The Romani, colloquially known as Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally itinerant, living in Europe and the Americas. The Romani originate from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan and Punjab regions of modern-day India. Genetic findings appear to confirm that the Romani "came from a single group that left northwestern India" in about 512 AD. Genetic research published in the European Journal of Human Genetics "revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma", they are dispersed, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe Central and Southern Europe. The Romani arrived in Mid-West Asia and Europe around 1007, they have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people: the two groups have been said to have separated from each other or, at least, to share a similar history. The ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India sometime between the 6th and 11th century; the Romani are known in English by the exonym Gypsies, considered by some Roma people to be pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity.
Beginning in 1888, the Gypsy Lore Society started to publish a journal, meant to dispel rumors about their lifestyle. Since the 19th century, some Romani have migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States. Brazil includes a notable Romani community descended from people deported by the Portuguese Empire during the Portuguese Inquisition. In migrations since the late 19th century, Romani have moved to other countries in South America and to Canada. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India; the conference ended with a recommendation to the government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora. The Romani language is divided into several dialects which together have an estimated number of speakers of more than two million; the total number of Romani people is at least twice as high.
Many Romani are native speakers of the dominant language in their country of residence or of mixed languages combining the dominant language with a dialect of Romani. French bohème, bohémien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia. French gitan, English gypsy, Spanish gitano, Catalan gitano, Italian gitano, Portuguese gitano, Turkish kıpti, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος Aigýptios "Egyptian", Hungarian fáraónépe from Greek φαραώ pharaó "pharaoh" – referring to their Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy" and derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur. English tzigane, Spanish zíngaro, cíngaro, French tzigane, Old High German zigeuner, German Zigeuner, Dutch zigeuner, Danish sigøjner, Swedish zigenare, Norwegian sigøynere Old Church Slavic ациганинъ atsyganin, Italian zingaro, Romanian țigan, Hungarian cigány, Serbo-Croatian cigan, Albanian cigan, Polish cygan, Czech cikán, Portuguese cigano, zíngaro, Turkish çigan, more çingene, Azerbaijani çıqan, Slovak cigán or cigáň, Venetian singano, Russian цыгане tsygane, Ukrainian цигани tsyhany, Bulgarian цигани tsigani, Lithuanian čigonai, Latvian čigāni, Georgian ციგანი.
Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples. Albanian Jevg, gabel, Magjup Persian Koli Azerbaijani qaraçı Arabic Nawar and Zott. Egyptian Arabic ghager Rom means husband in the Romani language, it has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit words dam-pati, lom, loman, romaça. Another possible origin is from Sanskrit डोम doma. In the Romani language, Rom is a masculine noun, meaning'man of the Roma ethnic group' or'man, husband', with the plural Roma; the feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of both genders. Romani is the feminine adjective; some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group. Sometimes and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e. rrom and rromani. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/, which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r.
The Millwall Bushwackers are the most notorious football firm associated with Millwall Football Club. The club and fans of Millwall have a historic association with football hooliganism, which came to prevalence in the 1970s and 1980s with a firm known as F-Troop becoming more known as the Millwall Bushwackers, who were one of the most notorious hooligan gangs in England. On five occasions The Den was closed by the Football Association and the club has received numerous fines for crowd disorder. Millwall's hooligans are regarded by their rivals as amongst the stiffest competition, with Manchester United hooligan Colin Blaney describing them as being within the'top four' firms in his autobiography'Undesirables' and West Ham hooligan Cass Pennant featuring them on his Top Boys TV YouTube channel, on which this fearsome reputation for cartoon violence was described; the stigma of violence attached to Millwall can be traced back over 110 years. Millwall played local rivals West Ham United away at Upton Park on 17 September 1906 in a Western League game.
Both sets of supporters were made up of dockers, who lived and worked in the same locality in east and south London. Many were rivals working for vying for the same business. A local newspaper, East Ham Echo, reported that, "From the first kick of the ball it was seen to be some trouble, but the storm burst when Dean and Jarvis came into collision; this aroused considerable excitement among the spectators. The crowds on the bank having caught the fever, free fights were plentiful." In the 1920s Millwall's ground was closed for two weeks after a Newport County goalkeeper, struck by missiles, jumped into the crowd to confront some of the home supporters and was knocked unconscious. The ground was again closed for two weeks in 1934 following crowd disturbances after the visit of Bradford. Pitch invasions resulted in another closure in 1947 and in 1950 the club was fined after a referee and linesman were ambushed outside the ground. In the 1960s, hooliganism in England became more reported. On 6 November 1965 Millwall beat west London club Brentford 2–1 away at Griffin Park and during the game a hand grenade was thrown onto the pitch from the Millwall end.
Brentford's goalkeeper Chic Brodie inspected it and threw it into his goal. It was retrieved by police and determined to be a harmless dummy. There was fighting inside and outside the ground during the game between both sets of supporters, with one Millwall fan sustaining a broken jaw; the Sun newspaper ran the sensationalist grenade-related headline "Soccer Marches to War!" Trouble was reported at Loftus Road on 26 March 1966 during a match between Queens Park Rangers and Millwall, at a time when both sides were near the top of the league table pushing for promotion to Division Two, but the London derby was won 6–1 by QPR. In the second-half, a coin was thrown from the terraces, which struck Millwall player Len Julians on the head, drawing blood; the stadium announcer warned that the game would be abandoned if there were any more disturbances from the crowd, prompting some Millwall fans to invade the pitch in an unsuccessful attempt to get the game abandoned. When Millwall's unbeaten home record of 59 games came to an end against Plymouth Argyle in 1967, the windows of the away team's coach were smashed.
In the same year, a referee was attacked and the FA ordered the club to erect fences around The Den's terracing. The BBC documentary Panorama was invited into the club by Millwall in 1977 to show the hooligan reputation was a myth and being blown out of proportion by reporting. Instead the BBC portrayed hooliganism as being rooted in Millwall, attempted to link them to the far-right political party National Front; the show was damaging for the club. On 11 March 1978 a riot broke out at The Den during an FA Cup quarter-final between Millwall and Ipswich Town, with the home team losing 6–1. Fighting spilled onto the pitch. Bobby Robson manager of Ipswich, said of Millwall fans afterward, "They should have turned the flamethrowers on them". In 1982 Millwall club chairman Alan Thorne threatened to close the club because of violence sparked by losing in the FA Cup to non-league side Slough Town; the 1985 Kenilworth Road riot, after an FA Cup sixth-round match between Luton Town and Millwall on 13 March 1985, became one of the worst and reported incidents of football hooliganism to date.
On that night 20,000 people packed into a ground that only held half that number to watch Luton beat Millwall 1–0. Numerous pitch invasions, fighting in the stands and missile-throwing occurred, of which one such object hit Luton's goalkeeper Les Sealey, it led to a ban on away supporters by Luton from their Kenilworth Road ground for four years. Luton were asked by Millwall to make the Wednesday night match all-ticket; as a result, rival hooligan firms gained access to the stadium. As well as the Millwall hooligans and those belonging to Luton's firm the MIGs, many of the 31 fans arrested after the violence were identified as being from Chelsea's Headhunters firm and West Ham United's Inter City Firm; the FA commissioned an inquiry which concluded that it was "not satisfied that Millwall F. C. took all reasonable precautions in accordance with the requirements of FA Rule 31." A £7,500 fine was levied against Millwall, though this was withdrawn on appeal. The penalty that Millwall faced was that the club's name was now "synonymous with everything, bad in football and soci
MV Baltic Ace was a Bahamian-flagged car carrier, that sank in the North Sea on 5 December 2012 after a collision with the Cyprus-registered container ship Corvus J. Built by Stocznia Gdynia in Poland, the ship had been in service since 2007. Baltic Ace was a car carrier, a roll-on/roll-off ship designed to transport vehicles in a large enclosed garage-like superstructure running the entire length and width of the vessel, she had eight cargo decks with a minimum free height of 2 metres. Two decks could be hoisted up to increase the clearance of the decks below to 4.8 metres for large vehicles. Her car capacity, measured in RT43 units, was 2,132. For loading and unloading cargo, Baltic Ace had a stern ramp for normal ro-ro berths and a stern quarter ramp for harbours with no specialized cargo handling facilities. Baltic Ace had a beam of 25 metres. Laden, she drew 7.9 metres of water and had a deadweight tonnage of 7,787 tons. Like most ships of her kind, she was propelled by a single 5.84-metre nickel-aluminum alloy fixed pitch propeller directly coupled to the main engine.
Her prime mover, a 7-cylinder MAN-B&W 7S46MC-C low-speed crosshead diesel engine, had an output of 9,710 kW at 129 rpm. In addition, she had three 7-cylinder MAN-B&W Holeby 7L23/30 auxiliary engines for onboard electricity generation, each with an output of 1,120 kW. For manoeuvering at ports, she had a 1,000 kW transverse bow thruster and another 660 kW thruster in the stern, both manufactured by ABB. Calling ports in the Baltic Sea Baltic Ace was strengthened for navigation in ice and held a Finnish-Swedish ice class 1A, she was classed by Det Norske Veritas. Baltic Ace was of a standard design offered by Stocznia Gdynia, the fifth of six small car carriers built in 2005–2007, her sister ships are Thames Highway, Danube Highway, Seine Highway and Nordic Ace. The contract for the construction of the vessel was signed on 23 December 2005 and she was laid down at Stocznia Gdynia in Poland on 26 February 2007. Launched on 3 June 2007, Baltic Ace was delivered to her owners on 11 July 2007; the vessel was under long time charter with Euro Marine Logistics, on a regular loop service calling Europe north continent and Baltic ports.
On 5 December 2012, Baltic Ace collided with the Cyprus-registered container ship Corvus J in the North Sea while underway from Zeebrugge, Belgium, to Kotka, Finland with a cargo of about 1,400 Mitsubishi cars headed to the Russian market. The incident took place some 40–50 kilometres off the Dutch coast south of Rotterdam on one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world at 18:15 GMT. According to a representative of the shipping company, the cause of the accident was a human error. After the collision, Baltic Ace began taking on water and sank within 15 minutes in shallow waters. According to the ship's manager, Corvus J hit Baltic Ace on the side, where void tanks forming a double side are only 1.3 metres wide flooding the cargo decks. Corvus J was damaged and her bulbous bow was bent, but she was not in danger of sinking and participated in the search for survivors; the weather conditions, three-metre waves and snow, made the rescue operation difficult. As the search for survivors resumed on the following day, five members of the 24-person crew had been confirmed dead and six were still missing.
Thirteen crew members, including the ship's Polish captain, were winched to safety from liferafts by helicopters or picked up by nearby ships. According to Netherlands Coast Guard, the chance of finding more survivors was "virtually zero" and the search for the missing crew members, who might have been trapped inside the wreck, was called off on the day following the accident; the number of casualties was at last confirmed. After the sinking, a number of news reports featured a photograph of a sunken vessel incorrectly identified as Baltic Ace; the similarly-coloured wreck, visible through the surface in shallow water, was in fact Asia Malaysia, a Philippine ferry that sank in 2011. Resting at a depth of only 35 metres in the busy shipping lanes near the port of Rotterdam, with 540,000 litres of fuel oil remaining inside the hull, the wreck of the Baltic Ace was both a danger to shipping and an environmental hazard. In March 2014, Rijkswaterstaat awarded contract for the complete removal of the sunken car carrier to the Dutch company Royal Boskalis Westminster and its partner Mammoet.
Once all remaining oil had been removed from the wreck, the vessel was cut into 8 separate pieces using a cutting wire and raised from the seabed. The same method was used in the salvage of MV Tricolor, a car carrier that sank in the English Channel in 2002, to remove the bow of the Russian submarine Kursk before the rest of the hull was raised; the recovery of the wreck was completed in September 2015. Tricolor, car carrier that sank in December 2002 List of roll-on/roll-off vessel accidents