New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Portland Aerial Tram
The Portland Aerial Tram or OHSU Tram is an aerial tramway in Portland, carrying commuters between the city's South Waterfront district and the main Oregon Health & Science University campus, located in the Marquam Hill neighborhood. It is one of only two commuter aerial tramways in the United States, the other being New York City's Roosevelt Island Tramway; the tram travels a horizontal distance of 3,300 feet and a vertical distance of 500 feet in a ride that lasts three minutes. The tram was jointly funded by OHSU, the City of Portland, by South Waterfront property owners, with most of the funding coming from OHSU, it is owned by the city and operated by OHSU. While most passengers are affiliated with OHSU, it is open to the public and operated as part of Portland's public transportation network that includes the Portland Streetcar, MAX Light Rail, TriMet buses. After opening in December 2006, the tram carried its one millionth passenger on October 17, 2007 and its ten millionth rider on January 8, 2014.
A round-trip ticket is free for OHSU patients and certain visitors. The tram cost $57 million to build—a nearly fourfold increase over initial cost estimates, one of several sources of controversy concerning the project; the tram consists of a single intermediate tower. Two tram cars operate in a pendular mode on parallel track ropes and are pulled in unison by a haul rope, driven by an engine at the lower terminal; the lower station is located beside an OHSU facility in the South Waterfront neighborhood, adjacent to a stop on the Portland Streetcar line, which connects the South Waterfront neighborhood with downtown Portland. The upper station is located adjacent on the university's Marquam Hill campus; the two stations are east and west of each other separated by a horizontal distance of 3,300 feet and a vertical distance of 500 feet. The maximum vertical clearance between the tram and the ground is 175 feet; the tram route crosses over Interstate 5 as well as major thoroughfares such as Barbur Boulevard, Oregon Route 10, Oregon Route 43.
The intermediate tower is located east of Interstate 5 close to the South Waterfront station. As a result of this configuration, much of the journey is elevated above the ground, making the tram visible for some distance, providing tram riders with good views of the eastern metropolitan area and the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington; the alternative to riding the tram is via public roadways which require a 1.9-mile route with numerous stoplights and intersections. This route includes a short stretch of busy U. S. Route 26, as well as twisty Sam Jackson Park Road which ascends the side of the Tualatin Mountains to the hospital campus; the lower station houses the tram's engines in a reinforced concrete basement and has ticketing facilities and the control room. The upper station is a freestanding steel and concrete tower 140 feet above grade and houses the tram's counterweight, it is structurally separate from nearby OHSU Hospital and connects to the hospital's ninth floor via a skybridge over SW Campus Drive, which winds through the middle of the University.
Structural separation between the tram and the hospital is necessary to avoid vibrations from tram machinery interfering with delicate microsurgery performed in the hospital. The 197-foot intermediate tower allows the tram to gain elevation once leaving the lower station to provide adequate clearance over Interstate 5; the tower is 22 feet wide and 20 feet long at its base, 8 by 8 feet at its narrowest point—nearly two-thirds up the tower—and 32 by 8 feet at the top. It rests on a pier cap 5 feet thick supported by 35 piers; the tower was fabricated in nearby Vancouver and barged in three pieces up the Willamette River. Nearly 1,250 short tons of steel and 450 short tons of concrete are in the two platforms and the intermediate tower; each tram car travels on a pair of 2-inch steel track ropes. The track ropes combined are tensioned at over one million pounds-force. A fifth cable—the haul rope—is a continuous loop which winds around the drive bullwheel at the lower station, connects to one car, winds through a counterweighted bullwheel at the upper station to the other car, before joining itself.
The haul rope length is over 7,000 feet. The tram cars each weigh 12 short tons, with cabin dimensions of 25 by 11 feet; each car has a capacity of over 13 short tons and there is sufficient room in the cabin for 78 passengers and one operator. The tram cars were built by Gangloff AG, of Bern in Switzerland, were shaped and painted to look like the architectural firm's vision of "bubbles floating through the sky"; the surface of the cabins reflects and refracts light, minimizing their visual impact to the neighborhood underneath. The north and south cars are named Jean and Walt after Jean Richardson, the first female engineering graduate from Oregon State University, Walt Reynolds, the first African-American to graduate from OHSU known as the University of Oregon Medical School; the tram is prop
The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end, it separates the borough of Queens on Long Island from the Bronx on the North American mainland, divides Manhattan from Queens and Brooklyn, which are on Long Island. Because of its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once known as the Sound River; the tidal strait changes its direction of flow and is subject to strong fluctuations in its current, which are accentuated by its narrowness and variety of depths. The waterway is navigable for its entire length of 16 miles, was the center of maritime activities in the city, although, no longer the case. Technically a drowned valley, like the other waterways around New York City, the strait was formed 11,000 years ago at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation; the distinct change in the shape of the strait between the lower and upper portions is evidence of this glacial activity.
The upper portion, running perpendicular to the glacial motion, is wide and has deep narrow bays on both banks, scoured out by the glacier's movement. The lower portion runs north-south, parallel to the glacial motion, it is much narrower, with straight banks. The bays that exist, as well as those that used to exist before being filled in by human activity, are wide and shallow; the section known as "Hell Gate" – from the Dutch name Hellegat or "passage to hell" given to the entire river in 1614 by explorer Adriaen Block when he passed through it in his ship Tyger – is a narrow and treacherous stretch of the river. Tides from the Long Island Sound, New York Harbor and the Harlem River meet there, making it difficult to navigate because of the number of rocky islets which once dotted it, with names such as "Frying Pan", "Pot and Cheese", "Hen and Chicken", "Nigger Head", "Heel Top"; the stretch widened. Washington Irving wrote of Hell Gate that the current sounded "like a bull bellowing for more drink" at half tide, whilte at full tide it slept "as soundly as an alderman after dinner."
He said it was like "a peaceable fellow enough when he has no liquor at all, or when he has a skinful, but who, when half-seas over, plays the devil." The tidal regime is complex, with the two major tides – from the Long Island Sound and from the Atlantic Ocean – separated by about two hours. The river is navigable for its entire length of 16 miles. In 1939 it was reported that the stretch from The Battery to the former Brooklyn Navy Yard near Wallabout Bay, a run of about 1,000 yards, was 40 feet deep, the long section from there, running to the west of Roosevelt Island, through Hell Gate and to Throg's Neck was at least 35 feet deep, eastward from there the river was, at mean low tide, 168 feet deep; the broadness of the river's channel south of Roosevelt Island is caused by the dipping of the hardy Fordham gneiss which underlies the island under the less strong Inwood marble which lies under the river bed. Why the river turns to the east as it approaches the three lower Manhattan bridges is geologically unknown.
In the stretch of the river between Manhattan Island and the borough of Queens, lies Roosevelt Island, a narrow 2-mile long island consisting of 147 acres. Politically part of Manhattan, it begins at around the level of East 46th Street of that borough and runs up to around East 86th Street. Called Blackwell's Island and Welfare Island, now named after President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, it was the site of a penitentiary, a number of hospitals, but now consists of apartment buildings, park land, the ruins of older buildings, it is connected to Queens by the Roosevelt Island Bridge, to Manhattan by the Roosevelt Island Tramway, to both by a subway station. The Queensboro Bridge runs across Roosevelt Island, but no longer has a passenger elevator connection to it, as it did in the past; the abrupt termination of the island on its north end is due to an extension of the 125th Street Fault. Other islands in the river are U Thant Island – Belmont Island – south of Roosevelt Island, named after U Thant, the former Secretary-General of the United Nations.
The Bronx River drains into the East River in the northern section of the strait, the Flushing River known as "Flushing Creek" empties into it near LaGuardia Airport via Flushing Bay. North of Randalls Island, it is joined by the Bronx Kill. Along the east of Wards Island, at the strait's midpoint, it narrows into a channel called Hell Gate, spanned by both the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge (formerly the Triborough
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
M (New York City Subway service)
The M Queens Boulevard/Sixth Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored orange since it uses the IND Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan; the M operates at all times. Weekday service operates between 71st Avenue in Forest Hills and Metropolitan Avenue in Middle Village, via the IND Queens Boulevard Line and Sixth Avenue, the Williamsburg Bridge, the BMT Jamaica and Myrtle Avenue lines; this makes the M the only service that travels through the same borough via two different, unconnected lines. The M short turns at Essex Street in the Lower East Side of Manhattan on weekends, at Myrtle Avenue–Broadway in Brooklyn during nights; the M is the only non-shuttle service. Though the full route length between 71st Avenue and Metropolitan Avenue is about 18.2 miles, the stations are geographically located 2.47 miles apart, marking this as the shortest geographic distance between termini for any New York City Subway service, not a shuttle service.
An MJ service ran the entire BMT Myrtle Avenue Line until 1969, when the section west of Broadway in Brooklyn was demolished. Before 2010, the full-length M ran from Middle Village to southern Brooklyn via the BMT Nassau Street Line and Montague Street Tunnel; the M had run on the BMT Brighton Line to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue until 1987. Afterward, it used the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, BMT West End Line in Brooklyn, terminating at Ninth Avenue or Bay Parkway. From July 2017 to April 2018, the full-length M terminated at Broadway Junction in Brooklyn, instead of Metropolitan Avenue due to construction on the Myrtle Avenue Line; until 1914, the only service on the Myrtle Avenue Line east of Grand Avenue was a local service between Park Row and Middle Village. The Myrtle Viaduct, a two-track ramp connecting the Myrtle Avenue Line with the BMT Broadway Elevated Line at the Myrtle Avenue–Broadway station was opened on July 29, 1914, allowing for a second service, the daytime Myrtle Avenue–Chambers Street Line.
These trains ran over the Williamsburg Bridge to Chambers Street station on the BMT Nassau Street Line in Lower Manhattan, ran over the express tracks on the Broadway Elevated during weekday and Saturday rush hours. The number 10 was assigned to the service in 1924. Sunday service was removed in June 1933. All Saturday trains began running local on June 28, 1952, on June 28, 1958, all Saturday and midday service was cut, leaving only weekday rush hour service, express in the peak direction. Marcy Avenue was a local stop, but beginning on February 23, 1960 all trains stopped there. M was assigned to the service in the early 1960s, with a single letter because it was an express service. Since the new cars using letter designations were not yet running on the Myrtle–Chambers service, it remained signed as 10; the line was designated "M" after the Chrystie Street changeover on November 27, 1967, but did not appear on the trains until the transition to rolling stock equipped with appropriate roll signs.
The second half of the Chrystie Street Connection opened on July 1, 1968, the JJ, which had run along Nassau Street to Broad Street, was relocated through the new connection to the IND Sixth Avenue Line. To augment QJ service to Broad Street, the M was extended two stations, from Chambers Street to Broad Street. Beginning Monday, October 6, 1969, to make up for the discontinuation of the MJ due to the closing of the Myrtle Avenue El south of Myrtle Avenue to Jay Street, the M was expanded to run middays and a new SS shuttle ran between Myrtle Avenue-Broadway and Metropolitan Avenue at other times. Effective January 2, 1973, the daytime QJ was truncated to Broad Street as the J, the M was extended beyond Broad Street during the day along the QJ's former route to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue, via the Montague Street Tunnel and Brighton Line local tracks. By this time, the off-hour SS shuttle had been renamed as part of the M; the local K was eliminated on August 27, 1976, the M express service between Myrtle Avenue and Marcy Avenue ended in order to provide adequate service in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.
Reconstruction of the Brighton Line began on April 26, 1986, the weekday daytime M was shifted to the Fourth Avenue Line's express tracks south of DeKalb Avenue and the BMT West End Line terminating at Ninth Avenue during middays, with an extension to Bay Parkway during rush hours. This service duplicated a pattern that had last been operated as the TT until late 1967. M service along Fourth Avenue was switched to the local tracks on May 31, 1994, switching with the N, which had run local since the M was moved in 1987; the midday M was temporarily truncated to Chambers Street on April 30, 1995 from Ninth Avenue in Brooklyn due to the closure of the Manhattan Bridge during weekday middays for structural repairs. The change was made permanent on November 12, 1995, after the six-month repair project was completed. From April 1997 to August 1997, during late nights and weekends, the M terminated at Essex Street due to reconstruction of Myrtle Avenue. From May 1 to September 1, 1999, the Williamsburg Bridge subway tracks were closed for reconstruction, splitting M service in two sections.
One service ran at all times between Middle Village–Metropoli
Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Metropolitan Transportation Authority is a public benefit corporation responsible for public transportation in the U. S. state of New York, serving 12 counties in Downstate New York, along with two counties in southwestern Connecticut under contract to the Connecticut Department of Transportation, carrying over 11 million passengers on an average weekday systemwide, over 850,000 vehicles on its seven toll bridges and two tunnels per weekday. MTA is the largest public transit authority in the United States. In February 1965, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller suggested that the New York State Legislature create an authority to purchase and modernize the Long Island Rail Road; the LIRR a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad, had been operating under bankruptcy protection since 1949. The proposed authority would have the power to make contracts or arrangements with other commuter-railroad operators in the New York City area. On May 21, 1965, the legislature chartered the Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Authority to take over the operations of the LIRR.
Governor Rockefeller appointed his top aide, Dr. William J. Ronan, as chairman and chief executive officer of the MCTA. In June 1965, the state finalized an agreement to buy the LIRR from the PRR for $65 million; the MCTA made a down payment of $10 million for the LIRR in December 1965, it had completed the rest of the payment by the next month. In February 1965, Rockefeller and Connecticut Governor John N. Dempsey jointly suggested that operations of the New Haven Line, the New Haven Railroad's struggling commuter rail operation, be transferred to the New York Central Railroad as part of a plan to prevent the New Haven Railroad from going bankrupt. If the operational merger occurred, the proposed MCTA and the existing Connecticut Transportation Authority would contract with New York Central to operate the New Haven Line to Grand Central Terminal. A joint report from both agencies, released in September of that year, recommended that the line be leased to New York Central for 99 years, with the MCTA and CTA acting as agents for both states.
In October, the MCTA found that the New Haven Line's stations and infrastructure were more decrepit than those of the LIRR. The New Haven Railroad's trustees opposed New York Central's takeover of the New Haven Line, as they felt that the $140 million offer for the New Haven Line was too low. After some discussion, the trustees decided to continue operating the New Haven Line, but only until June 1967. In January 1966, New York City Mayor John Lindsay proposed merging the New York City Transit Authority, which operated buses and subways in New York City, the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, which operated toll bridges and tunnels within the city. Rockefeller offered his "complete support" for Lindsay's proposed unified transit agency, while longtime city planner and TBTA chair Robert Moses called the proposed merger "absurd" and "grotesque" for its unwieldiness. In June 1966, Rockefeller announced his plans to expand the MCTA's scope to create a new regional transit authority; the new authority would encompass the existing MCTA, as well as the NYCTA and TBTA.
Lindsay disagreed, saying that the state and city should have operationally separate transit authorities that worked in tandem. On May 3, 1967, Rockefeller signed a bill that allowed the MCTA to oversee the mass transit policies of New York City-area transit systems; the unification agreement would take place the following March, upon which the MCTA would take over the operations of the LIRR, NYCTA, TBTA, New Haven commuter services, New York Central commuter services, the Staten Island Railway. The TBTA was resistant to the MCTA's efforts to acquire it. Moses was afraid that the enlarged MCTA would "undermine, destroy or tarnish" the integrity of the TBTA, One source of contention was Rockefeller's proposal to use TBTA tolls in order to subsidize the cheap fares of the NYCTA, since Moses opposed any use of TBTA tolls for use by outside agencies. In February 1968, Moses acquiesced to the MCTA's merger proposal. New York Central and the PRR merged in February 1968, forming the Penn Central Transportation Company.
On February 29, 1968, the MCTA published a 56-page report for Governor Rockefeller, in it, proposed several subway and railroad improvements under the name "Metropolitan Transportation, a Program for Action". The city had intended to build subway extensions in all four boroughs so that most riders would need at most one transfer to get to their destination; the Program for Action called for upgrades to the Penn Central railroads as well as to area airports. The Program for Action was put forward with other development and transportation plans under the administration of Mayor Lindsay; this included Lindsay's Linear City plan for housing and educational facilities, the projected construction of several Interstate Highways, many of which were proposed by Robert Moses. On March 1, 1968, the day after the release of the Program for Action, the MCTA dropped the word "Commuter" from its name and became the Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the MTA took over the operations of the other New York City-area transit systems.
Moses was let go from his job as chairman of the TBTA. The construction of two proposed bridges over the Long Island Sound was put under the jurisdiction of the MTA. Moses stated that TBTA construction projects would reduce the MTA's budget surplus through 1970. Chairman Ronan pushed for the MTA to pursue the Program for Action, saying, "We're making up for 30 years of do-nothingism". Ronan proposed that the MTA take over the Staten Island Railway fr
4 (New York City Subway service)
The 4 Lexington Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored forest green since it uses the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan; the 4 operates at all times. Daytime service operates between Woodlawn in the Bronx and Utica Avenue in Crown Heights, making local stops in the Bronx and express stops in Manhattan and Brooklyn. During rush hours in the peak direction, 4 trains skip 138th Street–Grand Concourse. Late night service makes local stops along its entire route; until 1983, rush hour 4 trains originated and terminated at Flatbush Avenue–Brooklyn College in Brooklyn. During the extension of the IRT Lexington Avenue Line north of 42nd Street–Grand Central Terminal, shuttle elevated trains served the IRT Jerome Avenue Line starting June 2, 1917. On April 15, 1918, shuttles were extended to Woodlawn. A second shuttle, using subway cars, from 149th Street–Grand Concourse to Grand Central started on July 17, 1918.
On August 1, 1918, the entire Jerome and Lexington Avenue Lines were completed and the connection to the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line at 42nd Street was removed. Trains began running between Bowling Green. On December 11, 1921, Lexington Avenue–Jerome Avenue subway trains began running north of 167th Street at all times, replacing elevated trains, which ran to Woodlawn during rush hours, but from on terminated at 167th Street during non-rush hours. Beginning on November 4, 1925, rush hour 4 trains were extended from Atlantic Avenue to Crown Heights–Utica Avenue. Two years on December 5, 1927, weekday evening service was extended to Utica Avenue; the following year, midday 4 service went to Utica Avenue. As of 1934, 4 trains ran from Woodlawn to Utica Avenue weekday rush and Saturday morning peak and afternoon, to Atlantic Avenue weekday midday, Saturday morning after the peak, late nights, to South Ferry evenings and Sundays. Trains ran express in Manhattan except late nights, in Brooklyn; this was the first time the 6 became the Pelham Shuttle between Pelham Bay Park and 125th Street–Lexington Avenue.
On August 20, 1938, Saturday morning after the peak service was extended to Utica Avenue. Beginning on May 10, 1946, all 4 trains were made express during late nights running on 12 minute headways as the 6 went back to Brooklyn Bridge during that time. 4 trains ran local from 12:30 to 5:30am. At this time 4 trains terminated at Atlantic Avenue. Beginning on December 16, 1946, trains were extended from Atlantic Avenue to New Lots Avenue during late nights, running express between Atlantic and Franklin Avenues; the New York City Board of Transportation, predecessor to the New York City Transit Authority, began to introduce replacements to older subway cars beginning with the R12 cars in 1948. With these cars, numbers were publicly designated to the former IRT lines. Lexington–Jerome trains were assigned the number 4. By 1964, all cars had the route numbers on them. During 1950, Saturday morning service was cut back to South Ferry. Starting on December 15, 1950, four 4 trains began operating during rush hours to Flatbush Avenue on the Nostrand Avenue Line.
On that day, weekday midday service was cut back from Atlantic Avenue to South Ferry. Additionally, on January 18, 1952, 4 service to Atlantic Avenue during weekday middays was restored. On March 19, 1954, late-night service in Brooklyn began making all stops, but resumed operating express between Atlantic Avenue and Franklin Avenue on June 29, 1956. On May 3, 1957, the weekday rush trains to Flatbush Avenue were discontinued, while at the same time evening and Sunday afternoon trains were extended to Utica Avenue, while Sunday morning trains were extended to Atlantic Avenue. Starting on March 1, 1960, late-night 4 trains resumed making all stops in Manhattan; this arrangement ended on October 1965, when the 4 went back express in Manhattan late nights. Beginning on April 8, 1960, nearly all AM rush hour 4 trains ran to Flatbush Avenue, PM rush hour 4 trains alternated between Flatbush and Utica Avenues. During weekday evenings and late nights 4 trains went to Flatbush Avenue, making all stops in Brooklyn.
As a result of the opening of the main portion of the Chrystie Street Connection along the Manhattan Bridge on November 26, 1967, the 4 train was color coded magenta under the first color scheme. The color coding of lines was introduced as a matter of having a universal system of signage and nomenclature. By 1972, the 4 began to skip 138th Street weekdays during rush hours in the peak direction which it continues to do. At that time, the 4 went to Atlantic Avenue at all times, but was extended to Utica Avenue rush hours running express in Brooklyn along Eastern Parkway. Select 4 trains ran to Flatbush Avenue rush hours as well running express between Atlantic and Franklin Avenues, late night service was still all stops in Brooklyn to Flatbush Avenue. On May 23, 1976, Sunday morning trains were extended to Utica Avenue, express in Brooklyn. Beginning on January 13, 1980, all 4 trains resumed operating local in Manhattan during late night hours to replace the 6, which again became the Pelham Shuttle between 125th Street and Pelham Bay Park.
This service cut affected 15,000 riders, was criticized by Manhattan Borough President Andrew Stein as no public hearing was held. While late night 6 service to Brooklyn Bridge was restored on October 3, 1999, the 4 continues to run local at those times. Starting