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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this date being the most held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture; the Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, barrel vaults, large towers and decorative arcading; each building has defined forms of regular, symmetrical plan. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are outnumbered by churches.

The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which or rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal; the largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, rural Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque" means "descended from Roman" and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages; the French term "romane" was first used in the architectural sense by archaeologist Charles de Gerville in a letter of 18 December 1818 to Auguste Le Prévost to describe what Gerville sees as a debased Roman architecture.

In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained: The name Roman we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used to describe the language of the same period. Romance language is degenerated Latin language. Romanesque architecture is debased Roman architecture; the first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The word was used by Gunn to describe the style, identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building.

The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. The term "Pre-romanesque" is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods and Visigothic and Asturian constructions between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in north of Italy and Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. Typical Romanesque architectural forms Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, city walls, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Of these types of buildings and commercial buildings are the most rare, with only a handful of survivors in the United Kingdom, several clusters in France, isolated buildings across Europe and by far the largest number unidentified and altered over the centuries, in Italy.

Many castles exist, the foundations of. Most have been altered, many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches; these range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form and decoration of Romanesque church architecture; the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. In the more northern countries, Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. Although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost.

There was a loss of stylistic continuity apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders; some traditions of Roma

Federal Law on Protection of Personal Data Held by Individuals

The Ley Federal de Protección de Datos Personales en Posesión de los Particulares, is a law of Mexico, approved by the Mexican Congress on April 27, 2010. The law aims to regulate the right to informational self-determination; the law was published on July 5, 2010 in the Official Gazette and entered into force on July 6, 2010. Its provisions apply to all natural or legal persons who carry out the processing of personal data in the applicable exercise of their activities. Companies such as banks, insurance companies, schools, telecommunications companies, religious organizations, professionals such as lawyers and others, are required to comply with the provisions of this law. Personal data, according to Article 3 Section V of the Act, is any information that could identify a person. Before issuing the LFPDPPP in Mexico this right was expressly recognized only by the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to Public Government Information and in the Law on Protection of Personal Data in the State of Colima.

Due to the regulatory landscape needed to meet international commitments, it was considered necessary to issue a law on the matter, so there would be a backup in the information. Law takes the contents of the second paragraph of Article 16 of the Constitution and grant holders called "ARCO rights" whose acronym corresponds to: Access: holders can know if their data is being processed. Correction: the right to request that their data be modified. Cancellation: holders may request that their data be canceled from the database for good cause. Opposition: the right of individuals to prevent use of their information; those responsible are obliged to process the requests for access, rectification and opposition that made the headlines, for which purpose shall appoint a person or creating a department of personal data, responsible for responding to requests within the time prescribed by law. In this chapter the ways in which it can be fulfilled with these rights are noted, the reasons why some of them may be denied.

When the responsible party intends to transfer the data holder shall inform this fact in its privacy notice, requiring the consent of the holder, unless you apply any of the exceptions contemplated by this chapter. The first record is in the reform in 2007 to Article 6 of the Constitution, in which a second paragraph is adicionaba this paragraph, laying the groundwork regarding the right to information, including the protection of personal data from public institutions, recognizing the rights of access and rectification. 3 In this reform 4 a second paragraph to Article 16 is added, states that everyone has the right to protection of personal data and to exercise the rights called "ARC". The Constitution states that right may only be limited for reasons of national security provisions of public policy, public security or public health or to protect the rights of others; the LFPDPPP meanwhile, collects these assumptions within Article 4. In this reform in May it empowered the Congress to legislate on the protection of personal data held by individuals, through the addition of the XXIX-O moiety.

The justification for granting that power to the Federal Legislature was that personal data are used in various commercial transactions and trade is regulated at the federal level. Articles 1 and 2 of the LFPDPPP point out that the objectives of it are ensuring the privacy of persons and their right to informational self-determination, that its provisions apply to non-automated or automated processing of personal information perform individuals or companies, with certain exceptions. In this chapter the central terms of this regulation, among which are fundamental concepts of sensitive personal data, head, manager and treatment are defined. Globally it recognized the existence of two models in terms of protection of personal data: general and sector; the general model is adopted by most countries the European Union and among its features are: There is only one regulatory body in the field and an authority responsible for compliance. Provided the consent of the holders for the processing of data is required.

Transfers to countries without an adequate level of protection is prohibited. For its part, the industry model is applied by the United States and has the following characteristics: There is no single legal instrument governing the matter, the various agencies can issue regulations as they deem appropriate for their industry. Various authorities, within the scope of their competence, they are responsible for ensuring the protection of this right. The consent of the holders for the treatment of the data is presumed unless they express their refusal; this scheme operates under self-regulation. The law takes the general model the principles of legality, information, purpose, loyalty and accountability. Are important principles of consent and purpose, under which managers can only make the processing of personal data if owning them give their consent for the purposes outlined in the privacy notice; the Act states that the IFAI will be the authority to monitor and verify compliance with the Personal Data Act and as procedures to process rights protection and sanction.

In addition, the law states that the Ministries may issue provisions in this field, giving special powers to the Ministry of Economy. This procedure begins with

Freedom of the City

The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary. Arising from the medieval practice of granting respected citizens freedom from serfdom, the tradition still lives on in countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand – although today the title of "freeman" confers no special privileges; the Freedom of the City can be granted by municipal authorities to military units which have earned the city's trust. This allows them the freedom to parade through the city, is an affirmation of the bond between the regiment and the citizenry; the honour was sometimes accompanied by a "freedom box", a small gold box inscribed to record the occasion. In some countries, such as the United States, esteemed residents and visitors may instead be presented with the Key to the City, a symbolic honour. Other US cities award Honorary Citizenship, with just a certificate. Freedom of the City is an ancient honour granted to martial organisations, allowing them the privilege to march into the city "with drums beating, colours flying, bayonets fixed".

This honour dates back to ancient Rome which regarded the "pomerium", the boundary of the city, as sacred. Promagistrates and generals were forbidden from entering it, resigned their imperium upon crossing it. An exception was made for victory celebrations, during which the victorious general would be permitted to enter for one day only. Under the Republic, soldiers lost their status when entering, becoming citizens: thus soldiers at their general's triumph wore civilian dress. Weapons were banned inside the pomerium for religious and traditional reasons. Similar laws were passed by other European cities throughout the Medieval era, to protect public security and civic rights against their own king's troops; as a result, soldiers would be forced to camp outside the walls of the city during the winter months. The Freedom of the City was an honour granted only to troops which had earned the trust of the local populace, either through some valiant action or by being a familiar presence. Today, martial freedom of the city is an ceremonial honour bestowed upon a unit with historic ties to the area, as a token of appreciation for their long and dedicated service.

The awarding of the Freedom is accompanied by a celebratory parade through the city. A more common freedom of the city is connected to the medieval concept of "free status", when city and town charters drew a distinction between freemen and vassals of a feudal lord; as such, freemen pre-date'boroughs'. Early freedom of the boroughs ceremonies had great importance in affirming that the recipient enjoyed privileges such as the right to trade and own property, protection within the town. In modern society, the award of honorary freedom of the city or borough tends to be ceremonial, given by the local government in many towns and cities on those who have served in some exceptional capacity, or upon any whom the city wishes to bestow an honour. Before parliamentary reform in 1832, freedom of the city or town conferred the right to vote in the'parliamentary boroughs' for the MPs; until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 the freemen were the exclusive electorate for some of the boroughs. These two acts together curtailed the power of the freemen and extended the franchise to all'householders'.

The private property belonging to the freemen collectively was retained. The freemen of York and Newcastle upon Tyne still own considerable areas within their towns, although the income is given to support charitable objects; the Local Government Act 1972 preserved freemen's rights. The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 removed any restrictions entitling only men to be freemen. Today, the grant of honorary freedom in the United Kingdom is governed by the Local Government Act 1972; the 1972 Act enabled the councils of cities, royal boroughs and parishes with the status of a royal town to confer the status of honorary freeman on "persons of distinction and persons who have, in the opinion of the council, rendered eminent services" to the local area. The 2009 Act extends the ability to grant the status of honorary freeman to any county, district, town, parish or community council. A special meeting of the council can grant the honour by passing a resolution with a two-thirds majority at a specially convened meeting.

The exact qualifications for borough freedom differ between each city or town, but fall into two categories,'patrimony' and'servitude'. For example, in Chester, only the children or grandchildren of freemen may apply for admission. In York, this extends to great- and great-great-grandchildren, apprenticeship to a freeman of the city will allow admission. In Great Grimsby, the widow of a freeman passes his rights to her second husband, who retains the privilege after either divorce from or death of the widow; the borough freedom is strongest in York, Newcastle upon Tyne and Coventry. Durham and Northampton have extended their admission criteria to those who have served an apprenticeship