Romantic nationalism

Romantic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs. This includes, depending on the particular manner of practice, the language, ethnicity, culture and customs of the nation in its primal sense of those who were born within its culture; this form of nationalism arose in reaction to dynastic or imperial hegemony, which assessed the legitimacy of the state from the top down, emanating from a monarch or other authority, which justified its existence. Such downward-radiating power might derive from a god or gods. Among the key themes of Romanticism, its most enduring legacy, the cultural assertions of romantic nationalism have been central in post-Enlightenment art and political philosophy. From its earliest stirrings, with their focus on the development of national languages and folklore, the spiritual value of local customs and traditions, to the movements that would redraw the map of Europe and lead to calls for self-determination of nationalities, nationalism was one of the key issues in Romanticism, determining its roles and meanings.

Romantic nationalism, resulting from this interaction between cultural production and political thought, became "the celebration of the nation as an inspiring ideal for artistic expression. In Europe, the watershed year for romantic nationalism was 1848, when a revolutionary wave spread across the continent. While the revolutions fell to reactionary forces and the old order was re-established, the many revolutions would mark the first step towards liberalization and the formation of modern nation states across much of Europe; the ideas of Rousseau and of Johann Gottfried von Herder inspired much early Romantic nationalism in Europe. Herder argued nationality was the product of climate, geography'but more languages and characters,' rather than genetics. From its beginnings in the late 18th century, romantic nationalism has relied upon the existence of a historical ethnic culture which meets the romantic ideal; the Brothers Grimm, inspired by Herder's writings, put together an idealized collection of tales, which they labeled as authentically German.

The concept of an inherited cultural patrimony from a common origin became central to a divisive question within romantic nationalism: is a nation unified because it comes from the same genetic source, because of race, or is the participation in the organic nature of the "folk" culture self-fulfilling? Romantic nationalism formed a key strand in the philosophy of Hegel, who argued that there was a "spirit of the age" or zeitgeist that inhabited a particular people at a particular time, that, when that people became the active determiner of history, it was because their cultural and political moment had come; because of the Germans' role in the Protestant Reformation, Hegel argued that his historical moment had seen the Zeitgeist settle on the German-speaking peoples. In continental Europe, Romantics had embraced the French Revolution in its beginnings found themselves fighting the counter-Revolution in the trans-national Imperial system of Napoleon; the sense of self-determination and national consciousness that had enabled revolutionary forces to defeat aristocratic regimes in battle became rallying points for resistance against the French Empire.

In Prussia, the development of spiritual renewal as a means to engage in the struggle against Napoleon was argued by, among others, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, a disciple of Kant. The word Volkstum, or "folkhood", was coined in Germany as part of this resistance to French hegemony. Fichte expressed the unity of language and nation in his thirteenth address "To the German Nation" in 1806: The first and natural boundaries of states are beyond doubt their internal boundaries; those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long before any human art begins. Only when each people, left to itself and forms itself in accordance with its own peculiar quality, only when in every people each individual develops himself in accordance with that common quality, as well as in accordance with his own peculiar quality-then, only, does the manifestation of divinity appear in its true mirror as it ought to be. In the Balkans, Romantic views of a connection with classical Greece, which inspired Philhellenism infused the Greek War of Independence, in which the Romantic poet Lord Byron died of high fever.

Rossini's opera William Tell marked the onset of the Romantic Opera, using the central national myth unifying Switzerland.

Põhja-Kõrvemaa Nature Reserve

Põhja-Kõrvemaa Nature Reserve is a protected area in Harju County, Northern Estonia, some 50 km east of Tallinn. With an area of 130.9 km2, it is the third largest nature reserve in Estonia. Dominated by forests and bogs, it aims to protect rare and endangered species, their habitats, valuable natural landscapes. Põhja-Kõrvemaa occupies the northern part of Kõrvemaa, which itself forms the northern part of Transitional Estonia, a large forested and sparsely populated area spanning in northeast-southwest direction through Estonia, from Lahemaa through Soomaa to Latvia. Põhja-Kõrvemaa Nature Reserve was established in the end of 1991, a few months after Estonia regained its independence. Throughout the Soviet Era a large part of the nature reserve's current territory was used by Soviet Army for military training and as such was closed to the public; the proving grounds were established in 1947 and in 1953 expanded to 33 304 ha, making it the biggest Soviet military polygon in Estonia. Still, the Soviet Army damaged only about 10% of the proving grounds' territory, leaving the rest intact.

Due to unsuitability for agriculture the whole region has always been sparsely populated – in the beginning of the 1950s the population density was around 1 people per km2 – but still a few hundred people were displaced together with the creation of proving ground. Põhja-Kõrvemaa nature reserve was formed in the western part of the former Aegviidu polygon, hidden behind the official name of Pavlov Forest District. In the 1990s, Estonian Defence Forces were interested to begin reusing some areas of the former polygon now situated on the nature reserve's territory. However, due to strong opposition by local people and conservationists, the idea was given up. In 2001, Estonian Defence Forces central proving ground was established in the eastern part of the former Soviet military polygon; the Valgejõgi River is the natural divide between the nature reserve. From 1997 to 2007 the nature reserves official status was landscape protection area. In 2007 it was expanded from 12,890 to 13,086 hectares and official status changed back to nature reserve.

Since 2004 it is part of the European Union Natura 2000 network. The landscape in Põhja-Kõrvemaa took shape in the end of the last Ice Age, when the glacier retreated about 12,000 years ago and is as such a typical glacial landscape, it is characterized by ice marginal formations and glaciolacustrine plains, the latter of which are now covered by extensive bogs and, to a much lesser extent, fens. Forests cover about 40% of the nature reserve's territory and man-made open areas only 10%; the region is richest in Estonia in ice marginal formations. The most remarkable relief forms of the region are eskers, which form steep-sided ridges of complex relief that extend to a number of kilometers and are up to 25 m high. Along with eskers there are several kame fields — areas covered with hillocks consisting of sand and gravel. Jussi kame field is the best known in Põhja-Kõrvemaa. There are more than 30 lakes in Põhja-Kõrvemaa. Most of the lakes are small, situated either between kames. Jussi Lakes is a group of 6 lakes situated in the eastern part of the Jussi kame field.

In addition to the lakes, the three biggest bogs, which cover about half of the territory, have developed extensive ridges of small bog ponds, which can be counted in hundreds. A number of rare or endangered species can be found in Põhja-Kõrvemaa, one of the main reasons behind the area's status as a nature reserve, it is home to large predators such as Eurasian lynx and brown bear. Small populations of European mink endured until the beginning of the 1990s, but are now disappeared, as in most of Estonia. Protected bird species include black stork, golden eagle and common crane. Nineteen species of orchids can be found in Põhja-Kõrvemaa, among other rare plants growing in the area are Pulsatilla patens, Sparganium angustifolium, Isoetes echinospora and Oxytropis sordida. Põhja-Kõrvemaa is one of the most visited protected areas in Estonia due to the closeness of Tallinn and general good accessibility - in the north the nature reserve is bordered by the Tallinn-Narva highway and in the west by Jägala-Aegviidu-Käravete secondary road.

The nature reserve itself has a considerable amount of gravel and dirt roads. Aegviidu, located less than 5 km southwest from the nature reserve and is the end point of Elron commuter railway line, can be reached in an hour from the center of Tallinn. There are several hiking trails, the longest being the 36 km long Liiapeksi-Aegviidu trail, which crosses the nature reserve from north to south, continues to the north in Lahemaa National Park, separated from Põhja-Kõrvemaa by Tallinn-Narva highway. Shorter nature and hiking trails and half a dozen campsites are available, all managed by the State forest management centre. Despite the hiking facilities created in recent years and mushroom picking are still the most popular activities among the visitors. At summer weekends, up to 700 people visit Põhja-Kõrvemaa daily. Nature tours in Põhja-Kõrvemaa Aviators Boulder in Põhja-Kõrvemaa

Aiyara cluster

An Aiyara cluster is a low-powered computer cluster specially designed to process Big Data. The Aiyara cluster model can be considered as a specialization of the Beowulf cluster in the sense that Aiyara is built from commodity hardware, not inexpensive personal computers, but system-on-chip computer boards. Unlike Beowulf, applications of an Aiyara cluster are scoped only for the Big Data area, not for scientific high-performance computing. Another important property of an Aiyara cluster is, it must be built with a class of processing units. The name Aiyara referred to the first ARM-based cluster built by Wichai Srisuruk and Chanwit Kaewkasi at Suranaree University of Technology; the name "Aiyara" came from a Thai word an elephant to reflect its underneath software stack, Apache Hadoop. Like Beowulf, an Aiyara cluster does not define a particular software stack to run atop it. A cluster runs a variant of the Linux operating system. Used Big Data software stacks are Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark.

A report of the Aiyara hardware which processed a non-trivial amount of Big Data was published in the Proceedings of ICSEC 2014. Aiyara Mk-I, the second Aiyara cluster, consists of 22 Cubieboards, it is the first known SoC-based ARM cluster, able to process Big Data using the Spark and HDFS stack. The Aiyara cluster model, a technical description explaining how to build an Aiyara cluster, was published by Chanwit Kaewkasi in the DZone's 2014 Big Data Guide; the further results and cluster optimization techniques, that make the cluster's processing rate boost to 0.9 GB/min while still preserve low-power consumption, were reported in the Proceeding of IEEE's TENCON 2014. The whole architecture of software stack, including the runtime, data integrity verification and data compression, is studied and improved; the work reported in this paper achieved the processing rate at 0.9 GB/min processed the same benchmarks from the previous work by 38 minutes. Beowulf cluster Apache Hadoop Apache Spark