Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union.
The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; the Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers; the rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century. The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms.
Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed; this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empir
Wangen im Allgäu
Wangen im Allgäu is a historic city in southeast Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It lies north-east of Lake Constance in the Westallgäu, it is the second-largest city in the Ravensburg district and is a nexus for the surrounding communities. From 1938 to 1972, Wangen was the county seat of the Wangen rural district. Wangen in Allgäu lies on the north bank of the Obere Argen; the Untere Argen unites southwest of the city with the Obere Argen. The city today is shaped by its historical town center as well as by numerous nearby districts. Several settlements border Wangen, their names are as follows: Amtzell, Vogt, Kißlegg, Argenbühl, Achberg and Hergensweiler, Neukirch. The city was first mentioned in 815 under the name "Wangun" in a monastery document. In 1217, Emperor Fredrick II declared in a document. In 1286, King Rudolph I granted Wangen the status of free imperial city. During the late Middle Ages, the city's growth was amplified by its central location at the crossroads between Ravensburg, Lindau and Isny and the growing trade through the Alps.
Wangen's production and export of manufactured goods scythes and canvas, gave the city a tremendous positive trade balance. This surplus money was used to acquire lands outside of the city walls, thus giving Wangen a safeguard against economic fluctuations. During the German Mediatisation, in 1802, Wangen lost its status as a Free City and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1936, the city was named "Wangen in Allgäu". From 1938 up unto its dissolution and integration into the Ravensburg district in 1972, Wangen was the capital of the Wangen rural district. In 1973, Wangen was designated by the Baden-Württemberg state government to Großen Kreisstadt due to its population having reached 20,000. In 1999, the largest flood in the most recent 50 years of Wangen's history flooded the lower city; the city was again flooded in 2006 by the Obere Argen. During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the national team of Togo stayed in Wangen. Despite several major fires in 1539, 1793, 1858, the old part of the town remains a juxtaposition of architectural elements ranging from those of the early middle ages to those of the late baroque era.
The Oberstadtkirche St. Martin is one of Wangen's oldest buildings; the church was present in the 9th century. It contains both Gothic architecture; the Ravensburg Gate is the city's prime landmark. It was first mentioned in 1472, but was changed to its current appearance in 1608; the building is decorated with Renaissance-era artwork. Aged relics of the old city include the Lindau Gate and the Pfaffenturm tower; the local history museum, Heimatmuseum in der Eselmühle, was opened in 1974 in a former mill acquired by the city in 1969. The museum displays the original mechanisms of the mill in addition to a collections from various spans of the city's history. ¹ Census The elections in May 2014 showed the following results: SPD = 5 seats CDU = 15 seats FW = 8 seats GOL = 8 seats Total: 36 seats 1804–1810: Franz Josef von Bentele 1811–1819: Mathias Tschugg 1819–1826: Rudolf Salis 1826–1829: Martin Schnitzer 1829–1847: Christian Nepomuk Weber 1847–1859: Leopold Wocher 1860–1894: Jacob Trenkle 1894–1922: Rudolf Trenkle 1922–1933: Fritz Geray 1933: Gottlob Pfeiffer 1933–1939: Dr Friedrich Wilhelm Erbacher 1939: Heinrich Fischer 1939–1942: Carl Speidel 1942–1945: Max Steinegger 1945: Karl Geiger 1945: Franz Büchele 1945–1946: Josef Max Kraus 1945–1968: Wilhelm Uhl 1968–2001: Dr Jörg Leist since 2001: Michael Lang La Garenne-Colombes, France Prato, Italy.
Wangen was once a center of the German textile industry before the decline of German textile manufacturing. Wangen lies on the A96 Autobahn between Lindau and Memmingen, in addition to federal highways 18 and 32; the town is part of the Aulendorf – Kißlegg – Wangen - Hergatz – Lindau and Ulm – Memmingen – Kißlegg – Wangen – Hergatz – Lindau train lines. It lies on the bus route between Isny; the city belongs to the Bodensee–Oberschwaben public transportation association. Wangen has a Gymnasium, a Realschule, a Hauptschule, a Werkrealschule and a special school, three combined secondary and elementary schools (GHS Niederwangen, Praßberg-Schule and Freie Waldorfschule Wangen, six elementary schools; the Wangen district has two vocational schools, in addition to the Heinrich-Brügger-Schule medical school. Wangen is serviced by the Schwäbische Zeitung newspaper as well as the local Regio TV television station. Wangen is the seat of a local tax office, it has a district court, which belongs to the Ravensburg regional court district, which in turn belongs to the Stuttgart court district.
From 1943 to 1945, Wangen served as the backdrop for the propaganda movie Quax in Fahrt From April 14 to May 13, 2004, the city and its surrounding areas served as a setting for the Tatort television series. The Wangen Juze Tonne e. V is the oldest autonomously run youth center in Germany; the Jugendmusikschule in Wangen is the largest schoo
Konstanz is a university city with 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland. The city houses the University of Konstanz and was for more than 1200 years residence of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Konstanz. Konstanz is situated on Lake Constance; the Rhine river, which starts in the Swiss Alps, passes through Lake Constance and leaves it larger, by flowing under a bridge connecting the two parts of the city. North of the river lies the larger part of the city with residential areas, industrial estates, the University of Konstanz. Car ferries provide access across Lake Constance to Meersburg, the Katamaran provides a shuttle service for pedestrians to Friedrichshafen. At the old town's southern border lies the Swiss town of Kreuzlingen. Konstanz is subdivided into districts; the island of Mainau belonged to the ward of Litzelstetten, a separate municipality until its incorporation into Konstanz on December 1, 1971. The first traces of civilization in Konstanz date back to the late Stone Age.
During the reign of Augustus, the Celts living south of the Danube were conquered by the Romans. Around 40 AD, the first Romans settled on the site; this small town on the left bank of the Rhine was first called Drusomagus and belonged to the Roman province of Raetia. Its name Constantia, comes either from the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus, who fought the Alemanni in the region and built a strong fortress around 300 AD, or from his grandson Constantius II, who visited the region in 354; the remains of the late Roman fortress Constantia were discovered in 2003. Around 585 the first bishop took up residence in Konstanz and this marked the beginning of the city's importance as a spiritual centre. By the late Middle Ages, about one quarter of Konstanz's 6,000 inhabitants were exempt from taxation on account of clerical rights. Trade thrived during the Middle Ages. Konstanz owned the only bridge in the region, which crossed the Rhine, making it a strategic location in the Duchy of Swabia, its linen production had made an international name for the city and it was prosperous.
In 1192, Konstanz gained the status of Imperial City so it was henceforth subject only to the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1414 to 1418, the Council of Constance took place, during which, on 6 July 1415, John Hus, seen as a threat to Christianity by the Roman Catholic Church, was burned at the stake, it was here that the Papal Schism was ended and Pope Martin V was elected during the only conclave held north of the Alps. Ulrich von Richental's illustrated chronicle of the Council of Constance testifies to all the major happenings during the Council as well as showing the everyday life of medieval Konstanz; the Konzilgebäude where the conclave was held can still be seen standing by the harbour. Close by stands the Imperia, a statue, erected in 1993 to satirically commemorate the Council. In 1460, the Swiss Confederacy conquered Konstanz's natural hinterland. Konstanz made an attempt to get admitted to the Swiss Confederacy, but the forest cantons voted against its entry, fearing over-bearing city states.
In the Swabian War of 1499, Konstanz lost its last privileges over Thurgau to the Confederation. The Protestant Reformation took hold in Konstanz in the 1520s, headed by Ambrosius Blarer. Soon the city declared itself Protestant, pictures were removed from the churches, the bishop temporarily moved to Meersburg, a small town across the lake; the city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, the Augsburg Confession. However, in 1548 Emperor Charles V imposed the Imperial Ban on Konstanz and it had to surrender to Habsburg Austria which had attacked, thus Konstanz lost its status as an imperial city. The new Habsburg rulers were eager to re-Catholicise the town and in 1604 a Jesuit College was opened, its accompanying theatre, built in 1610, is the oldest theatre in Germany still performing regularly. The city became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806. In 1821, the Bishopric of Constance became part of the Archdiocese of Freiburg. Konstanz became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany.
After World War I it was included within the Republic of Baden. On 22 October 1940, 110 of the last Jewish residents were deported to Gurs internment camp in France. Most of those who were still alive in August 1942 were murdered in either Auschwitz; because it lies within Switzerland, directly adjacent to the Swiss border, Konstanz was not bombed by the Allied Forces during World War II. The city left all its lights on at night, thus fooled the bombers into thinking it was part of Switzerland. After the war, Konstanz was included first in South Baden and in the new state of Baden-Württemberg; the Altstadt, large considering the small size of modern Konstanz, has many old buildings and twisting alleys. The city skyline is dominated by the majestic "Münster" Cathedral, several other churches and three towers left over from the city wall, one of which marks the place of the former medieval bridge over the Rhine; the University of Konstanz was established close to the town in 1966. It houses an excellent library with two million books, all accessible 24 hours a day, as well as a b
Weissenau Abbey was an Imperial abbey of the Holy Roman Empire located near Ravensburg in the Swabian Circle. The abbey, a Premonstratensian monastery, was an Imperial Estate and therefore its abbot had seat and voice in the Reichstag as a prelate of the Swabian Bench; the abbey existed from 1145 until the secularisation of 1802-1803. The site was called Au Minderau, Weissenau; the monastery was founded in 1145 by Gebizo of Ravensburg, a ministerialis of the Welfs, his sister Luitgarde. Its first monks and their provost Herman came from Rot an der Rot Abbey near Memmingen; the monastery buildings were completed in 1156, in 1172 the church was dedicated to Our Lady and Saint Peter by Otto, Bishop of Konstanz, to whose diocese it belonged. During the first few years of its existence it had a nunnery attached, but this was transferred to Weissenthal nearby by Provost Herman, where it continued and existed there until the 15th century; the number of canons at Weissenau increased so that in 1183 the newly founded monastery of Schussenried Abbey was recruited from there.
In 1257 Weissenau was raised with Henry I as its first abbot. It was granted the status of an "Imperial abbey" about this time. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Weissenau was pillaged by warring factions, its most severe trial came during the German Peasants' War, when the canons were temporarily driven out and the abbot, Jacob Murer, was replaced by the peasant Johann Wetzel. Abbot Leopold Mauch began the rebuilding of the abbey in 1708 and of the church in 1717; the church, in the Baroque style, was completed in 1724 by his successor, Michael Helmling, the monastic buildings by Anton Unold, of which the "Festsaal", still used for concerts, is of particular note for its elaborate stucco work. At the time of its secularisation in 1802, it had 27 canons, who administered the parishes of Weissenau, St. Jodock, Bodnegg, Grünkraut, Thaldorf, St. Christian, Gornhofen and Obereisenbach, its possessions comprised 198 estates and its jurisdiction extended over 137 villages. In all, Weissenau had 41 abbots.
Its last abbot, Bonaventure Brem, died on 4 August 1818. After secularisation the former abbey became the property of the Count of Sternberg-Manderscheid, upon whose death it was bought by the government of Württemberg in 1835, but resold and turned into a dressmaking and bleaching concern which continued in operation in parts of the outlying premises until 2006. Since 1892, the principal buildings have been used as an asylum for the insane, the present psychiatric clinic "Die Weissenau", which occupied the former abbots' summer residence at Rahlenhof until recently. Weissenau became well known on account of the relic of the Blood of Christ which it received from Rudolph of Habsburg in 1283. Up to 1783 the famous Blutritt, similar to that of the neighbouring Weingarten Abbey, took place every year, it consisted of a solemn procession during which the relic was carried by a priest on horseback, accompanied by many other riders and a large crowd. The relic is still preserved in the old abbey church, which now serves as the parish church of Weissenau.
Reference to it is made in the medieval epic Lohengrin. Binder, Helmut, 1995. 850 Jahre Prämonstratenserabtei Weissenau. 1145–1995. Sigmaringen: Thorbecke. ISBN 3-7995-0414-1 Eitel, Peter, 1983. Weissenau in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Festschrift zur 700-Jahrfeier der Übergabe der Heiligblutreliquie durch Rudolf von Habsburg an die Prämonstratenserabtei Weissenau. Sigmaringen: Thorbecke. ISBN 3-7995-4020-2 Steinert, Tilman, 1985. Die Geschichte des Psychiatrischen Landeskrankenhauses Weißenau. Darstellung der Anstaltsgeschichte von 1888 bis 1945 im ideengeschichtelichen und sozioökonomischen Kontext. Weinsberg: Weissenhof-Verlag. ISBN 3-923067-45-3 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Weissenau Parish Die Weissenau Psychiatric Centre Acta S. Petri in Augia at Wikisource Weissenau Abbey pipe organ by Holzhey (in German Weissenau Abbey pip organ by Holzhey [
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
Rupert, King of Germany
Rupert of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Elector Palatine from 1398 and King of Germany from 1400 until his death. Rupert was born at Amberg in the Upper Palatinate, the son of Elector Palatine Rupert II and Beatrice of Aragon, daughter of King Peter II of Sicily. Rupert's great-granduncle was the Wittelsbach emperor Louis IV, he was raised at the Dominican Liebenau monastery near Worms, where his widowed grandmother Irmengard of Oettingen lived as a nun. From his early years Rupert took part in the government of the Electoral Palatinate to which he succeeded on his father's death in 1398, he and the three ecclesiastical prince-electors met at Lahneck Castle in Oberlahnstein on 20 August 1400 and declared the Luxembourg king Wenceslaus deposed. On the next day the same four electors met at Rhens to ballot for Rupert as next German king, thus the majority of the college including the Elector Palatine's own vote; as the Imperial City of Aachen refused to let him enter through its gates, Rupert was crowned by Archbishop Frederick III in Cologne on 6 January 1401.
Lacking a solid power base in the Empire, his rule remained contested by the mighty House of Luxembourg, though Wenceslaus himself did not take any action to regain his royal title. In the Western Schism, Rupert backed Pope Boniface IX who, was reluctant to acknowledge his rule in view of the Luxembourg claims. After the king had won some recognition in Southern Germany, he started a campaign to Italy, where he hoped to crush the rule of Gian Galeazzo Visconti over the thriving Duchy of Milan and to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope. In the autumn of 1401 he crossed the Alps, but was defeated at Brescia and in April 1402 Rupert returned to Germany; the news of this failure increased the disorder in Germany, but the king met with some success in his efforts to restore peace. The Luxembourg resistance waned after Wenceslaus was arrested at Prague Castle by his brother Sigismund in March 1402 and the next year his lordship was recognized by the Pope. Rupert gained the support of England by the marriage of his son Louis with Blanche of Lancaster, daughter of King Henry IV on 6 July 1402.
In his Palatinate hereditary lands, Rupert turned out to be a capable ruler. It was only the indolence of Wenceslaus that prevented his overthrow. After attempts to enlarge the king's allodium caused conflicts with his former ally, the Archbishop of Mainz forging an alliance with Count Eberhard III of Württemberg, the Zähringen margrave Bernard I of Baden and several Swabian cities in 1405, Rupert was compelled to make certain concessions; the quarrel was complicated by the Papal Schism, but the king was just beginning to make some headway when he died at his castle of Landskrone near Oppenheim on 18 May 1410 and was buried at the Church of the Holy Spirit in Heidelberg. On his deathbed Rupert had decreed the division of his heritage among his four surviving sons, he was succeeded as Elector Palatine by the eldest brother Louis III, while the second son John received the County Palatine of Neumarkt, the third-born Stephen the County Palatine of Simmern and Zweibrücken, the youngest son Otto the County Palatine of Mosbach.
In the following Imperial election on September 20, Elector Louis III voted for Sigismund of Luxembourg, who however lost to his cousin Margrave Jobst of Moravia. He was married in Amberg on 27 June 1374 to Elisabeth of Hohenzollern, daughter of Burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg and Elisabeth of Meissen, they had the following children: Rupert Pipan Margaret of the Palatinate, married on 6 February 1393 to Duke Charles II of Lorraine Frederick Louis III, Elector Palatine Agnes, married in Heidelberg shortly before March 1400 to Duke Adolph I of Cleves Elisabeth, married in Innsbruck 24 December 1407 to Duke Frederick IV of Austria Count Palatine John of Neumarkt Count Palatine Stephen of Simmern-Zweibrücken Count Palatine Otto I of Mosbach Rupert's strenuous efforts earned him the surname Clemens. He commissioned the Ruprecht building in Heidelberg Castle. Kings of Germany family tree, he was related to every other king of Germany. Bogdan, Henry. La Lorraine des Ducs. Perrin. Hlavacek, Ivan. "The Empire:The Luxembourgs and Rupert of the Palatinate, 1347-1410".
The New Cambridge Medieval History:c.1300-1415. Volume 6. Cambridge University Press. Law, John E.. "Brescia, Fight near". In Rogers, Clifford J; the Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Oxford University Press. Scott, Tom. "Germany and the Empire". In Allmand, Christopher; the New Cambridge Medieval History:c.1415-c.1500. Volume 7. Cambridge University Press. Thomas, Andrew L.. A House Divided: Wittelsbach Confessional Court Cultures in the Holy Roman Empire, c.1550-1650. Brill. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Rupert". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press