The View (talk show)
The View is an American talk show, conceived by broadcast journalist Barbara Walters. It has aired on ABC as part of the network's daytime programming block since August 11, 1997; the show features a multi-generational panel of women, who discuss the day's "Hot Topics" such as sociopolitical and entertainment news. In addition to the conversation segments, the panel conducts interviews with prominent figures, such as celebrities and politicians. Production of the show was held in ABC Television Studio 23 in New York City. In 2014, it relocated to ABC Broadcast Center in New York City. Throughout its run, The View has had a total of 22 permanent co-hosts of varying characteristics and ideologies, with the number of contracted permanent co-hosts ranging between four and eight women per season; the original panel comprised Walters, broadcast journalist Meredith Vieira, attorney Star Jones, then-newcomer Debbie Matenopoulos, comedian Joy Behar, while the current line-up consists of Behar, entertainer Whoopi Goldberg, attorney Sunny Hostin, television personalities Meghan McCain and Abby Huntsman.
Furthermore, the show makes use of male and female guest panelists, including the addition of television personality Ana Navarro as a weekly guest co-host in season 22. The View has won 30 Daytime Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Talk Show and Outstanding Talk Show Host; the show has received positive reviews from The New York Times, Entertainment Weekly, New York Post, HuffPost. Beginning in 2007, the show became subject to on-air controversies and media criticism due to frequent changes in its panel of co-hosts, subsequently causing a decline in ratings. In 2014, the show was transferred from the helm of the entertainment division to that of ABC News, which led to a viewership growth and warmer critical response. In 2017, the show became the only broadcast daytime program to see a rise in its overall audience from the previous season; the original opening credits for the show featured voice-over from broadcast journalist as well as the show's creator and executive producer Barbara Walters explaining the show's premise as well as its co-hosts' credentials: Walters described the show as "a talk show featuring four or five women'of different backgrounds, different generations, different opinions,' who would discuss the topics of the day, mixing humor with intelligent debate."
The show begins with a segment where the panel engages in a discussion pertaining to subjects ranging from politics to social issues as well as pop culture referred to as "Hot Topics." Every episode features multiple "Hot Topics" segments, which take up to most–if not all–of the day's show. The discussions are followed by an interview with a guest a celebrity promoting a project; the show periodically conducts audience giveaways. Every show is ended by one of the co-hosts the moderator, delivering the closing remarks, "Have a great day and take a little time to enjoy the view."The twelfth season of The View focused on the events related to the 2008 United States presidential election and its aftermath. The show's thirteenth season saw the introduction male guest panelists. Male personalities have since begun serving as guest co-hosts more specifically on Fridays, dubbed "Guy Day Friday." After Walters' retirement, the show was perceived to have been veering away from political discussions. Leading to the 2016 United States presidential election, the show began refocusing on politics and has reincorporated it back into "Hot Topics" discussions since.
During its first 17 seasons, The View was filmed at 320 West 66th Street in ABC Television Studio 23 in New York City. The original set for the first four seasons was a leftover set from a cancelled soap opera The City; as a co-executive producer of the show, Walters plays a part in the casting of the co-hosts. Longtime executive producer Bill Geddie was the lone recurring male persona, sometimes shown as stepping out from behind the camera to interact with the panel; the co-hosts wear IFB earpieces. The View's eighteenth season brought significant on-air and behind-the-scenes changes in what was regarded as a "reinvention" of the show. In August 2014, ABC announced that Geddie was departing the show and that he was to be replaced by Bill Wolff, who had served as vice president of primetime programming and as executive producer of The Rachel Maddow Show at MSNBC. Production of the show relocated to the ABC Broadcast Center at 77 West 66th Street on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. During the season premiere on September 15, 2014, the show unveiled its new studio featuring a coffee table-style desk with low-arm chairs, a large video wall, in-the-round audience seating, an on-camera social media station.
Subsequent tweaks included a glass desk and high stools at center stage, as well as color adjustments in backgrounds and graphics. On October 30, 2014, ABC announced that responsibilities for production oversight on The View would shift from ABC's daytime entertainment division to Lincoln Square Productions, an ABC News subsidiary, where the show will be grouped under the division's non-fiction programming umbrella; the move allowed the show to leverage ABC News' resources toward news-related segments. In August 2015, it was reported that former Late Show with David Letterman producer Brian Teta would be joining the show as co-executive producer. In the month, executive producer Wolff was announced to be departing the show. During season 19, the show introduced an aftershow entitled After the View, available through live streaming. In Feb
Diana Ross is an American singer and record producer. Born and raised in Detroit, Ross rose to fame as the lead singer of the vocal group the Supremes, during the 1960s, became Motown's most successful act, are the best charting girl group in US history, as well as one of the world's best-selling girl groups of all time; the group released a record-setting twelve number-one hit singles on the US Billboard Hot 100, including "Where Did Our Love Go", "Baby Love", "Come See About Me", "Stop! In the Name of Love", "You Can't Hurry Love", "You Keep Me Hangin' On", "Love Child", "Someday We'll Be Together". Following her departure from the Supremes in 1970, Ross released her eponymous debut solo album that same year, featuring the number-one Pop hit "Ain't No Mountain High Enough", she released the album Touch Me in the Morning in 1973. She continued a successful solo career through the 1970s, which included hit albums like Mahogany and Diana Ross and their number-one hit singles, "Theme from Mahogany" and "Love Hangover", respectively.
Her 1980 album Diana produced another number-one single, "Upside Down", as well as the international hit "I'm Coming Out". Ross' final single with Motown during her initial run with the company achieved her sixth and final US number-one Pop hit, the duet "Endless Love" featuring Lionel Richie, whose solo career was launched with its success. Ross has ventured into acting, with a Golden Globe Award and Academy Award-nominated performance for her performance in the film Lady Sings the Blues, she starred in two other feature films and The Wiz acting in the television films Out of Darkness, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award, Double Platinum. Ross was named the "Female Entertainer of the Century" by Billboard magazine. In 1993, the Guinness Book of World Records declared Ross the most successful female music artist in history, due to her success in the United States and United Kingdom for having more hits than any female artist in the charts, with a career total of 70 hit singles with her work with the Supremes and as a solo artist.
In 1988, Ross was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as member of the Supremes, alongside Mary Wilson and Florence Ballard. She was the recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors in 2007, the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2016, she is a 12-time Grammy nominee, never earning a competitive honor, but became the recipient of the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012. In December 2016, Billboard magazine named her the 50th most successful dance artist of all time. In Billboard magazine's Greatest of All Time Hot 100 Artists chart, she ranked 16th as the lead singer of the Supremes and 26th as a solo artist. In December 2018, Diana Ross consolidated her status as a dance diva by ranking #3 in the Billboard Dance Club Songs Artists year-end chart. Diana Ross was born at the Hutzel Women's Hospital in Detroit on March 26, 1944, she was the second eldest child for Ernestine and Fred Ross, Sr.. Ross's older sister is American physician Barbara Ross-Lee. According to Ross, her mother named her "Diane", but, a clerical error resulted in her name being recorded as "Diana" on her birth certificate.
She was listed as "Diane" during the first Supremes records, she introduced herself as "Diane" until early in the group's heyday. Her friends and family still call her "Diane". Ross's grandfather John E. Ross, a native of Gloucester County, was born to Washington Ross and Virginia Baytop. Virginia Baytop's mother Francis "Frankey" Baytop was a former slave who had become a midwife after the Civil War. Ross and her family lived on Belmont Road in the North End section of Detroit, near Highland Park, where her neighbor was Smokey Robinson; when Ross was seven, her mother contracted tuberculosis, causing her to become ill. Ross's father moved with his children to live with relatives in Alabama. After her mother recovered, her family moved back to Detroit. On her 14th birthday in 1958, her family relocated to the working-class Brewster-Douglass Housing Projects settling at St. Antoine Street. Attending Cass Technical High School, a four-year college and preparatory magnet school, in downtown Detroit, Ross began taking classes including clothing design, pattern making, tailoring, as she had aspired to become a fashion designer.
She took modeling and cosmetology classes at the school and participated in three or four other extracurricular activities while there. Ross worked at Hudson's Department Store where it has been claimed in biographies, she was the first black employee "allowed outside the kitchen". For extra income, she provided hairdressing services for her neighbors. Ross graduated from Cass Tech in January 1962. At fifteen, Ross joined the Primettes, a sister group of a male vocal group called the Primes, after being brought to the attention of music manager Milton Jenkins by Primes member Paul Williams. Along with Ross, the other members included Florence Ballard, the first group member hired by Jenkins, Mary Wilson, Betty McGlown. Following a talent competition win in Windsor, Ontario, in 1960, the Primettes were invited to audition for Motown records. Ballard declined the offer, due to unsavory rumors of the unscrupulous business practices of Motown's founder, Berry Gordy. Following local success via live performances at sock hops, etc. Ross approached former neighbor, William "Smokey" Robinson, who insisted that the group a
Peekskill, New York
Peekskill the City of Peekskill, is a city in Westchester County, New York. Peekskill is situated on a bay along the east side of the Hudson River, across from Jones Point; the population was 23,583 during the 2010 census. This community was known to be an early American industrial center for its iron plow and stove products; the Binney & Smith Company, now makers of Crayola products, started as the Peekskill Chemical Company at Annsville in 1864. Peekskill's manufacturing base operated well into the late 20th century, with the Fleischmann Company making yeast by-products under the Standard Brands corporate name; the well-publicized "Peekskill" Riots of 1949 involved attacks and a lynching-in-effigy occasioned by Paul Robeson's benefit concerts for the Civil Rights Congress, although the main assault following the September concert properly occurred in nearby Van Cortlandtville. In September 1609, Henry Hudson, captain of the Halve Maen, anchored along the reach of the Hudson at Peekskill, his firstmate noted in the ship's log that it was a "very pleasant place to build a town".
After the establishment of the province of New Netherland, New Amsterdam resident Jan Peeck made the first recorded contact with the Lenape people of this area identified as "Sachoes". The date is not certain, but agreements and merchant transactions took place, formalized in the Ryck's Patent Deed of 1684; the name Peekskill derives from a combination of Mr. Peek's surname and the Dutch word for stream, kil or kill. Located on the north bank of the Annsville Creek as it empties into the Hudson, Fort Independence combined with Forts Montgomery and Clinton to defend the Hudson River Valley. Fort Independence was built in August 1776, while Forts Clinton were started in June. Fort Hill Park, the site of Camp Peekskill, contained two redoubts. European style settlement took place in the early 18th century. By the time of the American Revolution, the tiny community was an important manufacturing center from its various mills along the several creeks and streams; these industrial activities were attractive to the Continental Army in establishing its headquarters here in 1776.
The mills of Peek's Creek provided gunpowder, leather and flour. Slaughterhouses were important for food supply; the river docks allowed transport of supply items and soldiers to the several other fort garrisons placed to prevent British naval passage between Albany and New York City. Officers at Peekskill supervised placing the first iron link chain between Bear Mountain and Anthony's Nose in the spring of 1777. Though Peekskill's terrain and mills were beneficial to the Patriot cause, they made tempting targets for British raids; the most damaging attack took place in early spring of 1777, when an invasion force of a dozen vessels led by a warship and supported by infantry overwhelmed the American defenders. Another British operation in October 1777 led to further destruction of industrial apparatus. "On leaving New Windsor in June, 1781, Washington established his quarters, for a short time, at Peekskill." Peekskill's first legal incorporation of 1816 was reactivated in 1826 when Village elections took place.
The Village was further incorporated within the Town of Cortlandt in 1849 and remained so until separating as a city in 1940. In 1859 Rev. Henry Ward Beecher bought a thirty-six acre farm at Peekskill. Beecher established a summer home for his family. In 1902 the locally prominent McFadden family bought the property. In 1987 the Beecher-McFadden Estate was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In August 1949, following reports misquoting Paul Robeson's speech to the World Peace Conference in Paris as stating that African Americans would not fight for the United States in any prospective war against the Soviet Union, a planned benefit concert for the Civil Rights Congress in Peekskill had to be cancelled amid White Nationalist and anti-communist violence. An effigy of Robeson was lynched in the town; the artists were able to plan a second concert in nearby Van Cortlandtville on a farm owned by a Holocaust survivor. The publicity drew a crowd of around 20,000, two men with rifles were discovered and removed prior to any violence during the concert itself.
It was one of the earliest performances of Pete Seeger's "If I Had a Hammer". Following the event, area police and state troopers directed exiting traffic down a single road into an ambush where rocks were thrown through car windows; some were overturned and their occupants beaten without police intervention. These Peekskill Riots were subsequently well-publicized in news report and folk songs and formed a major event in E. L. Doctorow's historical fiction novel The Book of Daniel. Peekskill was the landing point of a fragment of the Peekskill Meteorite, just before midnight on October 9, 1992; the meteoric trail was recorded on film by at least sixteen individuals. This was only the fourth meteorite in history; the rock had a mass of 12.4 kg and punched through the trunk of Peekskill resident Michelle Knapp's automobile upon impact. The Peekskill Evening Star and the Peekskill Highland Democrat were two of the city's daily newspapers through much of the City's history; the Evening Star published under various mastheads from the 19th century on, as the Evening Star from 1939 till 1985 when the paper folded into what would become the nexus of the Journal News, a conglomeration of local papers from throughout Westchester County.
The Journal News focused more on state
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Bushwick is a working-class neighborhood in the northern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is bounded by the neighborhood of Queens, to the northeast; the town was first founded by Europeans during the Dutch colonization of the Americas in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the neighborhood became a community of Germanic immigrants and their descendants. Brooklyn's 18th Ward, the neighborhood was once an independent town and has undergone various territorial changes throughout its history. Bushwick is part of Brooklyn Community District 4 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11206, 11207, 11221, 11237, it is patrolled by the 83rd Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 34th and 37th Districts. Bushwick's borders overlap those of Brooklyn Community Board 4, delineated by Flushing Avenue on the north, Broadway on the southwest, the border with Queens to the northeast, the Cemetery of the Evergreens on the southeast.
The industrial area north of Flushing Avenue, east of Bushwick Avenue, south of Grand Street is considered part of East Williamsburg. However, it is commonly included in Bushwick with the modifier "Industrial Bushwick"; the town of Bushwick—which, along with Breukelen and Bedford, became incorporated as the city of Brooklyn on January 1, 1854—included present-day Williamsburg and Greenpoint. Prior to the merger, in the early 19th century, residential development in the area had begun when the new district of Williamsburg was laid out in western Bushwick. Williamsburg was incorporated in 1827 and severed from Bushwick in 1839. Present-day East Williamsburg, not part of the city of Williamsburg, was organized as Brooklyn's 18th Ward from the annexation of Bushwick. Now part of Brooklyn Community District 1, the area of East Williamsburg is considered by some to be part of Bushwick; the centroid, or geographic center, of New York City is in Bushwick "on Stockholm Street between Wyckoff Avenue and St. Nicholas Avenue".
In 1638, the Dutch West India Company secured a deed from the local Lenape people for the Bushwick area, Peter Stuyvesant chartered the area in 1661, naming it Boswijck, meaning "neighbourhood in the woods" in 17th-century Dutch. Its area included the modern-day communities of Bushwick and Greenpoint. Bushwick was the last of the original six Dutch towns of Brooklyn to be established within New Netherland; the community was settled, though unchartered, on February 16, 1660, on a plot of land between the Bushwick and Newtown Creeks by fourteen French and Huguenot settlers, a Dutch translator named Peter Jan De Witt, one of the original eleven slaves brought to New Netherland, Franciscus the Negro, who had worked his way to freedom. The group centered their settlement on a church located near today's Bushwick and Metropolitan Avenues; the major thoroughfare was Woodpoint Road, which allowed farmers to bring their goods to the town dock. This original settlement came to be known as Het Dorp by the Dutch, Bushwick Green by the British.
The English would take over the six towns three years and unite them under Kings County in 1683. Many of Bushwick's Dutch records were lost after its annexation by Brooklyn in 1854. Contemporary reports differ on the reason: T. W. Field writes that "a nice functionary of the City Hall... contemptuously thrust them into his waste-paper sacks", while Eugene Armbruster claims that the movable bookcase containing the records "was coveted by some municipal officer, who turned its contents upon the floor". At the turn of the 19th century, Bushwick consisted of four villages: Green Point, Bushwick Shore, Bushwick Green, Bushwick Crossroads. Bushwick's first major expansion occurred after it annexed the New Lots of Bushwick, a hilly upland claimed by Native Americans in the first treaties they signed with European colonists granting the settlers rights to the lowland on the water. After the second war between the natives and the settlers broke out, the natives fled, leaving the area to be divided among the six towns in Kings County.
Bushwick had the prime location to absorb its new tract of land in a contiguous fashion. New Bushwick Lane, a former Native American trail, was a key thoroughfare for accessing this new tract, suitable for potato and cabbage agriculture; this area is bounded by Flushing Avenue to the north and Evergreen Cemetery to the south. In the 1850s, the New Lots of Bushwick area began to develop. References to the town of Bowronville, a new neighborhood contained within the area south of Lafayette Avenue and Stanhope Street, began to appear in the 1850s; the area known as Bushwick Shore was so called for about 140 years. Bushwick residents called Bushwick Shore "the Strand", another term for "beach". Bushwick Creek, in the north, Cripplebush, a region of thick, boggy shrubland extending from Wallabout Creek to Newtown Creek, in the south and east, cut Bushwick Shore off from the other villages in Bushwick. Farmers and gardeners from the other Bushwick villages sent their goods to Bushwick Shore to be ferried to New York City for sale at a market located at the present-day Grand Street.
Bushwick Shore's favorable location close to New York City led to the creation of several farming developments. A 13-acre development with
Ridgewood is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens. It borders the neighborhoods of Maspeth, Middle Village and Glendale, as well as the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Bushwick and East Williamsburg; the neighborhood straddled the Queens-Brooklyn boundary. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 5. Ridgewood was part of the Dutch settlement Boswijk and was incorporated into the village of Breuckelen. A legacy of this past stands today; the house is the oldest Dutch Colonial stone house in New York City. Located at the Onderdonk House site is Arbitration Rock, a marker for the disputed boundary between Bushwick and Newtown and Brooklyn and Queens. Although the area was farmed and settled by the Dutch during the 18th and 19th centuries, it was the secondary wave of English settlers who named it Ridgewood after the area's green and hilly terrain; the development of public transportation, from horse-drawn cars in the mid-19th century and trolleys and elevated trains, helped to spur residential and retail development.
Most of the housing stock was built between 1905 and 1915 to house German immigrants who worked in the breweries and knitting factories that straddled the Queens-Brooklyn border. After World War I, the population expanded with an influx of Gottscheers—an ethnic German population from Slovenia who were dislocated in the aftermath of World War I—and Irish, followed soon after by Italians. In April 1934, a large, 9,000-person boycott of Nazi Germany resulted in brawls between Nazi sympathizers and Jewish Communist groups. In the mid-20th century, Romanians and Puerto Ricans arrived. By the late 20th century, Poles and Ecuadorians—including a significant population of Quechua speaking Amerindians from the Imbabura and Cañar provinces of Ecuador—had moved to Ridgewood. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Ridgewood was 69,317, a decrease of 138 from the 69,455 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,156.31 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 59.9 inhabitants per acre.
The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 39.8% White, 2.0% African American, 0.1% Native American, 7.7% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49.0% of the population. F The entirety of Community Board 5, which comprises Maspeth, Middle Village, Glendale, had 166,924 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.4 years. This is about equal to the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 22% are between the ages of 0–17, 31% between 25–44, 26% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 8% and 13% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community Board 5 was $71,234. In 2018, an estimated 19% of Ridgewood and Maspeth residents lived in poverty, compared to 19% in all of Queens and 20% in all of New York City. One in seventeen residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City.
Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 46% in Ridgewood and Maspeth, lower than the boroughwide and citywide rates of 53% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Ridgewood, Middle Village, Glendale are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying; the majority of the neighborhood covers a large hill, part of the glacial moraine that created Long Island, which starts at Metropolitan Avenue, rises steeply for about two blocks slopes down gently. A good example of just how steep the hill is can be found at Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal Parish; the front entrance of the Church, at street level on 60th Place, is level with the second floor of the Parish school right next door. Major streets in Ridgewood include Seneca Avenue, Forest Avenue, Fresh Pond Road, Myrtle Avenue, Metropolitan Avenue. All are narrow two-lane roads, the high volume on these streets can cause traffic tie-ups during rush hour.
The intersection of Fresh Pond and Metropolitan is notorious for being a bottleneck. The main shopping areas are on Fresh Pond Road. Other, smaller shopping strips are located on Metropolitan Avenue, Forest Avenue, Seneca Avenue. Ridgewood is zoned for various land uses, but is commercial along main streets and residential along side streets. Large parts of the neighborhood are residential historic districts. Ridgewood is a densely settled neighborhood, with housing stock ranging from six-family buildings near the Brooklyn border to two-family and single-family row houses deeper into Queens. Ridgewood is visually distinguished from Bushwick by the large amount of exposed brick construction. Like neighboring Bushwick, nearly all of the buildings in Ridgewood are classified as combustible. Most of Ridgewood was developed block-by-block around the turn of the 20th century. Most of the buildings were designed by local architect Louis Berger & Co. which designed more than 5,000 buildings in the area.
The neighborhood has been untouched by construction since leaving many centrally planned blocks of houses and tenements still in the same state as their construction. These blocks include the Mathews Flats, Ring-Gibson Houses, Stier Houses. Many of thes
Nuyorican is a portmanteau of the terms "New York" and "Puerto Rican" and refers to the members or culture of the Puerto Rican diaspora located in or around New York City, or of their descendants. This term could be used for Puerto Ricans living in other areas in the Northeast outside New York State; the term is used by Islander Puerto Ricans to differentiate those of Puerto Rican descent from the Puerto Rico-born. The term Nuyorican is sometimes used to refer to the Spanish spoken by New York Puerto Ricans. An estimated 1,800,000 Nuyoricans are said to live in New York city, the largest Puerto Rican community outside Puerto Rico. Nuyoricans are not considered Puerto Ricans by some island Puerto Ricans due to cultural differences. Nuyorican has a broad meaning. Ethnic enclaves centered on Puerto Ricans include Manhattan; the Oxford English Dictionary cites this word as evolving through the last third of the 20th century, with the first cited reference being poet Jaime Carrero using neorriqueño in 1964 as a Spanish-language adjective combining neoyorquino and puertorriqueño.
Many other variants developed along the way, including neoricano and newyorican. Nuyorican itself dates at least from 1975, the date of the first public sessions of the Nuyorican Poets Café; some of the best known "Nuyoricans" who have written and performed their experiences of being a Puerto Rican in New York are: Miguel Piñero, Miguel Algarín, Piri Thomas, Sandra María Esteves, Willie Colón, Pedro Pietri, Giannina Braschi. Some of the newer poets: Willie Perdomo, Flaco Navaja, Nancy Mercado, Emanuel Xavier, Edwin Torres J. L. Torres, Caridad de la Luz aka La Bruja, Lemon Andersen, Bonafide Rojas Historically, the term has been used as a derogatory term by native Puerto Ricans when describing a person that has Puerto Rican ancestry but is born in the 50 states or a different commonwealth/territory, it can sometimes include those born in Puerto Rico who now live elsewhere in the United States. This changed from the original meaning with the increase in travel back and forth to different parts of the United States and the globe.
While the term has negative connotations to some, it is proudly used by some members of this community to identify their history and cultural affiliation to a common ancestry while being separated from the island, both physically and through language and cultural shifts. This distance created a dual identity that, while still somewhat identifying with the island, recognizes the influences both geography and cultural assimilation have had. Puerto Ricans in other cities have coined similar terms, including "Philly Rican" for Puerto Ricans in Philadelphia, "Chi-Town Rican" for Puerto Ricans in Chicago. Many Nuyoricans are second- and third-generation Puerto Rican Americans whose parents or grandparents arrived in the New York metropolitan area during the Gran Migración. Puerto Ricans began to arrive in New York City in the nineteenth century but following the passage of the Jones-Shafroth Act on March 2, 1917, which granted U. S. citizenship to all Puerto Ricans. The Gran Migración accelerated migration from Puerto Rico to New York during the 1940s and 1950s, but such large-scale emigration began to slow by the late 1960s.
Nuyoricans resided in the predominantly Hispanic/Latino section of Manhattan known as Spanish Harlem, around the Loisaida section of the East Village, but spread across the city into newly created Puerto Rican/Nuyorican enclaves in Brooklyn and the South Bronx. Today, there are fewer island-born Puerto Ricans than mainland-born Puerto Ricans in New York City. A prominent figure in that movement was Miguel Piñero and Pedro Pietri, co-founders of the Nuyorican Poets Café. Sofrito For Your Soul Online Magazine Capicu Poetry & Cultural Showcase Celebrities Desde Nueva York The art of Santiago Association of Hispanic Arts Nuyorican cinema Boricuation Cultural Foundation Soraida Martinez, New York born artist of Puerto Rican heritage known as creator of Verdadism "Nuyorican Power"