Book of Daniel
The Book of Daniel is a 2nd-century BC biblical apocalypse combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology, both cosmic in scope and political in its focus. In more mundane language, it is "an account of the activities and visions of Daniel, a noble Jew exiled at Babylon," its message being that just as the God of Israel saved Daniel and his friends from their enemies, so he would save all of Israel in their present oppression. In the Hebrew Bible it is found in the Ketuvim, while in Christian Bibles it is grouped with the Major Prophets; the book divides into two parts, a set of six court tales in chapters 1–6 followed by four apocalyptic visions in chapters 7–12. The deuterocanon contains three additional stories: the Song of the Three Holy Children and Bel and the Dragon; the book's influence has resonated through ages, from the Dead Sea Scrolls community and the authors of the gospels and Revelation, to various movements from the 2nd century to the Protestant Reformation and modern millennialist movements—on which it continues to have a profound influence.
The Book of Daniel is divided between the court tales of chapters 1–6 and the apocalyptic visions of 7–12, between the Hebrew of chapters 1 and 8–12 and the Aramaic of chapters 2–7. The division is reinforced by the chiastic arrangement of the Aramaic chapters, by a chronological progression in chapters 1–6 from Babylonian to Median times, from Babylonian to Persian in chapters 7–12. Various suggestions have been made by scholars to explain the fact that the genre division does not coincide with the other two, but it appears that the language division and concentric structure of chapters 2–6 are artificial literary devices designed to bind the two halves of the book together; the following outline is provided by Collins in his commentary on Daniel:PART I: Tales 1: Introduction 2: Nebuchadnezzar's dream of four kingdoms 3: The fiery furnace 4: Nebuchadnezzar's madness 5: Belshazzar's feast 6: Daniel in the lions' den PART II: Visions 7: The beasts from the sea 8: The ram and the he-goat 9: Interpretation of Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy weeks 10: The angel's revelation: kings of the north and south There is a clear chiasm in the chapter arrangement of the Aramaic section.
The following is taken from Paul Redditt's "Introduction to the Prophets": A1 – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth B1 – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace C1 – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar C2 – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar B2 – Daniel in the lions' den A2 – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifth In the third year of King Jehoiakim, God allows Jerusalem to fall into the power of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon. Young Israelites of noble and royal family, "without physical defect, handsome," versed in wisdom and competent to serve in the palace of the king, are taken to Babylon to be taught the literature and language of that nation. Among them are Daniel and his three companions, who refuse to touch the royal food and wine, their overseer fears for his life in case the health of his charges deteriorates, but Daniel suggests a trial and the four emerge healthier than their counterparts from ten days of nothing but vegetables and water.
They are allowed to continue to refrain from eating the king's food, to Daniel God gives insight into visions and dreams. When their training is done Nebuchadnezzar finds them'ten times better' than all the wise men in his service and therefore keeps them at his court, where Daniel continues until the first year of King Cyrus. In the second year of his reign Nebuchadnezzar has a dream; when he wakes up, he realizes that the dream has some important message, so he consults his wise men. Wary of their potential to fabricate an explanation, the king refuses to tell the wise men what he saw in his dream. Rather, he demands that his wise men tell him what the content of the dream was, interpret it; when the wise men protest that this is beyond the power of any man, he sentences all, including Daniel and his friends, to death. Daniel receives an explanatory vision from God: Nebuchadnezzar had seen an enormous statue with a head of gold and arms of silver and thighs of bronze, legs of iron, feet of mixed iron and clay saw the statue destroyed by a rock that turned into a mountain filling the whole earth.
Daniel explains the dream to the king: the statue symbolized four successive kingdoms, starting with Nebuchadnezzar, all of which would be crushed by God's kingdom, which would endure forever. Nebuchadnezzar acknowledges the supremacy of Daniel's god, raises Daniel over all his wise men, places Daniel and his companions over the province of Babylon. Daniel's companions Shadrach and Abednego refuse to bow to King Nebuchadnezzar's golden statue and are thrown into a fiery furnace. Nebuchadnezzar is astonished to see a fourth figure in the furnace with the three, one "with the appearance like a son of the gods." So the king called the three to come out of the fire, blessed the God of Israel, decreed that any who blasphemed against h
Meigle Sculptured Stone Museum
The Meigle Sculptured Stone Museum is a permanent exhibition of 27 carved Pictish stones in the centre of the village of Meigle in eastern Scotland. It lies on the A94 road running from Coupar Angus to Forfar; the museum occupies the former parish school, built 1844. The collection of stones implies that an important church was located nearby, or a monastery. There is an early historical record of the work of Thana, son of Dudabrach, at Meigle in the middle of the 9th century during the reign of King Pherath. Thana was to have been a monk serving as a scribe in a local monastery that could have been founded in the 8th century; the stones contained in the museum were all found near Meigle in the neighbouring churchyard or used in the construction of the old church. The present church building dates to about 1870, the previous building having been destroyed in a fire on 28 March 1869; the stones are Christian monuments to the dead of the Pictish warrior aristocracy, who are depicted on the stones bearing their weapons or hunting.
The museum building was the village schoolhouse. The building was purchased by the local laird Sir George Kinloch towards the end of the 19th century in order to protect the symbol stones. In 1936 the museum passed into the ownership of the State, it was renovated after the Second World War and reopened to the public in 1949. About one third of the stones in the museum are Class II in nature. Most of the stones were intended as tombstones; the stones are carved from the local sandstone, suitable for fine sculpture. Some stylistic elements of the stones show the influence of Northumbria; the Pictish stones at Meigle have a distinct local style that includes an emphasis on aggressive biting beasts, the decorating of crosses with a diagonal key pattern and the usage of rounded heads on cross-slabs. The sandstone used to sculpt the monuments is old red sandstone, a soft stone that lends itself to detailed carving but is susceptible to erosion; the monuments are to have been worked with iron tools such as chisels and hammers, together with hammerstones and wooden mallets.
The sculpted designs may have been copied from painted vellum pattern books. According to the local records, eight stones were lost before the close of the 19th century, including Meigle 10; some of the surviving stones are parts of larger monuments and it is probable that other fragments are buried in Meigle churchyard or have been used in the construction of walls. Before being moved into the museum, Meigle 1 and Meigle 2 stood on either side of the northern entrance to the churchyard, in front of a grass-covered mound called Vanora's Grave; some of the stones appear to have been trimmed and placed near the Grave in the 16th and 17th centuries in order to decorate it. Meigle 1 is a cross-slab; the stone was used as a standing stone two millennia before it was sculpted by the Picts, it has cup and ring marks low down on the back of the stone. The cross is Greek in style, with full circles at each of the four andles between the shaft and the arms; the inside of the cross is decorated with interlace patterns, the cross-point being decorated with spirals.
The cross shaft. It has an uncoordinated jumble of symbols arranged around a hunting scene on the other side. Among these are images of a winged figure that represents a Persian deity and of a kneeling camel, as well as a Pictish Beast, salmon, a serpent and Z-rod, a mirror, a comb, a dog's head and horsemen; this stone stood on the west side of the northern entrance to the churchyard, opposite Meigle 2. Meigle 1 may be the oldest stone at Meigle carved in the late 8th century. Meigle 2 stands nearly 2.5 metres high. It depicts Daniel in the lions' den on the other; the form of the head of the cross is based on that of a jewelled metal cross and is unique. The projecting boss at the centre of the cross has eight smaller bosses around it that symbolise the eight days of Passion Week running from Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday inclusive; the shaft of the cross contains three pairs of sculpted animals facing each other, with interlaced tails and tongues, while other beasts fill the space between the cross and the outer border of the monument.
The monument is the work of a master sculptor with the figures being cut in deep relief and arranged in an orderly fashion. Meigle 2 has projecting tenons on its top and sides and was intended to slot into a screen or wall. Local folklore holds that the representation of Daniel in the lions' den depicts King Arthur's wife Guinevere, known locally as Vanora, she was condemned by Arthur to be torn apart by wild beasts. The monument was said to mark her grave. Meigle 2 was located on the east side of the northern entrance to the churchyard, opposite Meigle 1, in front of a mound identified in local folklore as Vanora's Grave. Apart from the scene representing Daniel, the back of the monument contains various other sections; these include a mounted huntsman with an angel hovering above the dogs. Below this there is a procession of four horsemen, with three leading the fourth, distinguished by a large saddlecloth; the next row down is the Biblical Daniel scene, below this is a centaur holding an axe in each hand and branches trailing behind him.
The lowest section depicts a beast grasping an ox, a club-wielding human figure is positioned behind the aggressor. The stone has lost some detail due to erosion, although this is concentrated at the lower part of the cross itself and
Hilton of Cadboll Stone
The Hilton of Cadboll Stone is a Class II Pictish stone discovered at Hilton of Cadboll, on the East coast of the Tarbat Peninsula in Easter Ross, Scotland. It is one of the most magnificent of all Pictish cross-slabs. On the seaward-facing side is a Christian cross, on the landward facing side are secular depictions; the latter are carved below the Pictish symbols of crescent and v-rod and double disc and Z-rod: a hunting scene including a woman wearing a large penannular brooch riding side-saddle. Like other similar stones, it can be dated to about 800 AD; the stone was on in the vicinity of a chapel just north of the village. It was removed to Invergordon Castle in the 19th century, before being donated to the British Museum; the latter move was not popular with the Scottish public, so it was moved once more, to the Museum of Scotland, where it remains today. A reconstruction and carved by Barry Grove, was erected on the site. In 1998 excavation in the vicinity of the Hilton of Cadboll chapel site was undertaken by Kirkdale Archaeology on behalf of Historic Scotland.
During this work 40 fragments of carved micaceous sandstone were recovered. Subsequently, in 2001, Historic Scotland commissioned Kirkdale Archaeology to undertake a further excavation. Assisted by Barry Grove, a further 740 carved sandstone fragments, 122 carved fragments, were recovered. In addition, the fabled missing lower portion of the cross-slab left in-situ. In 2001 the lower portion of the cross-slab, along with several thousand more carved fragments, was recovered by Glasgow University Archaeological Research Division during an excavation funded by Historic Scotland. Following some controversy around where this section of the monument should be curated it was put on display in Hilton of Cadboll village hall rather than joining the upper portion at the Museum of Scotland. In parallel with the excavation, Historic Scotland funded research carried out by Professor Sian Jones of the University of Manchester into the significance of Early Medieval Sculpture to local communities which concentrated on the historical fragmentation and movement of the Hilton of Cadboll monument as well its modern role in the production of meaning and place, The excavation and subsequent analysis of the'biography' of the monument was the foundation of a major monograph published by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 2008.
The digital elements of the excavation archive were deposited with the Archaeology Data Service. Six burials were revealed during the work, indicating that the stone was used to mark the cemetery. Only one skeleton was excavated and removed; the burials contained various types of some stones with an unknown glaze on the surface. Several metatarsals were removed for radiocarbon dating, but were returned to the site once testing was complete. Ten soil samples were taken from the site which appeared to contain charcoal or other evidence about the environment; these samples were subjected to optically stimulated luminescence dating coupled with the analysis of the stratigraphy in order to establish the age and content of the soil. Five distinct levels were discovered in the soil. Hilton of Cadboll Stone at the National Museum of Scotland
The Black Isle is a peninsula within Ross and Cromarty, in the Scottish Highlands. It includes the towns of Cromarty and Fortrose, the villages of Culbokie, Rosemarkie, Munlochy, North Kessock and Muir of Ord, as well as numerous smaller settlements. About 12,000 people live depending on the definition; the northern slopes of the Black Isle offer fine views of Dingwall, Ben Wyvis and the deepwater anchorage at Invergordon. To the south and the Monadhliath Mountains can be seen. Despite its name, the Black Isle is not an island but a peninsula, surrounded on three sides by the sea – the Cromarty Firth to the north, the Beauly Firth to the south, the Moray Firth to the east; the area is home to a population of Bottlenose dolphins. On the fourth, western side, its boundary is broadly delineated by rivers; the River Conon divides Maryburgh from Conon Bridge, the first village on the Black Isle from the north-west. Its southwestern boundary is variously considered to be marked by either a minor tributary of the River Beauly separating Beauly and Muir of Ord, dividing the two counties and delineating the start of the Black Isle.
There are modern road bridges across the Cromarty and Beauly Firths, which carry the A9 trunk road across the heart of the Black Isle. The last remaining ferry is a summer service from Cromarty to Nigg; the North Coast 500 scenic route crosses the base of the peninsula. The Black Isle is close to railway stations at Inverness and along the Far North Line to Dingwall, as well as Inverness Airport and the cruise ship terminal at Invergordon. There B&B s on the Black Isle itself, with many more nearby. Land use is arable farming and forestry. Since the Kessock Ferry across the Beauly Firth was replaced by the bridge, the Black Isle has become something of a dormitory area for Inverness; the whole of the Black Isle is part of the Presbytery of Ross. The Black Isle has a wide variety of wildlife including several protected areas, it is known for the chance to see bottle-nosed dolphins at close range, either from wildlife boat operators in Avoch and Cromarty or from the beach at Chanonry Point between Rosemarkie and Fortrose.
Castles on the Black Isle include Castlecraig and Kilcoy Castle. Cromarty House stands on the site of former Cromarty Castle and is built in part from its reclaimed stone and timbers. Kinkell Castle has been restored. Former castles of the Black Isle for which there are no physical remains include Tarradale Castle, Castle Chanonry of Ross and a mound indicating the former site of Ormond Castle. Conventional middle to modern Black Isle history is well documented at a number of visitor centres and cottage museums sprinkled across the peninsula. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, it was called Ardmeanach, it derived its customary name from the fact that, since snow does not lie in winter, the promontory looks black while the surrounding country is white. However, only one theory amongst many. Rosehaugh, near Avoch, belonged to Sir George Mackenzie, founder of the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh, who earned the sobriquet of "Bloody" from his persecution of the Covenanters.
Redcastle, on the shore, near Killearnan church, dates from 1179 and is said to have been the earliest inhabited house in the north of Scotland. On the forfeiture of the earldom of Ross it became a royal castle, afterwards passed for a period into the hands of the Mackenzies of Gairloch; the Black Isle had been Munro country. The Black Isle was one of the earliest parts of the northern Highlands to experience the clearances and was settled with many Lowland shepherds and farmers from the north east. Hugh Miller, self-taught geologist and writer, was born in Cromarty where his cottage is now a National Trust for Scotland museum. Alexander Mackenzie, who crossed Canada overland in 1793 and gave his name to the Mackenzie River, is buried near Avoch. Between 1989 and 1994, 93 red kites of Swedish origin were reintroduced to the Black Isle. From 1894 until 1960 the Black Isle Railway, known as the Fortrose Branch, ran from Muir of Ord to Fortrose; the principal secondary school on the Black Isle is Fortrose Academy which has around 780 pupils.
Fortrose Academy is one of the top 50 secondary Schools in Scotland There are a number of primary schools, most of whom transfer pupils to Fortrose Academy when they become of age, whilst the others transfer pupils to Dingwall Academy. Ben Wyvis Primary School Tore Primary School Avoch Primary School Culbokie Primary School Ferintosh Primary School Mulbuie Primary School Cromarty Primary School North Kessock Primary School Munlochy Primary School Beauly Primary School Tarradale Primary School In addition to its Gaelic heritage, the Black Isle had its own dialect of North Northern Scots, used among fisherfolk in Avoch and Cromarty, where it became extinct in October 2012, upon the death of Bobby Hogg, the last native speaker. Now used, there are Clootie well sites at Munlochy and Avoch. Anne MacLeod, the writer, lives on the Black Isle. Easter Ross Ross-shire Cromartyshire Ross and Cromarty Media related to Black Isle at Wikimedia Commons Black Isle Partnership website Listen to recordings of a speaker of Scots from the B
Edderton Cross Slab
Edderton Cross Slab is a Class III Pictish stone standing in the old graveyard of the village of Edderton, Easter Ross. The stone is of red sandstone. On the western side there is an undecorated but elegant celtic cross, the circles within its rings emphasised by being left in relief. On the eastern side there is another cross on the upper half, standing on a semi-circular base or arch, within, a horseman in relief, with two further riders incised below; the slab was sunk deeper in the earth, concealing the lower two horsemen, but has been raised to its presumed original height. This monument should not be confused with the Edderton Symbol Stone, or Clach Biorach, a red sandstone pillar of Bronze Age origin with Pictish symbols incised on it, which stands in a field near the village of Edderton a little to the west. Further fragments of early medieval cross-slabs, in poor condition, from Edderton churchyard, are preserved in Tain Museum. MacNamara, The Pictish Stones of Easter Ross, Celtic art
The Eassie Stone is a Class II Pictish stone of about the mid 8th century AD in the village of Eassie, Scotland. The stone was found in Eassie burn in the late 18th century and now resides in a purpose-built perspex building in the ruined Eassie church; the cross slab is housed in a purpose-built shelter with see-through walls within the roofless shell of the old Eassie parish church, grid reference NO35264745 on the north side A94 road some 4 kilometres west of Glamis and 6 kilometres east of Meigle. The stone is a cross-slab 2.04 metres high and 1.02 metres wide, tapering to 0.84 metres at the top, is 23 centimetres thick. The slab is carved on both faces in relief and, as it bears Pictish symbols, it falls into John Romilly Allen and Joseph Anderson's classification system as a class II stone; the cross face bears a cross with circular rings in its angles, surrounding a circular central boss decorated with a keywork design. The arms and shaft are decorated with a variety of complex interlaced knotwork designs.
The upper quadrants held a pair of angels, but have suffered some damage, the right-hand figure being completely lost. A similar four-winged angel can be found on the nearby Glamis 2 stone; the lower left-hand quadrant shows a cloaked warrior armed with a small square buckler and spear, the lower right-hand quadrant depicts a stag and hunting hounds. The rear face of the slab bears a mixture of Pictish symbols. At the top of the face is a damaged Pictish beast over Z-rod. Below this is a trio of cloaked figures, to the right is a figure standing in front of a potted tree, which historian Lloyd Laing has interpreted as having human heads suspended from its branches. Below this lie weathered horseshoe and Pictish beast symbols; the bottom of the face holds representations of cattle. The cross-slab was found in the bed near Eassie Church by Rev. Cordiner, c. 1786. From there it was moved to the churchyard, where it stood for over a century, until the 1960s when a purpose built building with viewing windows was built for it within the structure of the ruined church.
The church itself was built in the 16th century on the site of an earlier building, dedicated in 1246 by Bishop David of St Andrews. In 1309 it was granted to Newbattle Abbey. Although there are elements of the original, much of it seems to have been rebuilt in the late 1500s. In 1600 the parish of Eassie was combined with a neighbouring parish; the windows and doors were altered in the 18th century. In 1835 the two churches of the parish were replaced by a single larger one serving. Since Eassie Old Parish Church has stood derelict; the Eassie stone belongs to the Aberlemno School of Pictish sculpture as extended by Lloyd Laing from Ross Trench Jellicoe's original proposed list. In addition to the Eassie stone, stones in the Aberlemno School include Aberlemno 2, Aberlemno 3, Menmuir 1, Kirriemuir 1, Monifieth 2, Rossie Priory, Glamis 1 and Glamis 2. Castleton Meigle Sculptured Stone Museum C. Michael Hogan, Eassie Stone, The Megalithic Portal Historic Environment Scotland. "Eassie Old Church and cross slab"
The Camus Cross, otherwise known as the Camuston or Camustane Cross, is an Early Medieval Scottish standing stone located on the Panmure Estate near Carnoustie in Angus, Scotland. First recorded in the 15th century in a legal document describing the boundaries between Camuston and the barony of Downie, described in the 17th century by Robert Maule, it is a freestanding cross, rare in Eastern Scotland; the cross is thought to date from the tenth century, exhibits distinctive Hiberno-Scottish mission influences, in common with several other monuments in the area. Tradition and folk etymology suggest that the cross marked the burial site of Camus, leader of the Norse army purportedly defeated by King Malcolm II at the apocryphal Battle of Barry; the name of the stone is to derive from the extinct village of Camuston, which has a Celtic toponymy. The Camus Cross is in the Downie Hills 4 kilometres northwest of Carnoustie in Angus, Scotland, it is situated at the centre of a 1 kilometre long avenue leading east-north-east through Camuston Wood from the Panmure Testimonial to the Craigton to Carnoustie road, at.
The avenue is part of Panmure Estate and leads, beyond the road, to the former site of Panmure House. The freestanding cross is carved from Old Red Sandstone and stands 2 metres high 0.6 metres wide at the base, 0.8 metres wide at the arms, 0.2 metres thick. It stands on a low earth mound, 7.5 metres wide, 4.5 metres wide and 1 metre high, in the centre of the Camuston Wood avenue, facing east to west. All faces and sides are sculpted; the cross has suffered significant weathering, most notably on the west face, which has obscured some of the designs. The stone bears no idiomatic Pictish symbols and, under J Romilly Allen and Joseph Anderson's classification system, it is a class III stone. Intact freestanding crosses of this age are comparatively rare due to their vulnerability to damage, the only ones in Eastern Scotland are the Camus Cross and the Dupplin Cross in Strathearn. Fragmentary remains of other crosses include heads found at Forteviot, St Vigeans and Strathmartine and shaft fragments found at Monifieth, Abernethy and Invermay, as well as some socketed stones where crosses once stood.
The western face is divided into three sections. The uppermost section is completely weathered; the antiquarian Alexander Gordon, who described the stone in 1726 in his Itinerarium Septentrionale, records this panel as holding a crucifixion scene, with the figure of a man at the right hand side and the left side defaced. Below this is a depiction of a centaur holding a bow, with the lowest panel having a symmetrical floral scroll design; the eastern face is interpreted as a depiction of Christ flanked by angels above the four evangelists, although Robert Maule, in the earliest description of the stone, described the scene as Moses giving out the Law. The carving on the Camus Cross shows distinct similarities with those on the Brechin Hogback stone and point to an Irish Ecclesiastical influence; the foliar designs on the north and south edges seen as Ringerike-like, consist of tendrils and volutes with "wave-crest" thickening. These features bear closest similarity with Irish insular art of the late tenth century, the treatment of the symmetrical foliar scroll design on the lower portion of the west face is diagnostically Irish.
The full-face figures on the east face are of an identical type to those on the Brechin Hogback. In the case of the Brechin Hogback, the figures are carrying objects that are characteristic of early medieval Irish monasticism; the Camus Cross is thought to be a late Pictish/early Gaelic era monument, dating from the 10th century. The earliest record of it is in a legal document of 1481, describing the boundary of the lands of Camuston, owned by Sir Thomas Maule, the barony of Downy, owned by the Earl of Crawford; the boundary was described as running "a magna cruce lapidea de Cambiston". It was mentioned in the context of the Battle of Barry in Hector Boece's Historia Gentis Scotorum in 1527, first described in detail by the antiquarian Robert Maule, who erected it at its present position in 1620, after moving it six feet to centralise it within the Camuston Wood avenue; the croce standis southe and northe, sa the bread syd thear of the ane to the east and the wther to the west. On thear heads thay heawe clos bonnets twrnand hard thearto, quhilk appeirandly is Moses representine the lawe befor the cominge of Christ, thearfor ar set towardis the east as representine the begininge and infancie of the world.
Opposit to Moses, signifiinge the latter dayes to approche and the declyninge age. In the second rank wnder the Crucifix ane man on hors bak, lyand bak owir, drawand ane bowe, the head of the arrowe wery grytm that it semes rather to be ane bolt arrowe, albeit the bowe dois rather appeir to be ane hand bow nor cros bowe. In the lawest and thrid rank tehar is only the dr