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A powder X-ray diffractometer in motion
A powder X-ray diffractometer in motion
Drawing of square (A) and hexagonal (B) packing from Kepler's work, Strena seu de Nive Sexangula.
Drawing of square (A) and hexagonal (B) packing from Kepler's work, Strena seu de Nive Sexangula.
One of the copper sulfate X-ray interference patterns published in Von Laue's 1912 paper.
One of the copper sulfate X-ray interference patterns published in Von Laue's 1912 paper.
Although diamonds (top left) and graphite (top right) are identical in chemical composition—being both pure carbon—X-ray crystallography revealed the
Although diamonds (top left) and graphite (top right) are identical in chemical composition—being both pure carbon—X-ray crystallography revealed the arrangement of their atoms (bottom). In diamond, the carbon atoms are arranged tetrahedrally and held together by single covalent bonds. By contrast, graphite is composed of stacked sheets. Within the sheet, the bonding is covalent and has hexagonal symmetry, but there are no covalent bonds between the sheets.
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Crystals of amethyst quartz
Crystals of amethyst quartz
Macroscopic (~16 cm) halite crystal. The right-angles between crystal faces are due to the cubic symmetry of the atoms' arrangement
Macroscopic (~16 cm) halite crystal. The right-angles between crystal faces are due to the cubic symmetry of the atoms' arrangement
Ice crystals
Ice crystals
Fossil shell with calcite crystals
Fossil shell with calcite crystals