Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C.. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969; the company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside Italy and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, as the late Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne foreshadowed in January 2014 until his death in 2018. Lancia & C. Fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin; the first car manufactured by Lancia was the "Tipo 51" or "12 HP", which remained in production from 1907 to 1908. It had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 PS. In 1910, Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled and sold as SGVs by the SGV Company. In 1915, Lancia manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of a heart attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company.
They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer. Jano had made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars such as the 6C, P2 and P3. Lancia is renowned in the automotive world for introducing cars with numerous innovations; these include the Theta of 1913, the first European production car to feature a complete electrical system as standard equipment. Lancia's first car adopting a monocoque chassis – the Lambda produced from 1922 to 1931 - featured'Sliding Pillar' independent front suspension that incorporated the spring and hydraulic damper into a single unit. 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car. Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations, it was the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine. Other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range.
This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes and antiqued production machinery meant that all cars had to be hand-made. With little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while no increase in demand affecting Lancia's viability. Gianni Lancia, a graduate engineer, was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took over control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti in charge of the company. Fiat launched a take-over bid in October 1969, accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money, with losses in 1969 being GB£20m; this was not the end of the distinctive Lancia marque, new models in the 1970s such as the Stratos and Beta served to prove that Fiat wished to preserve the image of the brand it had acquired. During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships. During the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden.
The 1985 Lancia Thema shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma and the Alfa Romeo 164. During the 1990s, all models were related to other Fiat models. Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiat's automotive operations were reorganised. Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. Fiat S.p. A.'s branch handling mainstream automotive production. The current company, Lancia Automobiles S.p. A. was created from the pre-existing brand, controlled 100% by FGA. In 2011, Lancia moved in a new direction and added new models manufactured by Chrysler and sold under the Lancia badge in many European markets. Conversely, Lancia built models began to be sold in right-hand drive markets under the Chrysler badge. In 2015 Lancia's parent company Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. became FCA Italy S.p. A. reflecting the earlier incorporation of Fiat S.p. A. into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. 1907From 1907 to 1910 Lancia cars didn't bear a true badge, but rather a brass plaque identifying the manufacturer and chassis code.
1911The original Lancia logo was designed by Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia. In 1910 Vincenzo Lancia asked Biscaretti di Ruffia to design a badge for the company. Vincenzo Lancia chose a round one, composed by a blue lance and flag bearing a Lancia script in gold, over a four-spoke steering wheel, with a hand throttle detail on the right spoke; the first car to bear the Lancia logo was the Gamma 20 HP in 1911. 1929In 1929 the logo acquired its final layout: the previous round badge was superimposed on a blue shield in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. Though first applied on the 1929 Dikappa, this badge was only used consintently starting with the 1936 Aprilia. 1957Beginning with the 1957 Flaminia, Lancia cars switched from the traditional vertical split grille to an horizontal, full-width one. The logo was therefore moved inside the grille opening, changed to a more stylized chromed metal open-work design.
Wolfgang von Trips
Wolfgang Alexander Albert Eduard Maximilian Reichsgraf Berghe von Trips known as Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips and nicknamed'Taffy' by friends and fellow racers, was a German racing driver. He was the son of a noble Rhineland family. Von Trips was born in Germany, he had diabetes during his career and he always had high sugar snacks during the races to compensate for his low blood sugar levels. He participated in 29 Formula One World Championship Grand Prix races, debuting on 2 September 1956, he won two races, secured one pole position, achieved six podiums, scored a total of 56 championship points. He sustained a concussion when he spun off track at the Nürburgring during trial runs for a sports car race held in May 1957, his Ferrari was destroyed. It was the only one of its marque to be entered in the Gran Turismo car class of more than 1600 cc. Von Trips was forced out of a Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix at Silverstone, in July 1958, when his Ferrari came into the pits on the 60th lap with no oil.
The following August he was fifth at Porto in the 1958 Portuguese Grand Prix, won by Stirling Moss in a Vanwall. Von Trips was one lap behind at the finish. Moss was more than five minutes ahead of Mike Hawthorn. In July 1960 von Trips was victorious in a Formula Two event in a Ferrari, with a newly introduced engine in the rear; the race was called the Solitude Formula Two Grand Prix. It was a 20-lap event with the winner averaging 164.49 km/h over 229 km. He won the Targa Florio, 10-lap 721 kilometres race, in May 1961. Von Trips achieved an average speed of 103.42 km/h in his Ferrari with Olivier Gendebien of Belgium as his co-driver. Von Trips and Phil Hill traded the lead at Spa, Belgium during the 1961 Belgian Grand Prix, in June 1961. Hill led most of the way in front of a crowd of 100,000 people. Ferraris captured the first four places at the race conclusion with von Trips finishing second; the Formula One World Championship driver competition at this juncture in 1961 was led by Hill with 19 points followed by von Trips with 18.
The 1961 Italian Grand Prix on 10 September saw von Trips locked in the battle Formula One World Drivers' Championship that year with his teammate Phil Hill. During the race at Monza, his Ferrari collided with Jim Clark's Lotus, his car became airborne and crashed into a side barrier, fatally throwing von Trips from the car, killing fifteen spectators. Clark described the accident, saying: "Von Trips and I were racing along the straightaway and were nearing one of the banked curves, the one on the southern end. We were about 100 metres from the beginning of the curve. Von Trips was running close to the inside of the track. I was following him, keeping near the outside. At one point Von Trips shifted sideways, it was the fatal moment. Von Trips's car went into the guardrail along the inside of the track, it bounced back, struck my own car and bounced down into the crowd." Movie footage of the crash that surfaced after the race showed that Clark's memory of the incident was inaccurate: after colliding with Clark, von Trips's car rode directly up an embankment on the outside of the track and struck a fence behind which spectators were packed.
At the time of his death von Trips was leading the Formula One World Championship. He had previous incidents at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, where he crashed cars in the 1956 Italian Grand Prix and the 1958 Italian Grand Prix, was injured in both events. In 1961 von Trips established a go-kart race track in Germany; the track was leased by Rolf Schumacher, whose sons and Ralf, made their first laps there. Coincidentally, Michael's win in the 1992 Belgian Grand Prix was the first full-length Grand Prix won by a German since von Trips's last win at Aintree in 1961. * Indicates shared drive with Cesare Perdisa and Peter Collins † Indicates shared drive with Mike Hawthorn Regarding personal names, Graf is a German title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name. The feminine form is Gräfin. Film – Wolfgang Graf Berghe von Trips zwischen Rittergut und Rennstrecke
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a dominant wavelength of 570–590 nm, it is a primary color in subtractive color systems, used in color printing. In the RGB color model, used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. Carotenoids give the characteristic yellow color to autumn leaves, canaries and lemons, as well as egg yolks and bananas, they protect plants from photodamage. Sunlight has a slight yellowish hue, due to the surface temperature of the sun; because it was available, yellow ochre pigment was one of the first colors used in art. Ochre and orpiment pigments were used to represent gold and skin color in Egyptian tombs in the murals in Roman villas. In the early Christian church, yellow was the color associated with the Pope and the golden keys of the Kingdom, but was associated with Judas Iscariot and was used to mark heretics.
In the 20th century, Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe were forced to wear a yellow star. In China, bright yellow was the color of the Middle Kingdom, could be worn only by the Emperor and his household. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, yellow is the color people most associate with amusement, gentleness and spontaneity, but with duplicity, jealousy, and, in the U. S. with cowardice. In Iran it has connotations of pallor/sickness, but wisdom and connection. In China and many Asian countries, it is seen as the color of happiness, glory and wisdom; the word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel -, as yell; the English term is related to other Germanic words for yellow, namely Scots yella, East Frisian jeel, West Frisian giel, Dutch geel, German gelb, Swedish and Norwegian gul. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the oldest known use of this word in English is from The Epinal Glossary in 700.
Yellow is found between orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is the color the human eye sees when it looks at light with a dominant wavelength between 570 and 590 nanometers. In color printing, yellow is one of the three colors of ink, along with magenta and cyan, along with black, can be overlaid in the right combination, along with black, to print any full color image.. A particular yellow is used, called Process yellow subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Process yellow is not an RGB color, there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure yellow ink; the yellow on a color television or computer screen is created in a different way. Traditionally, the complementary color of yellow is purple. Vincent Van Gogh, an avid student of color theory, used combinations of yellow and purple in several of his paintings for the maximum contrast and harmony. Hunt defines that "two colors are complementary when it is possible to reproduce the tristimulus values of a specified achromatic stimulus by an additive mixture of these two stimuli."
That is, when two colored lights can be mixed to match a specified white light, the colors of those two lights are complementary. This definition, does not constrain what version of white will be specified. In the nineteenth century, the scientists Grassmann and Helmholtz did experiments in which they concluded that finding a good complement for spectral yellow was difficult, but that the result was indigo, that is, a wavelength that today's color scientists would call violet or purple. Helmholtz says "indigo blue" are complements. Grassmann reconstructs Newton's category boundaries in terms of wavelengths and says "This indigo therefore falls within the limits of color between which, according to Helmholtz, the complementary colors of yellow lie."Newton's own color circle has yellow directly opposite the boundary between indigo and violet. These results, that the complement of yellow is a wavelength shorter than 450 nm, are derivable from the modern CIE 1931 system of colorimetry if it is assumed that the yellow is about 580 nm or shorter wavelength, the specified white is the color of a blackbody radiator of temperature 2800 K or lower.
More with a daylight-colored or around 5000 to 6000 K white, the complement of yellow will be in the blue wavelength range, the standard modern answer for the complement of yellow. Because of the characteristics of paint pigments and use of different color wheels, painters traditionally regard the complement of yellow as the color indigo or blue-violet. Lasers emitting in the yellow part of the spectrum are less common and more expensive than most other colors. In commercial products diode pumped. An infrared laser diode at 808 nm is used to pump a crystal of neodymium-doped yttrium vanadium oxide or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and induces it to emit at
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
British racing green
British racing green, or BRG, is a colour similar to Brunswick green, hunter green, forest green or moss green. It takes its name from the green international motor racing colour of the United Kingdom; this originated with the 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup, held in Ireland, as motor-racing was illegal in England. As a mark of respect, the British cars were painted shamrock green. Although there is still some debate as to an exact hue for BRG the term is used to denote a spectrum of deep, rich greens. "British racing green" in motorsport terms meant only the colour green in general – its application to a specific shade has developed outside the sport. In the days of the Gordon Bennett Cup, Count Eliot Zborowski, father of inter-war racing legend Louis Zborowski, suggested that each national entrant be allotted a different colour; every component of a car had to be produced in the competing country, as well as the driver being of that nationality. The races were hosted in the country of the previous year's winner.
When Britain first competed in 1902, they had to choose a different colour from the national flag colours of red and blue, because those had been taken for the 1900 race by America and France respectively. When Selwyn Edge won the 1902 Gordon Bennett Cup race for England in his Napier it was decided that the 1903 race would be held in Ireland, at that time a part of the United Kingdom, as motor racing at the time was illegal in Great Britain; as a mark of respect for their Irish hosts the English Napier cars were painted shamrock green. In keeping with these Irish/Napier roots, many of the earliest greens used on British racing cars were of a lighter olive, moss or emerald green. Darker shades became more common, though there was a return to lighter greens by HWM and other teams in the 1950s; the colour use only applied to the grandes épreuves, but was codified in the Code Sportif International of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile for use in all international-level motor racing events.
The foremost British participant in International Motor Racing at the highest echelons both before and after the Great War was Sunbeam. Green liveried Sunbeam Racing Cars won the 1912 Coupe de l’Auto as well as being the first British team to win the European Grand Epreuves Grand Prix in both 1923 and 1924; the Green Sunbeams driven by the likes of Henry Segrave and K L Guinness were during the vintage period, the prominent competitors to watch for. In the 1920s Bentley cars were hugely successful at the Le Mans 24h races, all sporting a mid- to dark-green; the first recorded use of the darkest green shades was on the Bugatti of Briton William Grover-Williams, driving in the first Monaco Grand Prix, in 1929. This colour has become known as British Racing Green. In the 1950s and 1960s British teams such as Aston Martin, Cooper, BRM were successful in Formula One and Sports car racing, all in different shades of green; the British Racing Partnership team used a pale green. Scottish teams such as Ecurie Ecosse and Rob Walker Racing used a dark blue, which did not conform to the CSI rules but was tolerated by officials.
The Australian-owned but British-based and licensed Brabham team used a shade of BRG, this was augmented with a gold stripe and green being the national sporting colours of Australia. Another British-based and licensed team, McLaren, made their debut at the 1966 Monaco Grand Prix with the McLaren M2B car painted white with a green stripe, to represent a fictional Yamura team in the John Frankenheimer´s film Grand Prix. Under pressure from a number of teams, most famously the Lotus team who wished to use the Gold Leaf livery on the Lotus 49, in 1968 sponsorship regulations were relaxed in F1. Subsequently, Lotus made their debut in this new livery at the 1968 Spanish Grand Prix. In 1970 the FIA formally gave Formula One an exemption from the national colours ruling and the common green colour soon disappeared, being replaced by various sponsor liveries; this exemption has since been extended to all race series, unless specific regulations require the adoption of national colours. The history of the famous greens was revived in 2000 by Jaguar Racing in Formula One, but after this team was sold to Red Bull by Ford in 2004, the new Red Bull Racing team used their own colours.
Other traditionally British manufacturers have since followed suit. Bentley returned to the Le Mans circuit in 2001, 2002 and 2003, winning with the Bentley Speed 8, painted in a dark shade of BRG. In recent years Aston Martin has returned to endurance racing, with their DBR9s painted in, a Aston, light BRG. Rocketsports Racing used green for its Jaguar XK in the 24 Hours of Le Mans and American Le Mans Series and other. In 2010 the Lotus name returned to Formula One after a gap of 16 years with the Lotus Racing team's Lotus T127 car liveried in dark green with yellow. Although registered in Malaysia, the new team is based in Britain and chose BRG with the aim of "striking an emotional chord with young and old alike and evoking memories of some of motor racing most iconic moments". With the many successes of British racing teams through the years, British Racing Green became a popular paint choice for British sports and luxury cars. A solid colour, British Racing Green is a metallic paint due to the limited range of solids offered by today's manufacturers.
Paying tribute to the small British roadsters of the 1960s that inspired the Mazda MX-5, Mazda produced a limited edition version of the model in 1991 and 2001 called
24 Hours of Daytona
The 24 Hours of Daytona known as the Rolex 24 At Daytona for sponsorship reasons, is a 24-hour sports car endurance race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is run on a 3.56-mile combined road course, utilizing portions of the NASCAR tri-oval and an infield road course. Since its inception, it has been held on the last weekend of January or first weekend of February as part of Speedweeks, it is the first major automobile race of the year in the United States, it is the first race of the season for the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. The race has had several names over the years. Since 1991, the Rolex Watch Company is the title sponsor of the race under a naming rights arrangement, replacing Sunbank which in turn replaced Pepsi in 1984. Winning drivers of all classes receive a steel Rolex Daytona watch. In 2006, the race moved one week earlier into January to prevent a clash with the Super Bowl, which had in turn moved one week into February a few years earlier.
The race has been known as a leg of the informal Triple Crown of endurance racing, although it suffers from an increasing isolation from international Sports Car racing regulations, which have been eased in recent years. Shortly after the track opened, on April 5, 1959, a six-hour/1000 kilometer USAC-FIA sports car race was held on the road course. Count Antonio Von Dory and Roberto Mieres won the race in a Porsche, shortened to 560.07 miles due to darkness. The race utilized a 3.81-mile layout. In 1962, a few years after the track was built, a 3-hour sports car race was introduced. Known as the Daytona Continental, it counted towards the FIA's new International Championship for GT Manufacturers; the first Continental was won by Dan Gurney, driving a 2.7L Coventry Climax-powered Lotus 19. Gurney was a factory Porsche driver at the time, but the 1600-cc Porsche 718 was considered too small and slow for what amounted to a sprint race on a fast course. In 1964, the event was expanded to 2,000 km, doubling the classic 1000 km distance of races at Nürburgring and Monza.
The distance amounted to half of the distance the 24 Hours of Le Mans winners covered at the time, was similar in length to the 12 Hours of Sebring, held in Florida in March. Starting in 1966, the Daytona race was extended to the same 24-hour length as Le Mans. Unlike the Le Mans event, the Daytona race is conducted over a closed course within the speedway arena without the use of any public streets. Most parts of the steep banking are included, interrupted with a chicane on the back straight and a sweeping, fast infield section which includes two hairpins. Unlike Le Mans, the race is held in wintertime. There are lights installed around the circuit for night racing, although the infield section is still not as well-lit as the main oval. However, the stadium lights are turned on only to a level of 20%, similar to the stadium lighting setup at Le Mans, with brighter lights around the pit straight, decent lighting similar to street lights around the circuit. In the past, a car had to cross the finish line after 24 hours to be classified, which led to dramatic scenes where damaged cars waited in the pits or on the edge of the track close to the finish line for hours restarted their engines and crawled across the finish line one last time in order to finish after the 24 hours and be listed with a finishing distance, rather than dismissed with DNF.
This was the case in the initial 1962 Daytona Continental, in which Dan Gurney's Lotus 19 had established a lengthy lead when the engine failed with just minutes remaining. Gurney stopped the car at the top of just short of the finish line; when the three hours had elapsed, Gurney cranked the steering wheel to the left and let gravity pull the car across the line, to not only salvage a finishing position, but win the race. This led to the international rule requiring a car to cross the line under its own power in order to be classified; the first 24 Hour event in 1966 was won by Lloyd Ruby driving a Ford Mk. II. Motor Sport reported: "For their first 24-hour race the basic organization was good, but the various officials in many cases were out of touch and lacked the professional touch which one now finds at Watkins Glen." After having lost in 1966 at Daytona, Sebring and Le Mans to the Fords, the Ferrari P series prototypes staged a 1–2–3 side-by-side parade finish at the banked finish line in 1967.
The Ferrari 365 GTB/4 road car was given the unofficial name Ferrari Daytona in celebration of this victory. Porsche repeated this show in their 1–2–3 win in the 1968 24 Hours. After the car of Gerhard Mitter had a big crash caused by tire failure in the banking, his teammate Rolf Stommelen supported the car of Vic Elford and Jochen Neerpasch; when the car of the longtime leaders Jo Siffert and Hans Herrmann dropped to second due to a technical problem, these two joined the new leaders while continuing with their car. So Porsche managed to put 5 of 8 drivers on the center of the podium, plus Jo Schlesser and Joe Buzzetta finishing in third place, with only Mitter being left out. Lola finished 1–2 in the 1969 24 Hours of Daytona; the winning car was the Penske Lola T70-Chevrolet of Chuck Parsons. Few spectators witnessed the achievement as Motor Sport reported: "The Daytona 24-Hour race draws a small crowd, as can be seen from the empty stands in the background."In 1972, due to th