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Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Elsie Franklin was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses and graphite. Although her works on coal and viruses were appreciated in her lifetime, her contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA were recognised posthumously. Born to a prominent British Jewish family, Franklin was educated at a private day school at Norland Place in West London, Lindores School for Young Ladies in Sussex, St Paul's Girls' School, London, she studied the Natural Sciences Tripos at Newnham College, from which she graduated in 1941. Earning a research fellowship, she joined the University of Cambridge physical chemistry laboratory under Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, who disappointed her for his lack of enthusiasm; the British Coal Utilisation Research Association offered her a research position in 1942, started her work on coals. This helped her earn a Ph. D. in 1945. She went to Paris in 1947 as a chercheur under Jacques Mering at the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l'Etat, where she became an accomplished X-ray crystallographer.

She became a research associate at King's College London in 1951 and worked on X-ray diffraction studies, which would facilitate the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. In 1953, after two years, owing to disagreement with her director John Randall and more so with her colleague Maurice Wilkins, she was compelled to move to Birkbeck College. At Birkbeck, John Desmond Bernal, chair of the physics department, offered her a separate research team, she died in 1958 at the age of 37 of ovarian cancer. Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA Photo 51, while at King's College London, which led to the discovery of the DNA double helix for which James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962. Watson suggested that Franklin would have ideally been awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with Wilkins, although there was not yet a rule against posthumous awards, the Nobel Committee does not make posthumous nominations.

After finishing her work on DNA, Franklin led pioneering work at Birkbeck on the molecular structures of viruses. Her team member Aaron Klug continued her research, winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1982. Franklin was born on 25 July 1920 in 50 Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, into an affluent and influential British Jewish family, her father was Ellis Arthur Franklin, a politically liberal London merchant banker who taught at the city's Working Men's College, her mother was Muriel Frances Waley. Rosalind was the second child in the family of five children. David was the eldest brother, her father's uncle was Herbert Samuel, the Home Secretary in 1916 and the first practising Jew to serve in the British Cabinet. Her aunt, Helen Caroline Franklin, known in the family as Mamie, was married to Norman de Mattos Bentwich, the Attorney General in the British Mandate of Palestine. Helen Caroline Franklin was active in trade union organisation and the women's suffrage movement, was a member of the London County Council.

Her uncle, Hugh Franklin, was another prominent figure in the suffrage movement, although his actions therein embarrassed the Franklin family. Rosalind's middle name, "Elsie", was in memory of Hugh's first wife, who died in the 1918 flu pandemic, her family was involved with the Working Men's College, where her father taught the subjects of electricity and the history of the Great War in the evenings becoming the vice-principal. Franklin's parents helped settle Jewish refugees from Europe who had escaped the Nazis those from the Kindertransport, they took in two Jewish children to their home, one of them, a nine-year-old Austrian, Evi Eisenstädter, shared Jenifer's room. From early childhood, Franklin showed exceptional scholastic abilities. At the age of six, she joined her brother Roland at Norland Place School, a private day school in West London. At that time, her aunt Mamie, described her to her husband: "Rosalind is alarmingly clever – she spends all her time doing arithmetic for pleasure, invariably gets her sums right."

She developed an early interest in cricket and hockey. At the age of nine, she entered a boarding-school, Lindores School for Young Ladies in Sussex; the school was near the seaside, the family wanted a good environment for her delicate health. She was 11 when she went to St Paul's Girls' School, West London, one of the few girls' schools in London that taught physics and chemistry. At St Paul's she excelled in science and sports, she learned German, became fluent in French, a language she would find useful. She topped her classes, won annual awards, her only educational weakness was in music, for which the school music director, the composer Gustav Holst, once called upon her mother to inquire whether she might have suffered from hearing problem or tonsillitis. With six distinctions, she passed her matriculation in 1938, winning a scholarship for university, the School Leaving Exhibition of £30 a year for three years, £5 from her grandfather, her father asked her to give the scholarship to a deserving refugee student.

Franklin went to Newnham College, Cambridge in 1938 and studie

U.S. Route 41 Alternate (Monteagle, Tennessee–Hopkinsville, Kentucky)

U. S. Route 41 Alternate signed U. S. Route 41A in Tennessee, connects the town of Monteagle, with Hopkinsville, Kentucky, 10 miles north of the Tennessee line, it serves the city of Clarksville, Tennessee, on its way to Nashville, where it runs concurrently with US 41. It separates again to serve Shelbyville and Tullahoma before rejoining the main route atop Monteagle Mountain. US 41A runs west of US 41 for its entire length, aside from one mile in downtown Nashville where they are concurrent. US 41A is concurrent with U. S. Route 31A from Nashville to Triune, for a distance of 25 miles. U. S. 41A begins in Monteagle, runs along the Marion-Grundy County line on its way to the Interstate 24 Exit 134 interchange. US 41A follows a westward path into Franklin County, connecting I-24 to Sewanee and Winchester. At Winchester, US 41A turns northwestward, bypassing Tims Ford Lake, Woods Reservoir, Arnold Engineering Development Center before entering Coffee County and the city of Tullahoma, it has a brief concurrency with SR 55 before continuing northwest.

US 41A traverses northeastern Moore County before entering Bedford County. From Shelbyville, US 41A continues northwest into the southwestern portion of Rutherford County. Further north, it enters eastern Williamson County, where it begins a concurrency with US 31A that lasts from just south of Triune near the I-840 Exit 42 interchange, through Nolensville, into Davidson County and the Metro Nashville area. In downtown Nashville, US 31A ends, while US 41A continues and begins a brief concurrency with US 31, US 41, US 431, SR 6 on Eighth Avenue. US 41A leaves the concurrency off James Robertson Parkway near the Nashville Farmer's Market, but begins a concurrency with unsigned SR 12. US 41A/SR 12 follows Rosa L. Parks Boulevard through the Exit 85 interchange of I-65. After crossing the Cumberland River via the Hydes Ferry Bridge, SR 12 leaves the concurrency in the Bordeaux neighborhood. US 41A's continuation after that marks the eastern terminus of SR 112 as US 41A continues north, west-northwest into Cheatham and Robertson Counties, following the boundary between the two counties, crossing it four times, intersecting SR 49 at Pleasant View before the third and fourth times.

After crossing the Robertson-Cheatham County line for the final time, US 41A enters Montgomery County and the city of Clarksville. After the first junction with US 41A Bypass and SR 76, it expands into four lanes, it goes right through the downtown core before crossing the Red River. SR 12, once again as a hidden route, rejoins. US 79/SR 76 leaves the concurrency, while US 41A/SR 12 continues northward, following the eastern boundary of the Fort Campbell Military Reservation to the Kentucky state line, where the Clarksville city limits border that of Oak Grove; the state line marks SR 12's northern/western terminusOnce US 41A enters Christian County in Oak Grove, it is signed as US 41 Alternate. After crossing Interstate 24 for a final time, US 41A continues north to a junction with the Pennyrile Parkway, ending with a junction with US 41/US 68/KY 80/KY 109 in downtown Hopkinsville. Prior to 1930, from Nashville to Hopkinsville, the current US 41A corridor from Nashville to Hopkinsville was signed as US 41, while the current US 41 was signed as US 241.

In 1930, US 41 became US 41W, US 241 was renumbered, signed as US 41E. In 1943, the western route became US 41 Alternate, with the main US 41 moving to the east route; until 1973, the route was signed as and carried US 43, until that route was decommissioned north of Columbia. U. S. Route 41A Bypass is a bypass of the city of Tennessee, on its south side, it first splits off from the US 41A mainline at 2nd Street and Kraft, following Riverside Drive south, running concurrently with SR 13 and SR 12, along the Cumberland River to an intersection with SR 48. It becomes concurrent with SR 48 and they travel south and leave town to an intersection with Cumberland Drive, where SR 13 and SR 48 split off to continue southward; the bypass curves to the east, still following the river, enters some neighborhoods and comes to an intersection with Ashland City Road, where SR 12 splits off and goes toward Ashland City. US 41A Byp. continues east and comes to an end at an intersection with US 41A and SR 76. Most of the road is a two-lane highway widening to three lanes to accommodate truck traffic on hills.

U. S. Roads portal Media related to U. S. Route 41 Alternate at Wikimedia Commons

Southern Decadence

Southern Decadence is an annual six-day event held in New Orleans, Louisiana, by the gay and lesbian community during Labor Day Weekend, culminating in a parade through the French Quarter on the Sunday before Labor Day. The event traces its beginnings to August 1972, as an end-of-summer party among a group of 40–50 friends both straight and gay, they billed their event as "Southern Decadence Party: Come As Your Favorite Southern Decadent." People who attended were required to dress as their favorite decadent Southerner. Two weeks the group threw another party as a farewell to Michael Evers, who left to join his lover, David Randolph, in Michigan; the first small "walking parade" occurred the following year when the participants first met at Johnny Matassa's Bar in the French Quarter to show off their costumes and walk back home to Belle Reve, a name taken from A Streetcar Named Desire, in the Tremé neighbourhood via Esplanade Avenue. This first group impersonated people and characters ranging from Belle Watling and Mary Ann Mobley to Tallulah Bankhead and Helen Keller.

The event expanded with Frederick Douglas Wright, an African American, appointed as the first grand marshal by members of the original group in 1974, who would have complete control over the parade of incredible characters and costumes as they marched through the French Quarter. Decadence, as it is known by participants, is marked by parades, bead tossing, street parties and dance parties. In these ways it resembles New Orleans Mardi Gras, Southern Decadence tends to be more sexual in tone and is geared towards more upscale and mature revelers. Decadence crowds in the Quarter match or exceed Mardi Gras crowds. Most events take place in or around the French Quarter neighbourhood centered at the intersection of Bourbon and St. Ann streets. Crowds range from 100,000 to 300,000 revelers from across world. In 2018, there were over 250,000 participants and the positive economic impact on the City of New Orleans was estimated at over $275 million. Decadence caters to gay men, but is still lesbian friendly.

Dykes on Bikes participate in the annual parade in the French Quarter and GrrlSpot sponsors some events for lesbians. Themes were presented on and off from the beginning, but did not become a consistent fixture of the event until "Plagues, Parasites" theme in 1988, they have been featured every year. They have ranged from themes as varied as "Voodoo That You Do", "Menage à Trois", "Ancient Truths and Sacrifice", "Hurricane: This Year, They Blow Back."The theme for 2018 was "House of Bourbon -- Unleash Your Beast." The official colors were Canary Yellow. The theme for 2019 was “Fruit Salad: Come Toss A Good Time” and the official “colors” are Polka Dots and Pinstripes; the theme and colors for 2020 will be announced in June. In years past and conservative groups have rallied against the festival. In 2003 there was a formal petition filed to have the event terminated, with video footage handed over to officials depicting dozens of men engaged in "public sex acts". There were examples of men exposing themselves to others for beads, similar to the way women have long exposed their breasts for the traditional Mardi Gras balcony bead toss.

The complaints led to a vocal response from business owners and hoteliers in New Orleans, in support of the festival. The police posted notices clarifying what constitutes public sex; the pastor who spearheaded and filed the petition, Grant Storms was arrested in February 2011 after being caught masturbating in a public park. He was convicted of obscenity on August 22, 2012; the city passed an ordinance that banned the dissemination of any social, political, or religious message on Bourbon Street from sunrise to sunset, punishable by up to six months in jail and a $500 fine. City Councilwoman Kristin Palmer, who sponsored the ordinance, said the city "has a legitimate interest in protecting residents and visitors in the trafficked area of Bourbon Street at night, she said aggressive solicitation can be a crowd-control issue, people are allowed under the law to speak their messages if they take five steps off Bourbon Street. This is an issue of trying to protect public safety."Nine preachers and activists were subsequently arrested on September 1, 2012, after they yelled slurs at people attending Southern Decadence on Bourbon Street.

Represented by the American Civil Liberties Union during the first round of their case, those arrested saw the law temporarily suspended via a restraining order, granted by a federal judge. The New Orleans City Council voted to lift the ordinance against the 2011 ban against Street Preaching from sunset to sunrise on the city's famous Bourbon Street; the unconstitutionally of the city restrictions which "for the purpose of disseminating any social, political or religious message" was "so patently unconstitutional that they could not hope the judge would rule otherwise", said attorney Nate Kellum with the Center for Religious Expression. In the year 2005, that year's edition of Southern Decadence was cancelled in the wake of safety precautions against Hurricane Katrina. However, a small group of residents who still remained in the French Quarter celebrated the event anyway. An abbreviated parade took place in the French Quarter with some two dozen participants. Most were French Quarter hold-outs.

As the city was being evacuated at the time, a pol

Alachua County Library District

The Alachua County Library District is an independent special taxing district and the sole provider of public library service to 250,000 citizens of Alachua County, Florida. This includes all of the incorporated municipalities in the county, it maintains four other branches in Gainesville. There are branch locations in seven of the eight other incorporated municipalities in the county. ACLD operates a branch at the county jail, two bookmobiles; the Alachua County Library District has twelve locations. Five locations in Gainesville include the Headquarters Branch in downtown Gainesville, Millhopper Branch in northwest Gainesville, Tower Road Branch in unincorporated Alachua county southwest of Gainesville, Library Partnership Branch in northeast Gainesville, Cone Park Branch in east Gainesville; the district operates branches in the Alachua County municipalities of Alachua, Hawthorne, High Springs, Micanopy and Waldo, at the Alachua County Jail. The district operates two bookmobiles which visit more than 25 locations in the county from two to five times a month.

The Alachua County Library District traces its origins to 1905. A women's group in Gainesville organized; the club issued a call for donated money to help initiate the town's first library. By 1905, Gainesville two subscription libraries, for which a small fee was required. In January 1905, Nora Norton established the Gainesville Circulating Library, held in the Gainesville Sewing Machine company, which required a five dollar a year fee; the Twentieth Century Club opened a library in the Miller Law Exchange with assistance of 200 donated books and a yearly fee of two dollars. In January 1906, the Gainesville Public Library on West Liberty opened with a collection of 800 books, combining books from the Twentieth Century Club, the library of the East Florida Seminary, the Gainesville Circulating Library. However, a small fee was still required; the Gainesville Public Library became a free library in 1918, supported by funds from city taxes, in a building constructed with the aid of a Carnegie grant.

The library became a department of the City of Gainesville in 1949. A branch of the Gainesville Public Library, the Carver Branch Library, was opened in 1953 to provide library services to the African-American population of Gainesville; the Carver Branch closed in 1969. In 1958, the City of Gainesville and Alachua County agreed to jointly operate the library for the whole county. Branch libraries were opened in High Springs and Micanopy the next year, a bookmobile was put into service. Alachua County joined with Bradford County to operate the Santa Fe Regional Library. After Bradford County withdrew from the Regional Library, the Alachua County Library District was formally established in 1986; the Millhopper and Tower Road branches opened in 1992, the branches in Alachua, Archer and Waldo were all opened by 1997. In 2008, the Alachua branch underwent a $1.5 million renovation and expansion project that saw the library's size double to 10,000 square feet and included the addition of a drive-up window and specialized areas for both young children and teenagers.

The Library Partnership Branch opened in 2009 and the Cone Park Branch in 2011. A new, permanent location for the Cone Park Branch Library was opened near the Eastside Community Center in Gainesville on December 14, 2013. In 2015, Headquarters branch celebrated 25 years - with an estimated 3.8 million items checked out that year. In 2016, High Springs branch added 3,000 square feet to their original building. In January 2017, the Tower Road Branch library began undergoing renovations to add 8,500 square feet of space, which would include additions of a quiet reading room, three study rooms, new restrooms and an expanded children's area, among other features. Library cards are free to any resident of the State of Florida and to non-residents who own property in Florida. Out of state residents may get a card by paying a fee. A potential user must register in person with proper identification and proof of residency or of ownership of property in the state; the registration of a minor requires the parent or legal guardian to have their own ID plus an acceptable form of ID for the child.

Acceptable forms of identification for a minor include: Health insurance card School report card School immunization record Social Security card Birth certificate PassportLibrary card renewal is required every two years and must be done in person with a photo ID and proof of mailing address. A patron must have a $0 account balance in order to renew a card. Library card holders can checkout and return items at any branch located in Alachua County, including the two bookmobiles. Total checkout is limited to 100 items with a max of 8 DVDs per account. Books and audiobooks check out for 4 weeks, music CDs check out for 2 weeks, DVDs check out for 1 week. Items may be renewed as long as they are not on hold for another patron. Audiobooks, eBooks, music, TV shows and movies are available to library card holders as downloadable digital media from the ACLD website. If a library card holder wishes to checkout an item, not available, they may place a hold request on that item through the online catalog.

By entering their library card number, a patron can choose the branch they wish to have the item delivered to once it becomes available. The Library District does not have late fees. However, five or more overdue items or $50.00 worth of overdue materials will block borrowing privileges until the items are returned or paid for. Additionally, any items returned by patrons with da

Paul Dujardin (art historian)

Paul Dujardin is an art historian and director-general of BOZAR in Brussels. Under his leadership, the Centre for Fine Arts has become an interdisciplinary cultural centre with a European Mission and International scope. In 1986 he became a graduate in art history and archeology at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and in 1987 he obtained a degree in policy sciences at the VLEKHO, he studied at the University of Oviedo, the Goethe-Institut and the Freie Universität Berlin. He became assistant to the Secretary-General of the International Federation for Music. With Bernard Foccroulle and Claude Micheroux, he organized a series of seminars in collaboration with Les Jeunesses Musicales de la Communauté française. In 1988 he founded the Festival of contemporary music Ars Musica, of which he remained the coordinator until 1993. In 1992 he became director-general of the Philharmonic Society of Brussels and took over the artistic direction and programming of the National Orchestra of Belgium. From 1996 to 2002 he represented the Philharmonic Society of Brussels in the European Concert Hall Organization, an international federation that unites the most important European Arts Centers.

In January 2002, Dujardin became deputy director and artistic director of the Center for Fine Arts in Brussels. His alma mater describes Dujardin as someone who has taken this federal institution out of the cobwebs and transformed it into a prestigious cultural house without barriers. After ten years at the helm, he considers the renewal " just beginning. " Today, the CFA offers a wide range of events, including concerts and debates as well as festivals and events linked to film and theatre. Under his direction, BOZAR has blossomed into a veritable Agora, a space where citizens, cultural players and individuals from various disciplines can meet, exchange ideas and debate. A fervent defender of the European project, Paul Dujardin has worked tirelessly to ensure that BOZAR becomes an essential actor within the domain of international cultural exchange and a defender of the European cultural values at the core of the European project; this commitment is evident in the active role that BOZAR plays in the European research initiative “The role of culture in EU external relations,” as well as the extensive cooperation with a network of partner organizations including the Goethe Institut, Culture Action Europe, EUNIC, the European Cultural Foundation and the European Foundation Centre.

Paul is President of the Direction Committee of the “New Narrative for Europe” project: an initiative of the European parliament implemented in collaboration with the European Commission launched to reinforce and promote the fundamental values related to science and culture). He advocates in favor of giving culture a more important role in EU foreign affairs as an instrument of ‘soft power.’ Paul Dujardin represents the CFA at various platforms such as the European Concert Hall Organization the International Society of Performing Arts, the European Network of Ancient Music and ASEMUS – Asia Europe Museum Network. Since 2013, he has presided over the Executive Council of the International Music Council and since February 2014, he is a member of the Board of Directors of the European Festivals Association. Paul Dujardin is a member of the board for Kanal/Centre Pompidou, acting president of Europa Nostra since 2018 and beginning in 2019 he will become a member of the Board of the International Music Competition Queen Elisabeth of Belgium.

He is the co-founder of the Queen Elisabeth Music Chapel, public interest foundation, among others, including: · Euphonia Foundation · Festival Jubilate · Culture and Democracy vzw · Ictus · Young Philharmonic · Foundation of Trento · Kunstberg vzwPaul Dujardin was or is manager or adviser of: · Carta Moda · Brussels Biennial · Grumiaux Foundation · Musiques Présentes · Foundation Spes · Belgian Foundation vocation · Erasmus Foundation · Music Council for Flanders-Unesco · Friends of the Brussels Royal Conservatoire · CINEMATEK · Kunstwijk vzw · Brussels Summer Festival · Youth Orchestra of Brussels · Belgian Wagner Association · Belgian Comic Strip Center · European Yehudi Menuhin Foundation · Bureau of Young Belgian Painting · International Queen Elisabeth Music Competition of Belgium · Venezia Viva In acknowledgment of his efforts, Paul has received an honorary Doctorate from the Université Libre de Bruxelles, he has been appointed an Officer of the Leopold Order, given the title of Knight, received a Gilt Cross of Honor from Luxembourg, a Hwagwan from the Order of Cultural Merit of Korea, an Order of Merit from the Federal Republic of Germany, an honorary degree from Poland, across from the Order of Merit of Hungary, the title of Commander of the Order of Merit from the Republic of Congo and the distinction of Knight of the Order of Arts and Letters of France,Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art 1st Class

Erick Elías

Erick Elías Rabinovitz is a Mexican actor. Elías began acting as an actor with a screen debut in DKDA: Sueños de juventud, followed by roles in Amigos x siempre, he became known in the reality show Protagonistas de Novela. He participated in projects of the American network Telemundo, such as, he got his first starring role in the telenovela Tormenta en el paraíso, from there followed roles as protagonists in Niña de mi corazón, Ni contigo ni sin ti, Porque el amor manda, El color de la pasión and El hotel de los secretos, the first series that Televisa produced for Blim. Elías was born in Guadalajara, Mexico, son of Cecilia Rabinovitz and Ricardo Elías Pessah, he has a brother named Alexis Elías, dedicated to the same work as his father. He studied industrial design. In 2010 he married with Karla Guindi, with whom he has two children, Penélope Elías Guindi and Olivia Elías Guindi. Before dedicating himself to the performance he was part of a musical group called Tierra Cero, he made his acting debut in the 2000 telenovela DKDA: Sueños de juventud and Amigos x siempre.

He became known in the 2003 reality show Protagonistas de Novela, where he turned out to be a winner. In 2004 he auditioned to be the main villain of the telenovela produced by Argos Comunicación for Telemundo Gitanas, where he played Jonás, after this project, he continued working for Telemundo with two more telenovelas, titled El cuerpo del deseo and El Zorro, la espada y la rosa. In 2007 he got her first starring role with Sara Maldonado in the telenovela Tormenta en el paraíso. In 2008 was chosen by Carlos Moreno to participate starring in the telenovela En nombre del amor remake of the 1991 telenovela Cadenas de amargura. Elías has voiced Flint Lockwood in the Spanish-language version of Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs and its sequel from Sony Pictures Animation. According to an interview, he has stated that his daughter, has inspired him to be the dubbing voice of Flint, he provided the voice of Charro Negro, the main antagonist of the Mexican animated film, La Leyenda del Charro Negro released on 19 January 2018.

Erick Elias on IMDb