An upper house, sometimes called a Senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. The house formally designated as the house is usually smaller. Examples of upper houses in countries include the UKs House of Lords, Canadas Senate, Indias Rajya Sabha, Russias Federation Council, Irelands Seanad, Germanys Bundesrat, a legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. An upper house is different from the lower house in at least one of the following respects, Powers, In a parliamentary system. Therefore, in countries the Upper House votes on only limited legislative matters. Cannot vote a motion of no confidence against the government, while the house always can. In a presidential system, It may have equal or nearly equal power with the lower house and it may have specific powers not granted to the lower house. For example, It may give advice and consent to some executive decisions and it may have the sole power to try impeachments against officials of the executive, following enabling resolutions passed by the lower house.
Status, In some countries, its members are not popularly elected, membership may be indirect and its members may be elected with a different voting system than that used to elect the lower house. Less populated states, provinces, or administrative divisions may be represented in the upper house than in the lower house. Members terms may be longer than in the house. Members may be elected in portions, for staggered terms, rather than all at one time, in some countries, the upper house cannot be dissolved at all, or can be dissolved only in more limited circumstances than the lower house. It typically has fewer members or seats than the lower house and it has usually a higher age of candidacy than the lower house. In parliamentary systems the upper house is seen as an advisory or revising chamber. Some or all of the restrictions are often placed on upper houses. No absolute veto of proposed legislation, though suspensive vetoes are permitted in some states, in countries where it can veto legislation, it may not be able to amend the proposals.
A reduced or even absent role in initiating legislation, additionally, a Government must have the consent of both to remain in office, a position which is known as perfect bicameralism or equal bicameralism. An example is the British House of Lords, bills can only be delayed for up to one year before the Commons can use the Parliament Act, although economic bills can only be delayed for one month
New Zealand House of Representatives
The New Zealand House of Representatives is the sole chamber of the legislature of New Zealand. The House and the Queen of New Zealand together constitute the New Zealand Parliament, the House of Representatives passes all laws, provides ministers to form a cabinet, and supervises the work of the Government. It is responsible for adopting the states budgets and approving the states accounts, the House of Representatives is a wholly democratically elected body, usually consisting of 120 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected for limited terms, holding office until Parliament is dissolved, a government is formed from the party or coalition with the majority of MPs. If no majority is a minority government can be formed with a confidence. The chamber was created by the British New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which established a legislature, however the upper chamber. Parliament received full control over all New Zealand affairs in 1947 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act, the seat of the House of Representatives is Parliament House in Wellington, the capital city.
The House of Representatives takes the House of Commons of the United Kingdom as its model, the New Zealand Parliament is based on the Westminster system. As a democratic institution, the role of the House of Representatives is to provide representation for the people. The executive branch of the New Zealand government draws its membership exclusively from the House of Representatives, although it does not elect the Prime Minister, the position of the parties in the House of Representatives is of overriding importance. By convention, a minister is answerable to, and must maintain the support of. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the governor-general appoints the person most likely to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party and this support is immediately tested through a motion of confidence. The House of Representatives normally consists of 120 members, known as Members of Parliament, the Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives has overall charge of the administration of the House, and presides over sittings.
Seating in the chamber is arranged in a horseshoe pattern. The Speaker of the House sits in a chair at the open end of the horseshoe. Following the example of the British House of Commons, members of Government are seated on the hand of the Speaker. MPs are assigned seating on the basis of the seniority in a party caucus, for example, the prime minister sits on the front row, in the fourth seat along from the Speaker. The 51st New Zealand Parliament is the current sitting of the House and its membership was elected at the 2014 general election and, so far, one subsequent by-election
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent, for comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is a desert, with precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast. The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, protista, where it occurs, is tundra. The continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of easily accessible resources.
In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians, Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then, the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continents ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations, the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning opposite to the Arctic, opposite to the north. Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c.350 B. C, marinus of Tyre reportedly used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century A. D. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for locations that could be defined as opposite to the north.
For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called France Antarctique, the first formal use of the name Antarctica as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. Antarctica has no population and there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia. Cook came within about 120 km of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of ice in January 1773. The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by three individuals, according to various organisations, ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820, von Bellingshausen, Edward Bransfield, and Nathaniel Palmer
nz is the Internet country code top-level domain for New Zealand. It is administered by InternetNZ through its subsidiary, NZRS Limited, with oversight, registrations are processed via authorised registrars. As of 31 December 2016 there were 669,714 registered. nz domains, as with many long-standing domain registries the registry was maintained informally for some time. The first formally recognised administrative organisation was the University of Waikato until the responsibility was delegated to InternetNZ when it was formed in 1995, prior to the current structure, the registry operator of. nz was Domainz. Historically, Domainz was a subsidiary of InternetNZ which operated as a registrar, the final part of this transition process was the sale of Domainz to Melbourne IT in August 2003. From 1 April 2008 the Office of the Domain Name Commissioner became the Domain Name Commission Limited, unlike many other English-speaking countries, New Zealand uses govt instead of gov for government bodies, hence the second-level domain govt. nz.
There are sub-level domains unique to New Zealand, such as iwi. nz and the broader maori. nz, for Māori iwi and other organisations respectively, the following second-level domains are in use with their official descriptions. The government registrar, DNS. govt. nz controls registration, the. nz registry uses open source software, which is periodically published on SourceForge. The protocol was contemporary with EPP, and due to these design features is now being ratified as an internet RFC. The most popular registrar of. nz domain is Umbrellar Limited t/a Domain Agent with a share of 11. 73%. Currently around 10. 27% of the. nz internet is served via secured HTTPS protocol, apache is the most popular web server, serving 38. 90% of the. nz domains, followed by Nginx serving 24. 07% of the total. nz domains
Ross Island is an island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound. Because of the persistent presence of the ice sheet, the island is taken to be part of the Antarctic mainland. Its area is 2,460 square kilometres, only a portion of the island is free of ice. The planets southernmost active volcano, Erebus, as well as the dormant volcano Terror, are situated on the island and they were named by Ross after his ships HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. The third highest elevation is Mount Bird, with Shell Glacier, abbott Peak stands between Mount Erebus and Mount Bird. Gamble Cone stands in the east of the island, despite its relatively small size, Ross Island is the worlds 6th highest island. It has the highest average elevation of any island, the Alcorta Rocks is a nunatak on the east shore of Maumee Bight, Ross Island,2.6 kilometres east-northeast of Rocky Point. The feature rises to about 100 metres and is distinctive because three ridges radiate from the center, the rocks were named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names in the year 2000 after Jesse J.
Sir James Clark Ross discovered it in 1840, and it was named in honour of him by Robert F. Scott. Ross Island was the base for many of the expeditions to Antarctica. It was and still is the southernmost island reachable by sea, huts built by Scotts and Shackletons expeditions are still standing on the island, preserved as historical sites. Today Ross Island is home to New Zealands Scott Base, and the largest Antarctic settlement, greenpeace established World Park Base on the island and ran it for five years, from 1987 to 1992. Ross Island lies within the boundaries of Ross Dependency, Ross Island supports a colony of approximately half a million Adélie penguins. Map of Ross Island and Dry Valleys, NIWA New Zealand Coastal-change and Glaciological Map of the Ross Island Area, Antarctica, 1962-2005 United States Geological Survey
Antarctic Treaty System
For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters have been located in Buenos Aires, since September 2004. The main treaty was opened for signature on December 1,1959, the original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year of 1957–58. These countries had established over 50 Antarctic stations for the IGY, the treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific cooperation that had been achieved on the ice. Pursuant to Article 1, the treaty forbids any measures of a military nature and it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific. A sixth annex on liability arising from environmental emergencies was adopted in 2005, the Antarctic Treaty Systems yearly Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings are the international forum for the administration and management of the region.
Only 29 of the 53 parties to the agreements have the right to participate in decision-making at these meetings, as of 2015, there are 53 states party to the treaty,29 of which, including all 12 original signatories to the treaty, have consultative status. Consultative members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory, the 46 non-claimant nations either do not recognize the claims of others, or have not stated their positions. Note, The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the icon, ** Reserved the right to claim areas. The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2004 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, jan Huber served as the first Executive Secretary for five years until August 31,2009. He was succeeded on September 1,2009, by Manfred Reinke, facilitating the exchange of information between the Parties required in the Treaty and the Environment Protocol. Collecting, storing and publishing the documents of the ATCM, providing and disseminating public information about the Antarctic Treaty system and Antarctic activities.
Antarctica currently has no permanent population and therefore it has no citizenship nor government, all personnel present on Antarctica at any time are citizens or nationals of some sovereignty outside Antarctica, as there is no Antarctic sovereignty. The majority of Antarctica is claimed by one or more countries, the area on the mainland between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west is the only major land on Earth not claimed by any country. Until 2015 the interior of the Norwegian Sector, the extent of which had never officially defined, was considered to be unclaimed. That year, Norway formally laid claim to the area between its Queen Maud Land and the South Pole, governments that are party to the Antarctic Treaty and its Protocol on Environmental Protection implement the articles of these agreements, and decisions taken under them, through national laws. The Antarctic Treaty is often considered to represent an example of the heritage of mankind principle. According to Argentine regulations, any crime committed within 50 kilometers of any Argentine base is to be judged in Ushuaia, in the part of Argentine Antarctica that is claimed by Chile and UK, the person to be judged can ask to be transferred there
Ross Ice Shelf
The Ross Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf of Antarctica. It is several hundred metres thick, the nearly vertical ice front to the open sea is more than 600 kilometres long, and between 15 and 50 metres high above the water surface. Ninety percent of the ice, however, is below the water surface. Most of Ross Ice Shelf is in the Ross Dependency claimed by New Zealand and it floats in, and covers, a large southern portion of the Ross Sea and the entire Roosevelt Island located in the west of the Ross Sea. The ice shelf is named after Captain Sir James Clark Ross and it was originally called The Barrier, with various adjectives including Great Ice Barrier, as it prevented sailing further south. Ross mapped the ice front eastward to 160°W, in 1947, the US Board on Geographic Names applied the name Ross Shelf Ice to this feature and published it in the original US Antarctic Gazetteer. In January 1953 the name was changed to Ross Ice Shelf, four days later, they found their way into open water and were hoping that they would have a clear passage to their destination.
But on 11 January, the men were faced with a mass of ice. Sir James Clark Ross, who was the commander, Well. Two volcanoes in the region were named by Ross for his vessels, for early Antarctic explorers seeking to reach the South Pole, the Ross Ice Shelf became a starting area. The findings were presented at a lecture entitled Universitas Antarctica, given 7 June 1911 and were published in the account of Scotts second expedition. Both Roald Amundsen and Scott crossed the shelf to reach the Pole in 1911, Amundsen wrote, Along its outer edge the Barrier shows an even, flat surface, but here, inside the bay, the conditions were entirely different. Even from the deck of the Fram we were able to observe great disturbances of the surface in every direction, the greatest elevation lay to the south in the form of a lofty, arched ridge, which we took to be about 500 feet high on the horizon. But it might be assumed that this continued to rise beyond the range of vision. The next day, the party made its first steps on the Barrier, after half an hour’s march we were already at the first important point—the connection between the sea-ice and the Barrier.
This connection had always haunted our brains, a high, perpendicular face of ice, up which we should have to haul our things laboriously with the help of tackles. Or a great and dangerous fissure, which we should not be able to cross without going a long way round and we naturally expected something of the sort. This mighty and terrible monster would, of course, offer resistance in form or other
Roosevelt Island, Antarctica
Roosevelt Island is an ice-covered island, about 130 km long in a NW-SE direction,65 km wide and about 7,500 km2 in area, lying under the eastern part of the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. Its central ridge rises to about 550 m above sea level, examination of how the ice flows above it establishes the existence and extent of the island. Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd named it in 1934 after Franklin D. Roosevelt, Byrd was the leader of the expedition that discovered the island. Roosevelt Island lies within the boundaries of the Ross Dependency, New Zealands Antarctic claim, the island has become a focus of the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution research using ice coring. Composite Antarctic Gazetteer List of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands List of Antarctic islands south of 60° S SCAR Territorial claims in Antarctica
A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nations military forces or significant elements of those forces. In the latter case, the element is those forces within a particular region. Often, a given countrys commander-in-chief need not be or have been an officer or even a veteran. This follows the principle of civilian control of the military, the role of commander-in-chief derives from the Latin, imperator. Imperatores of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire possessed imperium powers, in its modern use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639. It continued to be used during the English Civil War, a nations head of state usually holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as commander, which is sometimes used as a specific term.
The term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch. According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces, the incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Bujar Nishani. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces, the Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. The Constitution states, in Article 80, that the President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Armed Forces. e, the cabinet under the chairmanship of the Federal Chancellor, as defined in Article 69. The commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister and he retired on 7 April 1972 and relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the command of the President of the Republic. The Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces, the powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, and are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office. According to the National Defence Act, the Minister of National Defence is responsible and accountable to parliament for all related to national defence
James Clark Ross
Ross was born in London, the nephew of Sir John Ross, under whom he entered the navy in 1812, accompanying him on Sir Johns first Arctic voyage in search of a Northwest Passage in 1818. Between 1819 and 1827, Ross took part in four Arctic expeditions under Sir William Parry and it was during this trip that they located the position of the North Magnetic Pole on 1 June 1831 on the Boothia Peninsula in the far north of Canada. It was on this trip, that Ross charted the Beaufort Islands, in 1834, Ross was promoted to Captain. In December 1835, he offered his services to the Admiralty to resupply 11 whaling ships which had trapped in Baffin Bay. They accepted his offer, and he set sail in HMS Cove in January 1836, the crossing was difficult, and by the time he had reached the last known position of the whalers in June, all but one had managed to return home. Ross found no trace of this last vessel, the William Torr and he returned to Hull in September 1836 with all his crew in good health. From 1835–39, except for his voyage with the Cove, he conducted a survey of Great Britain with Edward Sabine.
Between 1839 and 1843, Ross commanded an Antarctic expedition comprising the vessels HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, Francis Crozier was second-in-command of the expedition and commanded HMS Terror. Support for the expedition had been arranged by Francis Beaufort, hydrographer of the Navy, on the expedition was Joseph Dalton Hooker, who had been invited along as assistant surgeon. In 1841, James Ross discovered the Ross Sea, Victoria Land, and the volcanoes Mount Erebus and Mount Terror, which were named for the expeditions vessels. They sailed for 250 nautical miles along the edge of the low, Ross reported that Admiralty Sound appeared to Ross to have been blocked by glaciers at its southern end. He was awarded the Gold Medal of the Société de Géographie in 1843, elected to the Royal Society in 1848, in 1848, Ross was sent on one of three expeditions to find Sir John Franklin. In the spring he and Francis McClintock explored the west coast of the island by sledge and he recognized Peel Sound but thought it too ice-choked for Franklin to have used it.
The next summer he tried to reach Wellington Channel but was blocked by ice and he was married to Lady Ann Ross. He died at Aylesbury in 1862, five years after his wife, a blue plaque marks Rosss home in Eliot Place, London. His closest friend was Crozier, with whom he sailed many times, Crozier is known to have become leader of the Franklin Expedition after the death of Sir John Franklin, but he disappeared thereafter along with the other members of the expedition. He lived in the ancient country house of the Abbots of St. Albans, known as The Abbey and he is buried with his wife in the local churchyard of St. James the Great, Aston Abbotts. In the gardens of the Abbey there is a lake with two islands, named after the ships Terror and Erebus
The Scott Base is a New Zealand Antarctic research facility located at Pram Point on Ross Island near Mount Erebus in New Zealands Ross Dependency territorial claim. The research facility was named in honour of Captain Robert Falcon Scott, RN, the base was set up as support to field research and the centre for research into earth sciences, and now conducts research in many fields, operated by Antarctica New Zealand. By road, the base is 3 kilometres from the larger U. S. McMurdo Station, Scott Base was originally constructed in support of the UK inspired and privately managed Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition. The New Zealand government provided support for the TAE and for the International Geophysical Year project of 1957, five of whose members were attached to the Expedition. In February 1956,10 months before the TAE and IGY parties were due to head to the Antarctic, Frank Ponder, ponders design consisted of six main buildings and three smaller scientific labs. The main buildings were to be placed at least 7 metres apart because of risk but were linked to one another by a covered way of galvanised iron.
Three New Zealand observers were given the task of selecting the site for a base went to McMurdo Sound with the United States “Operation Deep Freeze I” in the summer of 1955. After evaluating possible sites, a location near Butter Point was chosen, the base looks out over what is now known as Haskell Strait. Scott Base passed over to NZ Government ownership via the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, on March 5,1958, during the IGY the United States facility at Hut Point did not operate as a scientific base. In order to maintain operations, a rebuilding programme began in 1976. As of 2008, the original building is the TAE A mess hut. The building was opened by then-Foreign Minister Phil Goff and Sir Edmund Hillary. From 1957 until 1986, dogs played a part in base operations, initially they were an essential means of transport, but with better technology their importance dwindled until they were removed in line with environmental treaties. Scientific diving operations began in 1985, between 1985 and 2006, a total of 1,296 had been logged.
The A Hut of Scott Base is the only existing Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition building in Antarctica and it has been designated a Historic Site or Monument, following a proposal by New Zealand to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. The base is made up of a collection of Chelsea Cucumber green buildings which are linked by all-weather corridors and these buildings can accommodate 85 people over summer, with a skeleton staff of between 10 and 14 people remaining over the winter. Spark NZ provide services to McMurdo for calls to New Zealand as well as to the Italian Programme at Terra Nova Bay. McMurdo Station has an independent communications infrastructure located at Black Island, Scott Base is today operated by Antarctica New Zealand
New Zealand Constitution Act 1852
The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that granted self-government to the Colony of New Zealand. It was the second such Act, the previous 1846 Act not having been fully implemented, the Act remained in force as part of New Zealands constitution until it was repealed by the Constitution Act 1986. The long title of the Act was An Act to Grant a Representative Constitution to the Colony of New Zealand, the Act received the Royal Assent on 30 June 1852. The first settlement of the company, briefly had its own elected council during 1840, the first New Zealand Constitution Act was passed in 1846, though Governor George Grey was opposed to its proposed division of the country into European and Māori districts. In the meantime, Grey drafted his own Act which established both provincial and central representative assemblies, allowed for Māori districts and an elected Governor, only the latter proposal was rejected by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when it adopted Greys constitution.
The Act established, The bicameral General Assembly, consisting of the Governor, a Legislative Council and this issue was to dominate the first session of Parliament in 1854, The Provinces of New Zealand, which divided New Zealand into six provinces. Parliament was granted the power to make laws for the peace, the first provincial elections were held during 1853. The first Parliament under the Act met in Auckland, at the time the capital and this session was concerned primarily with the issue of responsible government, or the ability of the Colonial parliament instead of the Governor to appoint its own ministers. Prior to the Act, the Executive Council consisted of Crown servants who were responsible to the Governor, a motion was passed almost unanimously affirming the ability of Parliament to appoint its own Executive Council members. Three members of the Assembly were added to the Executive Council as ministers without portfolio under the leadership of James FitzGerald, after fresh elections the 2nd Parliament met, and the new Governor, Sir Thomas Gore Browne, asked Henry Sewell to form the first responsible ministry.
However, the General Assembly did not have control of the executive. The Governor retained reserve powers to disallow legislation and there was the authority of the Crown to disallow legislation even after the Governor had given his assent and these powers of reservation and disallowance were prerogative powers included in the Act. This power was limited by the Balfour Declaration of 1926, in that they were to be exercised only on the advice of New Zealand ministers, the powers were not continued by the 1986 Constitution Act. Section 71 of the Act allowed for Māori districts where Māori law and custom were to be preserved and it was, used by the Kingitanga to justify claims of Māori self-governance during the 1870s and 1880s. The first amendment to the Act was made by the British Parliament during 1857, the New Zealand Parliament did not gain total ability to amend the Act until 1947, when New Zealand adopted the Statute of Westminster 1931 with the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947.
The only remaining provision relating to the Parliament of the United Kingdom was the ability of the former imperial legislature to legislate for New Zealand at the New Zealand Parliaments consent. This occurred only once, for the New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947 which adopted the New Zealand Parliaments New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947, the Act was repealed by section 28 of the Constitution Act 1986 in New Zealand. By the time of its repeal, only 18 of the Acts original 82 sections remained, in the UK it was repealed by the Statute Law Act 1989