Eleanor Rosalynn Carter is an American who served as First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981, as the wife of President Jimmy Carter. For decades, she has been a leading advocate for numerous causes. Carter was politically active during her White House years, sitting in on Cabinet meetings, she was her husband's closest adviser. She served as an envoy abroad in Latin America. Eleanor Rosalynn Smith was born on August 1927 in Plains, Georgia, she was the eldest of four children of Wilburn Edgar Smith, an auto mechanic, bus driver and farmer, Frances Allethea "Allie" Murray Smith, a teacher and postal worker. Her brothers were William Jerrold "Jerry" Smith, an engineer, Murray Lee Smith, a teacher and minister, her sister, Lillian Allethea Wall, named for Lillian Gordy Carter, is a real estate broker. Rosalynn was named after her maternal grandmother. Carter's great uncle W. S. Wise was one of the American Brazilians known as Confederados who emigrated from the United States to Brazil after the Civil War.
Carter's family lived in poverty, although she claimed that she and her siblings were unaware, since though their family "didn't have money," neither did "anyone else, so as far as we knew, we were well off." Churches and schools were at the center of her family's community, the people of Plains were familiar with each other. Carter played with the boys during her early childhood, she drew buildings and was interested in airplanes, which led her to believe that she would someday become an architect. Rosalynn's father died of leukemia when she was 13, she called the loss of her father the conclusion of her childhood. Thereafter, she helped her mother raise her younger siblings, as well as assisting in the dressmaking business in order to meet the family's financial obligations. Rosalynn would credit her mother with inspiring her own independence and said that she learned from her mother that "you can do what you have to do". At Plains High School, Rosalynn worked hard to achieve her father's dream of seeing her go to college.
Rosalynn graduated as salutatorian of Plains High School. Soon after, she attended Georgia Southwestern College, but dropped out, she had aspirations to go beyond Plains, but she was forced to leave the college due to lack of money and because of obligations to her mother and siblings. After helping her husband win the governorship of Georgia in 1970, Rosalynn decided to focus her attention on the field of mental health when she was that state's First Lady, it was her main focus. She was appointed to the Governor's Commission to Improve Services for the Mentally and Emotionally Handicapped. Many of the Commission's recommendations became law. In August 1971, Carter engaged in a statewide tour of mental health facilities across Georgia, she described her efforts for mentally disabled children her proudest achievement as First Lady of Georgia. Carter served as a volunteer at the Georgia Regional Hospital in Atlanta and for four years was honorary chairperson for the Georgia Special Olympics. Among wives of Georgia legislators, she was considered a model and was revered for her traits and appearance.
Her activities included entertaining as many as 75 people a week at the Governor's Mansion. Governor Carter once claimed that he had supported the Equal Rights Amendment while his wife was opposed to the measure, the First Lady confronting him upon hearing the news story with two feminist allies; when her husband's gubernatorial term ended in January 1975, Rosalynn and Amy Carter returned to Plains. Jimmy had announced his plans to run for President of the United States. Rosalynn returned to the campaign trail, this time on a national quest to gather support for her husband, she campaigned alone on his behalf in 41 states. Because of her husband's obscurity at the time, she had to answer the question, "Jimmy who?" She promoted the establishment of additional daycare facilities and adjustments to "Social Security and so many other things to help the elderly."During the months when she was campaigning across the country, she was elected to the board of directors of the National Association of Mental Health, honored by the National Organization for Women with an Award of Merit for her vigorous support for the Equal Rights Amendment, received the Volunteer of the Year Award from the Southwestern Association of Volunteer Services.
In 1975, she was photographed shaking hands with serial killer John Wayne Gacy, active in his local Democratic Party. Rosalynn sat in the balcony at Madison Square Garden with friends and family the night of the nomination while her husband was with his mother and daughter, she had "butterflies in her stomach," until the Ohio delegation announced its votes were for her husband. Rosalynn wished; the Carters met with all the potential running mates, gained affinity for Walter Mondale after meeting with him and his wife Joan. Following the election, the Carters traveled to the White House and met with President Ford and First Lady Betty Ford, the latter becoming a role model for Rosalynn; when her husband assumed the presidency in January 1977, Rosalynn and Jimmy Carter walked hand-in-hand down Pennsylvania Avenue during his presidential inauguration parade. The gown that she wore to the inaugural balls was the same one that she had worn six years earlier at the Atlanta balls when Jimmy became governor.
Rosalynn declared. During her husband's administration, Rosalynn supported her husband's public policies as well as his social and personal life
The Cadillac Gage Commando denoted as the M706 in US military service, is an American armored car designed to be amphibious. It was engineered by Cadillac Gage for the United States Military Police Corps during the Vietnam War as an armed convoy escort vehicle; the Commando was one of the first vehicles to combine the traditionally separate roles of an armored personnel carrier and a conventional armored car, much like the Soviet BTR-40. Its notable height, amphibious capability, waterproofed engine allowed American crews to fight in the jungles of Vietnam by observing their opponents over thick vegetation and fording the country's deep rivers; the Commando was produced in three distinct marks: the V-100, V-150, V-200, all of which were modified for a number of diverse battlefield roles. An unlicensed variant of the Commando series, the Bravia Chaimite, was manufactured in Portugal. After the American military disengagement from Vietnam, the Commando series was retired from active US service.
It was superseded in the Military Police Corps by the derivative M1117 Armored Security Vehicle during the 1990s. The V-100 series of vehicles was developed in the early 1960s by the Terra-Space division of the Cadillac Gage company of Warren, Michigan. By 1962 a patent was filed and received by Terra-Space for a vehicle only known as the Commando; the first prototype emerged in 1963, the production variants entered service in 1964. The vehicle is equipped with four-wheel drive and uses axles similar to the ones used in the M34 series of trucks; the engine is a gasoline-powered 360-cubic-inch Chrysler V8, same as in the early gas models of the M113 armored personnel carriers. Its 5-speed manual transmission allows it to traverse rough terrain; the M706 has a road speed of 62 mph, can travel across water at 3 mph. A Commando's armor consists of high hardness alloy steel called Cadaloy, which protects against projectiles up to 7.62×51mm. Because of its armor, the M706 has an unloaded mass of over 7 tons.
As a result, a common problem with the vehicle is rear axle failure caused by the extreme weight. However, because the armor provides the monocoque structural framework, it can be lighter than a soft vehicle to which armor has been added, the angle of the armor helps protect against hits and mine blasts; the V-100 was available in open-top models. Factory prototype turret options included the T-60, T-70, T-90; the T-60 featured a combination of either two.50 caliber machine guns, two.30 caliber machine guns, or one of each, had manual traverse. The specific.30 caliber machine gun options were varied, with from factory configurations including the M1919A4E1, M37, M73, M219, MG42. The M60 and FN MAG were added to the list of options; the Cadillac Gage company intended to use the solenoid trigger equipped fixed machine gun version of the Stoner 63 weapon system, but this was dropped after tests showed the smaller caliber cartridge to be unsuited to this role. The T-90 featured a single 20 mm cannon with power traverse.
The T-70, developed for police use, featured 4 tear gas launchers, vision blocks all around the turret for 360-degree vision, no other weapons. The T-70 and T-90 were not put into mass production with a modified T-60, with the guns mounted together in the center, instead of on the outer edges, becoming the standard. A variant of this turret featuring the 7.62 mm General Electric Minigun was developed. In addition an open-topped variant with a central parapet was developed; the intended usage of this variant was to be a mortar portee, but a total of five machine gun mounts could be fitted. There were 2 in front, one in the rear all three M2 Browning or Mk 19 capable and one folding pintle point on each side capable of mounting any.30 caliber machine gun such as the M1919 Browning machine gun, M60 or any other machine gun of that class. An enclosed raised superstructure "pod" was developed for converting the V-100 into either a command vehicle or for police use; the variants for police work featured special elongated firing ports for better angles of fire for tear gas grenade launchers.
Large-gunned variants of the V-100 began appearing in 1964, when Cadillac Gage marketed the Commando against the Alvis Saladin and Panhard AML-90 for a Royal Saudi Army requirement specifying a wheeled armoured vehicle equipped with a large semi-automatic cannon. A number of V-150s were successfully tested and offered with a Mecar low-pressure 90mm smoothbore gun. With the new turret and gun, the V-150 was manned by a crew of three, although it retained enough space for eight additional passengers if no additional shell racks were added. At maximum capacity its hull could store up to thirty-nine rounds of 90mm ammunition and still seat four additional passengers. Subsequent V-150 models incorporated a larger turret armed with a much more powerful Cockerill Mk. III 90 mm gun. A third fire support option involved the retrofitting of the Commando chassis with the complete turret and 76mm L23A1 gun of the FV101 Scorpion light tank; the Commando was deployed to South Vietnam in September 1963 for use by the US Army Military Police, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps and allied forces including the Army of the Republic of Vietnam.
It was introduced in Vietnam as the XM706 Commando first to the ARVN who loaned the first examples to the U. S. Army in June 1967. By the end of 1968, the U. S. Army had purchased its own version of the armored car, the XM706E1 standardized as the M706. Within the U. S. Army it was affectionately known as the Duck, or the V; the main differences between the XM706 and XM706E1/M70
The Plunder of Shias, known in Kashmir's history as Taaraj-e Shia, refers to the ten campaigns of terror against Shias of Kashmir in the years 1548, 1585, 1636, 1686, 1719, 1741, 1762, 1801, 1831 and 1872 CE, carried out by Sunni clergy and fanatic militias of the area and abroad. In 1381 CE, after Timur invaded Iran, Mir Syed Ali Hamdani, an Iranian Sufi arrived in Kashmir with a large number of disciples and preached Islam, he instilled the love of Ahlul Bayt in the hearts of the new converts and wrote many books and tracts. Shi'ism was properly introduced by Mir Shams-ud Din Iraqi whose grandfather Syed Muhammad Noor Bakhsh belonged to the Sufi order of Mir Syed Ali Hamdani and had huge following base in Iran, Qandhar and Kashmir. Mir Shams-ud Din arrived in Kashmir in 1481 CE and returned to Iran. Twenty years in 1501 CE, he came to Kashmir again, along with 700 Shia Sufis and missionaries. In 1505 CE, the King of the Shah Mir Dynasty converted to Shi'ism and so did the Chak clan of Kashmir.
Mir Shams-ud Din Iraqi traveled in the valleys of Himalayas and spread Shi'ism from Skardu to Tibet, converting thousands of Hindus and Buddhists to Shi'ism. In 1516 CE, the Shia Chak dynasty was established and forcible conversions of Hindus began. In 1586 CE, Kashmir was merged with the Mughal Empire. Mughals appointed talented officers and contributed to the cultural and economic life of Kashmir. In 1753 CE Kashmir was conquered by Ahmad Shah Abdali, whose descendants ruled over Kashmir until they lost it to Sikhs in 1819 CE; the Kashmir valley came under the Dogra rule with the treaty of Amritsar signed between the British and Maharajah Gulab Singh of Jammu in 1846. According to the 1873 British gazetteer of Kashmir: "The Sunnis far outnumber the Shias... of the latter there were said to be only a thousand houses, numbering about five or six thousand souls... found chiefly at Zadibal, about two koss to the north of Srinagar, at Nandapor and Hassanabad, near to the city lake. Though so few in number, the men of this sect form the most active and well-to-do portion of the Mohamedan community.
The finest papier-mache workers and shawl makers in Srinagar are Shias, some of the wealthiest men in the city belong to that sect". In 1532 CE, Sultan Said Khan dispatched an army under the command of Mirza Haider Dughlat that attacked Kashmir from Kashgar, he was a Sunni religious scholar and therefore he hated Shias. Soon he fled to the Mughal King Humayun in Lahore, he returned in 1540 CE, accompanied by Mughal troops, at the invitation of one of the two rival factions that continually fought for power in Kashmir. He put an end to the Chak rule, his reign was a reign of terror and Shias had no choice but to practice Taqiyya. In 1550 CE, on the recommendation of fanatic Sunni elites Edi Reinah and Haji Banday and clerics Qazi Ibrahim and Qazi Abdul Ghafoor, he destroyed the Shia neighborhoods, dug the grave of Mir Shams-ud Din Iraqi and burnt his corpse, killed hundreds of Shias including Mir Danial, the son of Mir Shams-ud Din Iraqi, he had been arrested a year ago for proselytizing in Skardu region.
His assassination was compared by the Shias to the incidents Karbala. This sparked an all-out Shia uprising and Dughlat was assassinated by the end of the same year and the Chak rule was restored. In 1585 CE, Mirza Qasim Khan attacked Kashmir to annex it into Mughal Empire; when the Chak troops went outside to face the Mughal army, Sunni rebels set the Shia neighborhood of Zadibal on fire, looted their belongings and raped the Shia women. They fled through Poonch to join the Mughal army; the Chak rule came to an end. In 1636 CE, while people were picking fruits, an argument started between a Shia and a Sunni and it escalated to an all-out attack on the Shia neighborhoods; the Shia neighborhood of Zadibal was destroyed, inhabitants slaughtered, the tomb of Mir Shams-ud Din Iraqi was burnt to the ground. In 1686 CE, the fourth Taraaj started with a financial matter between a Shia businessman Abdul Shakoor and a Sunni fanatic. Abdul Shakoor was alleged to have insulted the Companions of the Prophet and a local cleric issued a fatwa against him.
The governor Ibrahim Khan offered him security and tried to control the situation, but the Sunni clerics managed to bring in millitias of Sunni Pashtun tribesmen from as far as Kabul, led by Alaf Khan, Farid Khan and Mirza Muqim, etc. They forced the governor to hand over the Shia businessman to the mob for lynching. After that, the militias went on to attack the Shia neighborhood of Hasan Abad, killing many. A Sunni cleric, Mulla Muhammad Tahir Mufti tried to stop the mob. Another Shia notable, Baba Qasim, was caught by the invading militias and tortured to death; the state tried to control the riots and some of the perpetrators were punished by death. In 1719 CE, a Sunni cleric Mulla Abd-un Nabi known as Mahtavi Khan, returned to Kashmir after being awarded a special status of Shaikh-ul Islam by the Emperor in Delhi. Following an argument with some Hindu officials of the government, he issued a fatwa which banned horse riding, covering head and wearing respectable dress for all the Hindus and made it mandatory for them to send their children to the Islamic school and imposed religious tax on them.
The governor refused to implement this fatwa and he was backed by the opinion of other clerics. This affair led to riots, the fanatics among the Sunnis started to attack Hindu properties, police had to use force to protect them; the governor ordered the arrest of Mulla Ab
A Vava Inouva is the successful 1976 debut album by Idir, the Algerian singer of Kabyle music. It contains the big international hit of the same title "A Vava Inouva" his debut single, it contains other important hits by him such as "Azwaw", "Zwit Rwit", "Ssendu" and "Cfiy" "A Vava Inouva", is the title track from the album. It was "A Baba-inu Ba" alternatively A baba inuba meaning My father to me, is a fine example of Kabyle music. "A Vava Inouva" was a lullaby composed by Idir and Ben Mohamed and was written for Nouara, a singer on Radio Algiers. However upon non acceptance by Nouara, Idir decided to interpret the song himself accompanied by the singer Mila; the lullaby song was an immediate success, making it arguably the best known song in the Kabyle language internationally and a great commercial success. Many other versions exist such as the 1999 version with Karen Matheson, a singer with a great repertoire of Gaelic songs; that version appeared in Idir's album Identités. "A Vava Inouva" has been translated into several languages including Arabic, French and others.
David Jisse and Dominique Marge released as a duo the French version "Ouvre-moi vite la porte". Katevas released a Greek version as "An ginotane" featuring Efi Strati. Video on YouTube A Vava Inouva Isefra Ssendu Azger Muqleɣ Zwit Rwit Cfiɣ Azwaw Tagrawla Tiɣri b ugrud Acawi Ay Arrac Nneɣ Cteduɣi Izumal L'Mut W' Ibryn Aɣrib Idir – vocal, percussion Omar Meguenni – guitar, vocal Gerard Geoffroy – flute Andrée Ceccarelli – drums Jean Musy – moog
David Epley was a minister who broadcast his weekly Christian TV show across the United States in the 1970s and 1980s, after gaining recognition through his regular daily broadcasts on more than fifty radio stations. Rev. Epley pastored a church in South Florida for forty years. Ordained as a General Baptist minister, he pastored small churches in Western Kentucky, he was called from Kentucky to be the guest minister for Dr. Thomas Wyatt at the Wings of Healing Temple in Portland Oregon during a month-long Holy Land tour by Dr. and Mrs. Wyatt. With a nationally syndicated Sunday program originating directly from Wings of Healing, David Epley began receiving invitations to hold revivals from California to Texas to Washington, D. C. With this exposure, Rev. Epley continued to travel the country, with his family, holding revivals in large churches and auditoriums, he became a Charismatic preacher with a healing ministry reaching crowds of thousands. He pastored large congregations in St. Louis and Hallandale, Florida.
Serving both as pastor and evangelist his identifying trademark was what many considered his uncanny ability to "know the thoughts and condition of others." Among Evangelical and Pentecostal circles these gifts are referred to as the "gift of knowledge" and the "gift of discernment." In this gift some compared his ministry to the type of ministry. Eply wrote many books, but was best known for his book "The Gift of Discernment." David Epley Ministries sent out a monthly magazine called "The Good Shepherd Magazine." The magazine offered what pastor Epley referred to as "points of contact" such as prayer cloths, vials of Holy Anointing Oil, etc. Pastor Epley well known for his letters of inspiration which he sent to those on his personal mailing list. David Epley is known for his Gospel records and some of his LPs from the 1960s and 1970s have surfaced on eBay, they are still featured on some radio stations across the country. His preaching style has been adopted by young ministers just starting out.
Rev. Epley died on June 28, 2009 from heart failure at the age of 78
Studio glass is the modern use of glass as an artistic medium to produce sculptures or three-dimensional artworks. The glass objects created are intended to make decorative statement, their prices may range from a few hundred to hundreds of thousands of dollars. For the largest installations, the prices are in the millions. During the early 20th-century, contemporary glass art was made by teams of factory workers, taking glass from furnaces containing a thousand or more pounds; this form of glass art, of which Tiffany and Steuben in the U. S. Gallé in France and Hoya Crystal in Japan, Royal Leerdam Crystal in the Netherlands and Orrefors and Kosta Boda in Sweden are the best known, grew out of the factory system in which all glass objects were hand or mold blown by teams. Modern glass studios use a great variety of techniques in creating glass artworks, including: Glassblowing, Glass casting, Glass fusing, Pâte de verre, Stained glass. From the 19th century, various types of fancy glass started to become significant branches of the decorative arts.
Cameo glass was revived for the first time since the Romans mostly used for pieces in a neo-classical style. The Art Nouveau movement in particular made great use of glass, with René Lalique, Émile Gallé, Daum of Nancy important names in the first French wave of the movement, producing colored vases and similar pieces in cameo glass, using lustre techniques. Louis Comfort Tiffany in America specialized in secular stained glass of plant subjects, both in panels and his famous lamps. From the 20th century, some glass artists began to class themselves as sculptors working in glass and as part of the fine arts. In the early 20th century, most glass production happened in factories. Individual glassblowers making their own personalized designs would do their work in those large shared buildings; the idea of "art glass" grew – small decorative works in small production runs with designs or objects inside. By the 1970s, there were good designs for smaller furnaces, in the United States this gave rise to the "studio glass" movement of glassblowers, who worked outside of factories in their own buildings or studios.
This coincided with a move towards smaller production runs of particular styles. This movement spread to other parts of the world as well. Modern glass studios use a great variety of techniques in creating their pieces; the ancient technique of blown glass, where a glassblower works at a furnace full of molten glass using metal rods and hand tools to blow and shape any form of glass, is one of the more popular ways to work. Most large hollow pieces are made this way, it allows the artist to be improvisational as they create their work. Another type is flame-worked glass, which uses kilns in its production; the artist works at a bench using rods and tubes of glass, shaping with hand tools to create their work. Many forms can be achieved this way with little investment into space. Though the artist is somewhat limited in the size of the work that can be created, a great level of detail can be achieved with this technique; the paperweights by Paul Stankard are good examples of what can be achieved with flame-working techniques.
In the 21st century, flame-worked glass became used as adornments on functional items. The glass conductor's baton, commissioned by Chandler Bridges for Dr. Andre Thomas, is a clear example of flame-working being used to transform a traditional item into an artistic statement. Cast glass can be done at the torch or in a kiln; the artist makes a mold out of refractory, sand, or plaster and silica which can be filled with either clear glass or colored or patterned glass, depending on the techniques and effects desired. Large scale sculpture is created this way. Slumped glass and fused glass is similar to cast glass, but it is not done at as high of a temperature; the glass is only heated enough to impress a shape or a texture onto the piece, or to stick several pieces of glass together without a glue. The traditional technique of stained glass is still employed for the creation of studio glass; the artist cuts the glass into shapes and sets the pieces into lead cames which are soldered together.
They artist can use hot techniques in a kiln to create texture, patterns, or change the overall shape of the glass. Etched glass is created by dipping glass that has an acid resistant pattern applied to its surface into an acid solution. An artist can engrave it by hand using wheels. Sandblasting can create a similar effect. Cold glass is any glass worked without the use of heat. Glass may be cut, chiseled and glued or bonded to form art objects ranging from small pieces to monumental sculpture; the international studio glass movement originated in America, spreading to Europe, the United Kingdom and Asia. The emphasis of this movement was on the artist as the designer and maker of one-of-a-kind objects, in a small studio environment; this movement enabled the sharing of technical knowledge and ideas among artists and designers that, in industry, would not be possible. With the dominance of Modernism in the arts, there was a broadening of artistic media throughout the 20th century. Indeed, glass was part of the curriculum at art schools such as the Bauhaus.
Frank Lloyd Wright's produced glass windows considered by some as masterpieces not only of design, but of painterly composition as well. During the 1950s, studio ceramics and other craft media in the U. S. began to gain in popularity and importance, American artists interested in glass looked for new paths outside industry. Harvey Littleton referred to as the "Father of the Studio Glass M