohenleuben, 2000, p. 17–34. Hagen Enke: Heinrich Posthumus Reuß und die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft, in: Klaus Manger: Die Fruchtbringer - eine Teutschhertzige Gesellschaft, Jenaer Germanistische Forschungen, new series, vol.

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Jānis Bulis

Jānis Bulis is a Roman Catholic bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rēzekne-Aglona. Jānis Bulis was born on 17 August 1950 in Ludza Municipality, Latvia. After his secondary education, in 1972 he entered in the Riga's Metropolitan Roman Catholic Theological Seminary, in which he finished in 1977 and the same year, on 22 May, was ordained to the priesthood at St. James's Cathedral, Riga by Cardinal Julijans Vaivods. First Bulis' religious services occurred on 5 June 1977 at Holy Trinity Church, Brigis. On 8 May 1991 Bulis was nominated bishop, being consecrated in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Liepāja on 24 June of the same year. On 7 December 1995 Bulis was appointed bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rēzekne-Aglona, on 6 January 1996 he was installed as its diocesan bishop. 14/06/1977 - 06/11/1980 - Vicar of St. Peter's Chains Church in Daugavpils. 06/11/1980 - 11/07/1984 - Parish priest of the Virgin of Anguish Church and at that time served Dukstigals Virgin Mary Church. 11/07/1984 - 26/01/1989 - Parish priest at Christ the King Church in Riga.

26/01/1989 - 31.08.1991 - Parish priest at Ludzas and the Dean's Office from 23/01/1991 served Virgin Mary church in Pušmucovas. Order of the Three Stars II degree