Alchemilla is a genus of herbaceous perennial plants in the family Rosaceae, with the common name "lady's mantle" applied generically as well as to Alchemilla mollis when referred to as garden plant, the plant used as herbal tea or for medicinal usage such as gynaecological disorders is Alchemilla xanthochlora or in Middle Europe the so-called common lady's mantle Alchemilla vulgaris. There are about 300 species, the majority native to cool temperate and subarctic regions of Europe and Asia, with a few species native to the mountains of Africa and the Americas. Most species of Alchemilla are clump-forming or mounded, perennials with basal leaves arising from woody rhizomes; some species have leaves with lobes that radiate from a common point and others have divided leaves—both are fan-shaped with small teeth at the tips. The long-stalked, gray-green to green leaves are covered with soft hairs, show a high degree of water-resistance. Green to bright chartreuse flowers are small, have no petals and appear in clusters above the foliage in late spring and summer.
Alchemilla abyssinica Fresen. Alchemilla alpina L. — alpine lady's mantle Alchemilla argyrophylla Oliv. Alchemilla barbatiflora Juzepczuk Alchemilla bursensis Pawł. Alchemilla conjuncta Bab. Alchemilla diademata Rothm. — diadem lady's mantle Alchemilla ellenbeckii Engl. Alchemilla erythropoda — dwarf lady's mantle Alchemilla filicaulis Buser — thinstem lady's mantle Alchemilla glabra Neygenf. — smooth lady's mantle Alchemilla glaucescens Wallr. — waxy lady's mantle Alchemilla glomerulans Buser — clustered lady's mantle Alchemilla gracilis Engl. Alchemilla hungarica Soó Alchemilla japonica Nakai & H. Hara Alchemilla jaroschenkoi Grossh. — holotrichous lady's mantle Alchemilla johnstonii Oliv. Alchemilla lapeyrousii Buser — Lapeyrous' lady's mantle Alchemilla mollis Rothm. Alchemilla monticola Opiz — hairy lady's mantle Alchemilla orbiculata Ruiz & Pav. Alchemilla sericata Rchb. Alchemilla splendens Christ ex Favrat Alchemilla stricta Rothm. Alchemilla subcrenata Buser — broadtooth lady's mantle Alchemilla stuhlmanii Alchemilla subcrenata Alchemilla subnivalis Baker f.
Alchemilla triphylla Rothm. Alchemilla venosa Buser — boreal lady's mantle Alchemilla vestita Alchemilla vulgaris L. Alchemilla wichurae Stefanss. — grassland lady's mantle Alchemilla xanthochlora Rothm. Media related to Alchemilla at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Alchemilla at Wikispecies "Alchemilla L." Atlas of Living Australia
Crataegus called hawthorn, thornapple, May-tree, whitethorn, or hawberry, is a genus of several hundred species of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe and North America. The name "hawthorn" was applied to the species native to northern Europe the common hawthorn C. monogyna, the unmodified name is so used in Britain and Ireland. The name is now applied to the entire genus and to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis; the generic epithet, Crataegus, is derived from the Greek kratos "strength" because of the great strength of the wood and akis "sharp", referring to the thorns of some species. The name haw an Old English term for hedge applies to the fruit. Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees growing to 5–15 m tall, with small pome fruit and thorny branches; the most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, are 1–3 cm long.
The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species are somewhat variable in shape; the fruit, sometimes known as a "haw", is berry-like but structurally a pome containing from one to five pyrenes that resemble the "stones" of plums, etc. which are drupaceous fruit in the same subfamily. Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Hawthorns are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species, such as the small eggar moth, E. lanestris. Haws are important for wildlife in winter thrushes and waxwings; the "haws" or fruits of the common hawthorn, C. monogyna, are edible, but the flavor has been compared to over-ripe apples. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make a homemade wine; the leaves are edible, if picked in spring when still young, are tender enough to be used in salads. The young leaves and flower buds, which are edible, are known as "bread and cheese" in rural England.
In the southern United States, fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are made into jellies which are considered a delicacy. The Kutenai people of northwestern North America used black hawthorn fruit for food. On Manitoulin Island, some red-fruited species are called hawberries. During the pioneer days, white settlers ate these fruits during the winter as the only remaining food supply. People born on the island are now called "haweaters"; the fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter. They are stuffed in the piñatas broken during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas, they are cooked with other fruits to prepare a Christmas punch. The mixture of tejocote paste and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, manufactured by several brands; the fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida are tart, bright red, resemble small crabapple fruits. They are used to make many kinds of Chinese snacks, including haw tanghulu.
The fruits, which are called 山楂 shān zhā in Chinese, are used to produce jams, juices, alcoholic beverages, other drinks. In South Korea, a liquor called. In Iran, the fruits of Crataegus are known as zâlzâlak and eaten raw as a snack, or made into a jam known by the same name. A 2008 Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis of previous studies concluded that evidence exists of "a significant benefit in symptom control and physiologic outcomes" for an extract of hawthorn used as an adjuvant in treating chronic heart failure. A 2010 review concluded that "Crataegus preparations hold significant potential as a useful remedy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease"; the review indicated the need for further study of the best dosages and concluded that although "many different theoretical interactions between Crataegus and orthodox medications have been postulated... none have been substantiated. Phytochemicals found in hawthorn include tannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids. Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine.
The products used are derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related Crataegus species, "collectively known as hawthorn", not distinguishing between these species. The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida are used in traditional Chinese medicine as a digestive aid. A related species, Crataegus cuneata is used in a similar manner. Other species are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function; the Kutenai people of northwestern North America used black hawthorn fruit for food, red hawthorn fruit in traditional medicine. Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and
The Jurassic period was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic Era known as the Age of Reptiles; the start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction in the Early Jurassic, the Tithonian event at the end; the Jurassic period is divided into three epochs: Early and Late. In stratigraphy, the Jurassic is divided into the Lower Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic series of rock formations; the Jurassic is named after the Jura Mountains within the European Alps, where limestone strata from the period were first identified. By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea had begun rifting into two landmasses: Laurasia to the north, Gondwana to the south; this created more coastlines and shifted the continental climate from dry to humid, many of the arid deserts of the Triassic were replaced by lush rainforests.
On land, the fauna transitioned from the Triassic fauna, dominated by both dinosauromorph and crocodylomorph archosaurs, to one dominated by dinosaurs alone. The first birds appeared during the Jurassic, having evolved from a branch of theropod dinosaurs. Other major events include the appearance of the earliest lizards, the evolution of therian mammals, including primitive placentals. Crocodilians made the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic mode of life; the oceans were inhabited by marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, while pterosaurs were the dominant flying vertebrates. The chronostratigraphic term "Jurassic" is directly linked to the Jura Mountains, a mountain range following the course of the France–Switzerland border. During a tour of the region in 1795, Alexander von Humboldt recognized the limestone dominated mountain range of the Jura Mountains as a separate formation that had not been included in the established stratigraphic system defined by Abraham Gottlob Werner, he named it "Jura-Kalkstein" in 1799.
The name "Jura" is derived from the Celtic root *jor via Gaulish *iuris "wooded mountain", borrowed into Latin as a place name, evolved into Juria and Jura. The Jurassic period is divided into three epochs: Early and Late. In stratigraphy, the Jurassic is divided into the Lower Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic series of rock formations known as Lias and Malm in Europe; the separation of the term Jurassic into three sections originated with Leopold von Buch. The faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: During the early Jurassic period, the supercontinent Pangaea broke up into the northern supercontinent Laurasia and the southern supercontinent Gondwana; the Jurassic North Atlantic Ocean was narrow, while the South Atlantic did not open until the following Cretaceous period, when Gondwana itself rifted apart. The Tethys Sea closed, the Neotethys basin appeared. Climates were warm, with no evidence of a glacier having appeared; as in the Triassic, there was no land over either pole, no extensive ice caps existed.
The Jurassic geological record is good in western Europe, where extensive marine sequences indicate a time when much of that future landmass was submerged under shallow tropical seas. In contrast, the North American Jurassic record is the poorest of the Mesozoic, with few outcrops at the surface. Though the epicontinental Sundance Sea left marine deposits in parts of the northern plains of the United States and Canada during the late Jurassic, most exposed sediments from this period are continental, such as the alluvial deposits of the Morrison Formation; the Jurassic was a time of calcite sea geochemistry in which low-magnesium calcite was the primary inorganic marine precipitate of calcium carbonate. Carbonate hardgrounds were thus common, along with calcitic ooids, calcitic cements, invertebrate faunas with dominantly calcitic skeletons; the first of several massive batholiths were emplaced in the northern American cordillera beginning in the mid-Jurassic, marking the Nevadan orogeny. Important Jurassic exposures are found in Russia, South America, Japan and the United Kingdom.
In Africa, Early Jurassic strata are distributed in a similar fashion to Late Triassic beds, with more common outcrops in the south and less common fossil beds which are predominated by tracks to the north. As the Jurassic proceeded and more iconic groups of dinosaurs like sauropods and ornithopods proliferated in Africa. Middle Jurassic strata are neither well studied in Africa. Late Jurassic strata are poorly represented apart from the spectacular Tendaguru fauna in Tanzania; the Late Jurassic life of Tendaguru is similar to that found in western North America's Morrison Formation. During the Jurassic period, the primary vertebrates living in the sea were marine reptiles; the latter include ichthyosaurs, which were at the peak of their diversity, plesiosaurs and marine crocodiles of the families Teleosauridae and Metriorhynchidae. Numerous turtles could be found in rivers. In the invertebrate world, several new groups appeared, including rudists (a reef-formi
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms
The pear tree and shrub are a species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae, bearing the pomaceous fruit of the same name. Several species of pear are valued for their edible fruit and juices while others are cultivated as trees; the word pear is from Germanic pera as a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the plural of pirum, akin to Greek apios, of Semitic origin, meaning "fruit". The adjective pyriform or piriform means pear-shaped; the pear is native to coastal and mildly temperate regions of the Old World, from western Europe and north Africa east right across Asia. It is a medium-sized tree, reaching 10–17 metres tall with a tall, narrow crown; the leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 2–12 centimetres long, glossy green on some species, densely silvery-hairy in some others. Most pears are deciduous. Most are cold-hardy, withstanding temperatures between −25 °C and −40 °C in winter, except for the evergreen species, which only tolerate temperatures down to about −15 °C; the flowers are white tinted yellow or pink, 2–4 centimetres diameter, have five petals.
Like that of the related apple, the pear fruit is a pome, in most wild species 1–4 centimetres diameter, but in some cultivated forms up to 18 centimetres long and 8 centimetres broad. The fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk dilated. Enclosed within its cellular flesh is the true fruit: five'cartilaginous' carpels, known colloquially as the "core". From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, the numerous stamens. Pears and apples cannot always be distinguished by the form of the fruit. One major difference is. Pear cultivation in cool temperate climates extends to the remotest antiquity, there is evidence of its use as a food since prehistoric times. Many traces of it have been found in prehistoric pile dwellings around Lake Zurich; the word “pear”, or its equivalent, occurs in all the Celtic languages, while in Slavic and other dialects, differing appellations, still referring to the same thing, are found—a diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse Pyramus de Candolle to infer a ancient cultivation of the tree from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic.
The pear was cultivated by the Romans, who ate the fruits raw or cooked, just like apples. Pliny's Natural History noted three dozen varieties; the Roman cookbook De re coquinaria has a recipe for a spiced, stewed-pear patina, or soufflé. A certain race of pears, with white down on the undersurface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of perry. Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their early ripening and apple-like fruit, may be referred to as P. cordata, a species found wild in western France and southwestern England. Pears have been cultivated in China for 3000 years; the genus is thought to have originated in present-day Western China in the foothills of the Tian Shan, a mountain range of Central Asia, to have spread to the north and south along mountain chains, evolving into a diverse group of over 20 recognized primary species. The enormous number of varieties of the cultivated European pear, are without doubt derived from one or two wild subspecies distributed throughout Europe, sometimes forming part of the natural vegetation of the forests.
Court accounts of Henry III of England record pears shipped from La Rochelle-Normande and presented to the King by the Sheriffs of the City of London. The French names of pears grown in English medieval gardens suggest that their reputation, at the least, was French. Asian species with medium to large edible fruit include P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. × bretschneideri, P. × sinkiangensis, P. pashia. Other small-fruited species are used as rootstocks for the cultivated forms. According to Pear Bureau Northwest, about 3000 known varieties of pears are grown worldwide; the pear is propagated by grafting a selected variety onto a rootstock, which may be of a pear variety or quince. Quince rootstocks produce smaller trees, desirable in commercial orchards or domestic gardens. For new varieties the flowers can be cross-bred to combine desirable traits; the fruit of the pear is produced on spurs. Three species account for the vast majority of edible fruit production, the European pear Pyrus communis subsp.
Communis cultivated in Europe and North America, the Chinese white pear Pyrus ×bretschneideri, the Nashi pear Pyrus pyrifolia, both grown in eastern Asia. There are thousands of cultivars of these three species. A species grown in western China, P. sinkiangensis, P. pashia, grown in southern China and south Asia, are produced to a lesser degree. Other species are used as ornamental trees. Pear wood is close-grained a
The garden strawberry is a grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries. It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit; the fruit is appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, pies, ice creams and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are widely used in many products like lip gloss, hand sanitizers and many others; the garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France, in the 1750s via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America and Fragaria chiloensis, brought from Chile by Amédée-François Frézier in 1714. Cultivars of Fragaria × ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry, the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century; the strawberry is not, from a botanical point of view, a berry. Technically, it is an aggregate accessory fruit, meaning that the fleshy part is derived not from the plant's ovaries but from the receptacle that holds the ovaries.
Each apparent "seed" on the outside of the fruit is one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it. In 2016, world production of strawberries was 9.2 million tonnes, led by China with 41% of the total. The first garden strawberry was grown in Brittany, during the late 18th century. Prior to this, wild strawberries and cultivated selections from wild strawberry species were the common source of the fruit; the strawberry fruit was mentioned in ancient Roman literature in reference to its medicinal use. The French began taking the strawberry from the forest to their gardens for harvest in the 14th century. Charles V, France's king from 1364 to 1380, had 1,200 strawberry plants in his royal garden. In the early 15th century western European monks were using the wild strawberry in their illuminated manuscripts; the strawberry is found in Italian and German art, in English miniatures. The entire strawberry plant was used to treat depressive illnesses. By the 16th century, references of cultivation of the strawberry became more common.
People began using it for its supposed medicinal properties and botanists began naming the different species. In England the demand for regular strawberry farming had increased by the mid-16th century; the combination of strawberries and cream was created by Thomas Wolsey in the court of King Henry VIII. Instructions for growing and harvesting strawberries showed up in writing in 1578. By the end of the 16th century three European species had been cited: F. vesca, F. moschata, F. viridis. The garden strawberry was transplanted from the forests and the plants would be propagated asexually by cutting off the runners. Two subspecies of F. vesca were identified: F. sylvestris alba and F. sylvestris semperflorens. The introduction of F. virginiana from Eastern North America to Europe in the 17th century is an important part of history because this species gave rise to the modern strawberry. The new species spread through the continent and did not become appreciated until the end of the 18th century.
When a French excursion journeyed to Chile in 1712, it introduced the North American strawberry plant with female flowers that resulted in the common strawberry that we have today. The Mapuche and Huilliche Indians of Chile cultivated the female strawberry species until 1551, when the Spanish came to conquer the land. In 1765, a European explorer recorded the cultivation of the Chilean strawberry. At first introduction to Europe, the plants produced no fruit, it was discovered in 1766 that the female plants could only be pollinated by plants that produced large fruit: F. moschata, F. virginiana, F. ananassa. This is when the Europeans became aware that plants had the ability to produce male-only or female-only flowers; as more large-fruit producing plants were cultivated the Chilean strawberry decreased in population in Europe, except for around Brest where the Chilean strawberry thrived. The decline of the Chilean strawberry was caused by F. ananassa. Strawberry cultivars vary in size, flavor, degree of fertility, season of ripening, liability to disease and constitution of plant.
On average, a strawberry has about 200 seeds on its external membrane. Some vary in foliage, some vary materially in the relative development of their sexual organs. In most cases, the flowers appear hermaphroditic in structure, but function as either male or female. For purposes of commercial production, plants are propagated from runners and, in general, distributed as either bare root plants or plugs. Cultivation follows one of two general models—annual plasticulture, or a perennial system of matted rows or mounds. Greenhouses produce a small amount of strawberries during the off season; the bulk of modern commercial production uses the plasticulture system. In this method, raised beds are formed each year and covered with plastic to prevent weed growth and erosion. Plants obtained from northern nurseries, are planted through holes punched in this covering, irrigation tubing is run underneath. Runners are removed from the plants as they appear, in order to encourage the plants to put most of their energy into fruit development.
At the end of the harvest season, the plastic is removed and the plants are plowed into the ground. Because strawberry plants more than a year or two old begin to decline in productivity and fruit quality, this system of replacing the plants each year allows for improved yields and denser plantings. However, because it requires a longer growing season to allow for estab
Filipendula ulmaria known as meadowsweet or mead wort, is a perennial herb in the family Rosaceae that grows in damp meadows. It is native throughout most of Western Asia, it has been naturalised in North America. Meadowsweet has been referred to as queen of the meadow, pride of the meadow, meadow-wort, meadow queen, lady of the meadow, dollof and bridewort; the stems are 1–2 m tall and furrowed, reddish to sometimes purple. The leaves are dark-green on the upper side and whitish and downy underneath, much divided, interruptedly pinnate, having a few large serrate leaflets and small intermediate ones. Terminal leaflets are large, 4–8 cm long, three- to five-lobed. Meadowsweet has delicate, creamy-white flowers clustered close together in irregularly-branched cymes, having a strong, sweet smell, they flower from early summer to early autumn and are visited by various types of insects, in particular Musca flies. The flowers are small and numerous, they show 5 petals with 7 to 20 stamens. Meadowsweet leaves are galled by the bright orange-rust fungus Triphragmium ulmariae, which creates swellings and distortions on the stalk and/or midrib.
Meadowsweet is known by many other names. In Chaucer's The Knight's Tale it is known as meadwort and was one of the ingredients in a drink called "save", it was known as bridewort, because it was strewn in churches for festivals and weddings, made into bridal garlands. In Europe, it took its name "queen of the meadow" for the way it can dominate a low-lying, damp meadow; the name ulmaria means "elmlike" in reference to its individual leaves which resemble those of the elm. Like slippery elm bark, the plant contains salicylic acid. However, the generic name, comes from filum, meaning "thread" and pendulus, meaning "hanging"; this is said to describe the root tubers that hang characteristically on the genus, on fibrous roots. Meadowsweet is common throughout the British Isles in damp areas and is dominant in fens and wet woods. Juncus subnodulosus-Cirsium palustre fen-meadow and Purple moor grass and rush pastures BAP habitat plant associations of Western Europe include this plant; the whole herb possesses a pleasant taste and flavour, the green parts having a similar aromatic character to the flowers, leading to the use of the plant as a strewing herb, strewn on floors to give the rooms a pleasant aroma, its use to flavour wine and many vinegars.
The flowers can be added to stewed fruit and jams. It has many medicinal properties; the whole plant is a traditional remedy for an acidic stomach, the fresh root is used homeopathic preparations. Dried, the flowers are used in potpourri, it is a used spice in Scandinavian varieties of mead. Chemical constituents include salicylic acid, flavone glycosides, essential oils, tannins. In 1897, Felix Hoffmann created a synthetically altered version of salicin, derived from the species, which caused less digestive upset than pure salicylic acid; the new drug, formally acetylsalicylic acid, was named aspirin by Hoffmann's employer Bayer AG after the old botanical name for meadowsweet, Spiraea ulmaria. This gave rise to the class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A natural black dye can be obtained from the roots by using a copper mordant. A tea made from Filipendula ulmaria flowers or leaves has been used in traditional Austrian herbal medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, gout and fever.
White-flowered meadowsweet has been found with the cremated remains of three people and at least one animal in a Bronze Age cairn at Fan Foel, Carmarthenshire. Similar finds have been found inside a beaker from Ashgrove, a vessel from North Mains, Strathallan; these could indicate honey-based mead or flavoured ale, or might suggest the plant placed on the grave as a scented flower. In Welsh mythology and Math created a woman out of oak blossom and meadowsweet and named her Blodeuwedd. In the 16th century, when it was customary to strew floors with rushes and herbs, it was a favorite of Elizabeth I of England, she desired it above all other herbs in her chambers. Neltje Blanchan. Wild Flowers: An Aid to Knowledge of our Wild Flowers and their Insect Visitors. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Media related to Filipendula ulmaria at Wikimedia Commons Purple Sage Medicinal Herbs, entry for Meadowsweet